The Resolution of the CPC Central Committee on the Major Achievements and Historical Experience of the Party over the Past Century (Chinese: 中共中央关于党的百年奋斗重大成就和历史经验的决议), commonly known as the "third historical resolution" (Chinese: 第三个历史决议), is a document adopted by the 19th Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) on its Sixth Plenary Session held between 8–11 November 2021. This document was the third of its kind after "historical resolutions" adopted by Mao Zedong and Deng Xiaoping.[1]


The Resolution divides the party's history into three eras.[2]: 6  The first era, under Mao's leadership, prepared the foundation for socialism with Chinese characteristics.[2]: 6  The second era is framed as under the leadership of Deng and his successors.[2]: 6  The third era, under General Secretary Xi Jinping's leadership, is framed as the synthesis of the preceding two eras.[2]: 6 

The document for the first time credited Xi as being the "main innovator" of Xi Jinping Thought.[3] The document declares Xi's leadership as being "the key to the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation".[4] In comparison with the other historical resolutions, Xi's one did not herald a major change in how the CCP evaluated its history.[5] To accompany the historical resolution, the CCP promoted the terms Two Establishes and Two Upholds, calling the CCP to unite around and protect Xi's core status within the party.[6] Regarding the Mao era, the 2021 Resolution echoes the position of the 1981 Resolution on Certain Questions in the History of Our Party since the Founding of the People's Republic of China.[2]: 6 

See also


  1. ^ Wang, Cat (2021-11-07). "The significance of Xi Jinping's upcoming 'historical resolution'". South China Morning Post. Archived from the original on 2022-08-10. Retrieved 2022-08-11.
  2. ^ a b c d e Doyon, Jérôme; Froissart, Chloé (2024). "Introduction". In Doyon, Jérôme; Froissart, Chloé (eds.). The Chinese Communist Party: a 100-Year Trajectory. Canberra: ANU Press. doi:10.22459/CCP.2024. ISBN 9781760466244. JSTOR jj.13316140.
  3. ^ "China's Communist Party passes resolution amplifying President Xi's authority". Reuters. 12 November 2021. Archived from the original on 10 August 2022. Retrieved 11 August 2022.
  4. ^ "Chinese Communist party clears way for Xi to tighten grip on power". Financial Times. 2021-11-11. Archived from the original on 2021-11-29. Retrieved 2022-08-11.
  5. ^ Wong, Chun Han; Zhai, Keith (2021-11-17). "How Xi Jinping Is Rewriting China's History to Put Himself at the Center". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Archived from the original on 2022-08-10. Retrieved 2022-08-11.
  6. ^ Bandurski, David (8 February 2022). "Two Establishes". China Media Project. Archived from the original on 29 July 2022. Retrieved 12 August 2022.