Xi Jinping Thought on Diplomacy, officially the "General Secretary Xi Jinping's Thought on Diplomacy" (Chinese: 习近平总书记外交思想),[1] is the current diplomatic and foreign policy doctrine of the People's Republic of China. It is related to the larger Xi Jinping Thought, which is derived from the General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party Xi Jinping. According to Chinese foreign minister Wang Yi, Xi Jinping Thought on Diplomacy is "the fundamental guideline for China's diplomatic work is an epoch-making milestone in the diplomatic theory of New China."[2] The main point of Xi Jinping Thought on Diplomacy is to orient as much of diplomacy as possible to the bilateral level, while still supporting the formal architecture of the international system.[3] In terms of China's foreign policy, Xi Jinping's "Major Country Diplomacy" (Chinese: 大国外交) doctrine has replaced the earlier Deng Xiaoping era slogan of "keep a low profile" (Chinese: 韬光养晦) and has legitimized a more active role for China on the world stage, particularly with regards to reform of the international order, engaging in open ideological competition with the West, and assuming a greater responsibility for global affairs in accordance with China's rising power and status.[4]

History

During the first five years of Xi Jinping's leadership the budget for diplomacy doubled.[5] According to Xinhua agency, Xi Jinping Thought on Diplomacy was officially adopted during the Central Conference on Work Relating to Foreign Affairs in 2018.[6]

In July 2020, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China inaugurated a research center for the study of Xi Jinping Thought on Diplomacy.[7]

Reception

Foreign observers have noted that China and the rest of the world play by different rules under Xi Jinping Thought on Diplomacy.[citation needed] This perceived endorsement of Chinese exceptionalism has been criticized as problematic.[8] Wolf warrior diplomacy seems to be positively perceived by the domestic audience, especially those with a more Chinese nationalist point of view.[9]

In terms of theory, parallels have been drawn to Maoist international relations theory,[10] in particular to Mao Zedong's Three Worlds Theory.[3]

See also

References

  1. ^ Yang, Jiechi (28 November 2017). "Studying General Secretary Xi Jinping's Thought on Diplomacy". Qiushi Journal. Retrieved 29 November 2017.
  2. ^ Bishop, Bill. "Xi's thought on diplomacy is "epoch-making"". Axios. Archived from the original on 12 April 2020. Retrieved 12 April 2020.
  3. ^ a b Elia Valori, Giancarlo (11 September 2019). "President Xi Jinping's diplomacy doctrine". Modern Diplomacy. Archived from the original on 12 April 2020. Retrieved 12 April 2020.
  4. ^ Smith, Stephen (16 February 2021). "China's "Major Country Diplomacy"". Foreign Policy Analysis. doi:10.1093/fpa/orab002. Retrieved 21 September 2021.((cite journal)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  5. ^ Loh, Dylan M. H. "Over here, overbearing: The origins of China's 'Wolf Warrior' style diplomacy". Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 31 July 2020.
  6. ^ "Xi Jinping Thought on Diplomacy an epoch-making milestone in China's diplomatic theory: FM". Xinhua. Archived from the original on 9 January 2020. Retrieved 12 April 2020.
  7. ^ Tzu-ti, Huang. "China sets up Xi Jinping Thought on Diplomacy research center". Taiwan News. Retrieved 21 July 2020.
  8. ^ Roy, Denny. "'Xi Jinping Thought on Diplomacy' Fails to Impress – or Reassure". The Diplomat. Archived from the original on 12 April 2020. Retrieved 12 April 2020.
  9. ^ Zhu, Zhiqun. "Interpreting China's 'Wolf-Warrior Diplomacy'". The Diplomat. Retrieved 30 July 2020.
  10. ^ Economy, Elizabeth (3 October 2019). "China's Neo-Maoist Moment". Foreign Affairs. Archived from the original on 12 April 2020. Retrieved 12 April 2020.