Sydenham
Sydenham Avenue SE26.JPG

Sydenham Avenue
Sydenham is located in Greater London
Sydenham
Sydenham
Location within Greater London
Population28,378 (SE25 postcode area)[1]
OS grid referenceTQ352714
London borough
Ceremonial countyGreater London
Region
CountryEngland
Sovereign stateUnited Kingdom
Post townLONDON
Postcode districtSE26
Dialling code020
PoliceMetropolitan
FireLondon
AmbulanceLondon
UK Parliament
London Assembly
Websitehttp://sydenham.org.uk/
List of places
UK
England
London
51°25′31″N 0°03′16″W / 51.4254°N 0.0544°W / 51.4254; -0.0544Coordinates: 51°25′31″N 0°03′16″W / 51.4254°N 0.0544°W / 51.4254; -0.0544

Sydenham (/ˈsɪdənəm/) is a district of south-east London, England, which is shared between the London boroughs of Lewisham, Bromley and Southwark. Prior to the creation of the County of London in 1889, Sydenham was located in Kent, bordering Surrey. Historically, the area was very affluent, with the Crystal Palace being relocated to Sydenham Hill in 1854. Today, Sydenham is a diverse area, with a population of 28,378 (2011 census)[1] and borders Forest Hill, Dulwich, Crystal Palace, Penge, Beckenham, Catford and Bellingham.

History

A map showing the Sydenham ward of Lewisham Metropolitan Borough as it appeared in 1916.
A map showing the Sydenham ward of Lewisham Metropolitan Borough as it appeared in 1916.

Originally known as Shippenham,[2] Sydenham began as a small settlement, a few cottages among the woods, whose inhabitants grazed their animals and collected wood. In the 1640s, springs of water in what is now Wells Park were discovered to have medicinal properties, attracting crowds of people to the area. Sydenham grew rapidly in the 19th century after the introduction of the Croydon Canal in 1809 which linked the Grand Surrey Canal to Croydon and a reservoir was constructed in Sydenham. However, the canal was never successful and closed in 1836[3] resulting in it being the first canal to be abandoned by an Act of Parliament. The London & Croydon Railway purchased the canal for £40,250 and quickly converted the alignment for a railway from London Bridge to West Croydon, opening in 1839. After the railway opened potential gas companies began to consider the Sydenham area with the Crystal Palace and District Gas Company having works at Bell Green, which continued production until 1969; a retail park now occupies most of the site.

The Crystal Palace
The Crystal Palace

In 1851 the Great Exhibition in Hyde Park was housed in an immense glass building, called the Crystal Palace. In 1854 the building was bought by a private company, dismantled and re-erected at Penge Peak on Sydenham Hill (now Crystal Palace Park). Exhibitions, concerts, conferences and sporting events were held at the Crystal Palace (until it burned down in 1936), and Sydenham became a fashionable area with many new houses being built. In 1871 the French impressionist painter Camille Pissarro produced The Avenue, Sydenham, a largely still recognisable view on today's Lawrie Park Avenue; the painting is now owned by the National Gallery.

In 1860, the Walter Cobb department store at Lawrie Place, Kirkdale (now known as Cobbs Corner) opened, lasting until the 1980s. In 1872, the Children's Hospital, Sydenham opened. It closed in 1991, its services being now part of the University Hospital Lewisham.[4]In 1884, Upper Sydenham railway station opened on the Crystal Palace and South London Junction Railway linking Crystal Palace to London Victoria via Peckham Rye.[5]The station and the line were poorly used despite new houses being built in the area, as passengers preferred to use other stations near-by Sydenham Hill (opening in 1863), Crystal Palace (Lower Level) and Sydenham which were on more direct routes. The ill fate of the Crystal Palace in 1936 saw patronage reduced and the route finally closed in 1954.

Sydenham was attacked by enemies during the Second World War. The gas works were a target, but were never damaged. The railway which ran through Upper Sydenham station was damaged, and some homes in the area were destroyed.

Local area

Sydenham is divided into several localities:

Apartment building on Sydenham Hill
Apartment building on Sydenham Hill

Sydenham Hill in the Boroughs of Lewisham and Southwark runs alongside Dulwich and Sydenham Woods on one of the highest points of Greater London being 112 metres above sea level.[6] From here, the City of London skyline is visible. Sydenham Hill has an abandoned railway tunnel from the Crystal Palace and South London Junction Railway located within the Woods. Another railway tunnel (one of the longest in Britain being 1,958 metres) goes beneath on the Chatham Main Line with Sydenham Hill station at the London end serving both Sydenham Hill and the College area of Dulwich.

Upper Sydenham is also located on Sydenham Hill and is a part of the Parish of St Bartholomew. It is diverse both racially and in terms of income; the central section of Kirkdale was Sydenham's original High Street. Renamed "Kirkdale" in 1936, the area now has a small range of shops including Tesco Express, local pubs and off-licences. Sydenham School is located on Dartmouth Road with Forest Hill Library and Forest Hill Pools alongside Thorpewood Avenue. Green Flag awarded Sydenham Wells Park, the location of the once famous Springs is one of the largest parks within the postcode. Upper Sydenham is also the location of the Sydenham Park allotments, the Sydenham electricity sub station which had a major fire in 2008[7] and the Sydenham Hill estate.

Lower Sydenham & Bell Green is the location of the Sydenham Community Library, formerly run and funded by the local council. Alongside to the library is Home Park and the Home Park estate. The Bridge Leisure Centre is located on Kangley Bridge Road, near to Lower Sydenham railway station and an industrial estate home to Clarkes coach company, many other businesses and the Beckenham and Sydenham Cricket Ground. Bell Green retail park houses the Sydenham Gas Works and a large Sainsbury's superstore, formally part of the Savacentre brand. Other retailers include B&Q, Currys PC World, Next (with Costa Coffee), Aldi and McDonald's among others.

Commercial area

Sydenham's main commercial area begins on Kirkdale around Cobbs Corner, continuing onto Sydenham Road, often known as "Sydenham High Street". It houses many independent shops, including a bakery, bookshop and several restaurants. Furthermore, Sydenham is noted for the number of independent coffee shops.[8] Chain stores include Boots, Nando's, Lidl, Sainsbury's Local, Subway, Superdrug and Tesco Express. There is a Post Office branch, many estate agents and for banking, Barclays, Natwest, Lloyds Bank. The first ever location of the Morley's chicken chain opened in Sydenham in 1985, and remains in operation today.[9][10]

Since the Transport for London and Lewisham Council funded high street upgrade in 2012–13, there is now a monthly market located within the pocket squares, known as "Queensthorpe Square" and "Venner Square". The Greyhound pub reopened in 2017 and several new businesses are expected to open in 2018–19.[11]

Community

Sydenham has a very active community, with several groups concerning the local area. Sydenham Town is the local website for the area, where residents can also voice their opinions in an on-line form.[12] The Sydenham Society is a Civil society formed in 1972 to represent the local community. It holds local events, works with organisations and authorities as well as campaigning for improvements to the area.[13] Green Flag and Mayor of London Award winner, Sydenham Garden, was formed in 2002. It is a charity which is involved in improving the health of residents in the boroughs of Bromley and Lewisham.[14]

Sydenham with Forest Hill won a bid for the national Portas Pilot competition which provided a grant to improve high streets; extra money was provided from Lewisham Council and private developers.[15] Annually every summer since 2009, the Sydenham Arts Festival is held, where there are workshops, music, family activities etc.[16]

Conservation areas

Mayow Park was originally known as Sydenham Recreational Ground
Mayow Park was originally known as Sydenham Recreational Ground

Sydenham has seven Conservation Areas: Cobbs Corner, Dulwich Village (covering Crescent Wood Road),[17] Halifax Street, Sydenham Hill/Kirkdale, Sydenham Park and Sydenham Thorpes. Sydenham has the highest concentration of conservation areas in the London Borough of Lewisham[18]

Recreation

A number of parks are within the Sydenham postcode. Mayow Park, Lewisham's oldest municipal park[19] and Sydenham Wells Park[20] are both Green Flag Awarded. Other open spaces in Sydenham include Alexandra Recreation Ground,[21] Baxters Field,[22] Home Park[23] and Kirkdale Green.[24] Riverview Walk is a nature conservation area[25] which runs along the River Pool from Catford. Additionally, located along the borders of Sydenham, there are Crystal Palace Park, Dulwich Woods, Southend Park[26] and Sydenham Hill Woods.

Alongside Dulwich and Sydenham Hill Woods is the Dulwich and Sydenham Golf course, dating back to 1893.[27] Located on Lawrie Park Road, there is the Sydenham Tennis Club, while the Beckenham and Sydenham Cricket Ground and the Lewisham Indoor Bowls Centre are both located in the Lower Sydenham industrial estate.

Sydenham Arts

Sydenham Arts is a local charitable organisation,[28] promoting the arts for the local community, which provides free and ticketed cultural events at several festivals through the year.[29][30][31] Their mission is to provide, promote and advance the Arts for the benefit of the public, in particular people who live, work and are educated in Sydenham and surrounding areas.[32] In June 2016, former Poet Laureate Sir Andrew Motion, who spoke at Sydenham Arts Festival in 2011, was quoted saying "Sydenham Arts Festival is exemplary: packed with high-quality speakers from elsewhere, but also fully alive to and supportive of things growing close to home. It means that imaginable adventures can combine with imaginative confirmations - just as they should. Long may it flourish."[33]

Notable buildings and structures

Drinking fountain erected to commemorate the 1897 Diamond Jubilee of Queen Victoria and restored for the Silver Jubilee of Elizabeth II in 1977
Drinking fountain erected to commemorate the 1897 Diamond Jubilee of Queen Victoria and restored for the Silver Jubilee of Elizabeth II in 1977

Education

There are five non-religious primary schools in Sydenham (Alexandra, Adamsrill, Eliot Bank, Haseltine and Kelvin Grove) and three religious schools (St. Michael's, St Philip Neri and St. Bartholomew's Church of England). Sydenham contains two secondary schools, the private Sydenham High School and the state Sydenham School. Both of these schools are exclusively for girls. Forest Hill (for boys) is just outside Sydenham across from Mayow Park. Other secondary schools close by include Harris Bromley (for girls), Harris Crystal Palace, Sedgehill and the private Dulwich College. There are no colleges in Sydenham, but Sydenham and Forest Hill schools have a joint sixth form.

Population

According to the 2011 census, the SE26 postcode area had a population of 28,378, with 13,714 males and 14,664 females.[1]

Famous residents

Sir George Grove English Heritage Blue Plaque at Westwood Hill
Sir George Grove English Heritage Blue Plaque at Westwood Hill
Blue plaque marking the home of Ernest Shackleton at 12 Westwood Hill, Sydenham
Blue plaque marking the home of Ernest Shackleton at 12 Westwood Hill, Sydenham
Burnage Court, Lawrie Park Avenue, Sydenham, complete with 1888 datestone
Burnage Court, Lawrie Park Avenue, Sydenham, complete with 1888 datestone

Transport

Southern and London Overground trains at Sydenham
Southern and London Overground trains at Sydenham

Sydenham is served by National Rail and London Buses for its public transport. Sydenham is located in Travelcard Zones 3 and 4.

Railway stations

Buses

The area is served by routes 75, 122, 176, 181, 194, 197, 202, 227, 352, 356, 363, 450 and N63 linking Sydenham to Central London, Lewisham, Catford, Croydon, Thornton Heath, Bromley, Shirley, Peckham, Camberwell, Elephant & Castle, Blackheath, Forest Hill, Penge, South Norwood and Grove Park.[58][59][60][61]

Roads

The South Circular Road passes close by in Forest Hill. High Street improvements being funded by Transport for London from September 2012 are making the increasingly busy Sydenham Road (A212) more user friendly. So far, Kirkdale to Mayow Road has been completed, with Mayow Road to Kent House Road currently, as of December 2013, being upgraded. The Kent House Road to Bell Green section is still waiting for funding to be found.[62]

Geography

The River Pool at Lower Sydenham
The River Pool at Lower Sydenham

Sydenham is approximately 7 miles (11 kilometres) to the south east of Charing Cross. It is also at the centre of many of south London's major shopping districts being 3 mi (5 km) south of Lewisham, 3.2 mi (5.1 km) north west of Bromley and 3+12 mi (5.6 km) north of Croydon.

Upper Sydenham and Sydenham Hill is located on the large Norwood Ridge formed of London Claygate beds deposits; Sydenham Hill is one of the highest points in London at 367 feet (112 m). Sydenham Hill Wood is a nine-hectare[63] nature reserve located west of Sydenham Hill Road, along with Dulwich and Sydenham Hill Golf course. The hill was once covered by the Great North Wood which covered all of Sydenham, Norwood, Woodside, Gipsy Hill etc. In the 19th Century it was home to the spa and health resort of Sydenham Wells.

The western parts of Sydenham, from Upper Sydenham and Forest Hill towards Crystal Palace Park is a more leafy, suburban area with some parts like the Lawrie Park and Thorpes areas being more affluent than others. Lower Sydenham at the bottom of more gentle slopes being east of Upper Sydenham, south of Forest Hill and west of Bellingham. The River Pool, a 5.1 mi (8.2 km) tributary of the River Ravensbourne straddles the east of Lower Sydenham along the Hayes railway line.

Climate

The nearest Met Office climate station is based in Greenwich Park:


Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 17.2
(63.0)
21.2
(70.2)
24.5
(76.1)
29.4
(84.9)
32.8
(91.0)
35.6
(96.1)
40.2
(104.4)
38.1
(100.6)
35.0
(95.0)
29.5
(85.1)
21.1
(70.0)
17.4
(63.3)
40.2
(104.4)
Average high °C (°F) 8.4
(47.1)
9.0
(48.2)
11.7
(53.1)
15.0
(59.0)
18.4
(65.1)
21.6
(70.9)
23.9
(75.0)
23.4
(74.1)
20.2
(68.4)
15.8
(60.4)
11.5
(52.7)
8.8
(47.8)
15.7
(60.3)
Daily mean °C (°F) 5.6
(42.1)
5.8
(42.4)
7.9
(46.2)
10.5
(50.9)
13.7
(56.7)
16.8
(62.2)
19.0
(66.2)
18.7
(65.7)
15.9
(60.6)
12.3
(54.1)
8.4
(47.1)
5.9
(42.6)
11.7
(53.1)
Average low °C (°F) 2.7
(36.9)
2.7
(36.9)
4.1
(39.4)
6.0
(42.8)
9.1
(48.4)
12.0
(53.6)
14.2
(57.6)
14.1
(57.4)
11.6
(52.9)
8.8
(47.8)
5.3
(41.5)
3.1
(37.6)
7.8
(46.0)
Record low °C (°F) −16.1
(3.0)
−12.2
(10.0)
−8.3
(17.1)
−3.2
(26.2)
−3.1
(26.4)
−0.6
(30.9)
3.9
(39.0)
2.1
(35.8)
1.4
(34.5)
−5.5
(22.1)
−7.1
(19.2)
−14.2
(6.4)
−16.1
(3.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 58.8
(2.31)
45.0
(1.77)
38.8
(1.53)
42.3
(1.67)
45.9
(1.81)
47.3
(1.86)
45.8
(1.80)
52.8
(2.08)
49.6
(1.95)
65.1
(2.56)
66.6
(2.62)
57.1
(2.25)
615.0
(24.21)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 11.5 9.5 8.5 8.8 8.0 8.3 7.9 8.4 7.9 10.8 11.2 10.8 111.7
Average relative humidity (%) 80 77 70 65 67 65 65 69 73 78 81 81 73
Average dew point °C (°F) 3
(37)
2
(36)
2
(36)
4
(39)
7
(45)
10
(50)
12
(54)
12
(54)
10
(50)
9
(48)
6
(43)
3
(37)
7
(44)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 61.1 78.8 124.5 176.7 207.5 208.4 217.8 202.1 157.1 115.2 70.7 55.0 1,674.8
Percent possible sunshine 23 28 31 40 41 41 42 45 40 35 27 21 35
Average ultraviolet index 1 1 2 4 5 6 6 5 4 2 1 0 3
Source 1: Met Office[64][65][66] Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute[67][68]
Source 2: Weather Atlas (percent sunshine and UV Index)[69] CEDA Archive[70] TORRO[71] Time and Date[72]

See Climate of London for additional climate information.

  1. ^ Averages are taken from Heathrow, and extremes are taken from stations across London.


Location

Trivia

The Beast of Sydenham of 2005, was a large, panther-like black animal, which had been spotted around the area, and attacked a man. The beast was said to be 6 ft in length and 3 ft in height.[73][74]

According to The Literary Miscellany, "John Hussey of Sydenham died in 1748 at the age of 116 years. For upwards of fifty years his breakfast had been balm-tea (lemon balm) sweetened with honey; and his dinner had been pudding; by which he acquired regular health".[citation needed]

The David Bowie song Can't Help Thinking About Me was written about his time living in Sydenham.[citation needed]

In March 2022, a crested caracara, named Jester, which escaped London Zoo, was spotted in Mayow Park, Sydenham.[75]

See also

References

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  2. ^ "History of Sydenham". Ideal Homes: A History of South East London Suburbs. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 29 June 2014.
  3. ^ Hadfield, Charles (1969). The Canals of South and South East England. David and Charles. p. 374. ISBN 0-7153-4693-8.
  4. ^ http://www.ezits.myzen.co.uk/childrensydenham.html[dead link]
  5. ^ Butt, R.V.J. (1995). The Directory of Railway Stations. Yeovil: Patrick Stephens Ltd. p. 237. ISBN 978-1-85260-508-7. R508.
  6. ^ Hill Bagging: Tallest Hills of London Retrieved 9 June 2013
  7. ^ BBC News: Blaze at sub-station investigated Retrieved 9 June 2013
  8. ^ Bloomfield, Ruth (23 March 2017). "Where to buy in London 2017: south-east London is the place to invest, says report that links house price growth with coffee shop openings". London Evening Standard. Evening Standard, Homes & Property. Retrieved 31 May 2017.
  9. ^ "OUR STORY". Morley's Chicken. Retrieved 16 May 2022.
  10. ^ "Wondering why Sydenham?It's the original Morley's (1985) so we're keeping it original 😎 #southlondon #southlondonoriginal #london #morleys". Twitter. Morley's. 4 February 2017. Retrieved 16 May 2022.
  11. ^ "Sydenham Newsletter, Spring 2017" (PDF). London Borough of Lewisham. Sydenham Assembly. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 September 2018. Retrieved 31 May 2017.
  12. ^ Sydenham Town: The Community Website For SE26 Accessed 30 July 2013
  13. ^ Sydenham Society: About Us Accessed 30 July 2013
  14. ^ Sydenham Garden: About Us Accessed 30 July 2013
  15. ^ News Shopper: Sydenham and Forest Hill win Portas Pilot funding 25 July 2012, Accessed 30 July 2013
  16. ^ Sydenham Arts Festival Accessed 30 July 2013
  17. ^ London Borough of Southwark: Map of Conservation Areas Archived 2 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine Accessed 30 July 2013
  18. ^ LB Lewisham: Map of Lewishams' conservation areas Archived 28 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine Accessed 30 July 2013
  19. ^ LB Lewisham Accessed 12 June 2013
  20. ^ LB Lewisham: Sydenham Wells Park Accessed 12 June 2013
  21. ^ LB Bromley: Alexandra Rec Ground Archived 27 July 2013 at archive.today Accessed 27 July 2013
  22. ^ including an extensive visual art trail, .uk/inmyarea/openspaces/parks/Pages/baxters-field.aspx LB Lewisham: Baxters Field[permanent dead link] Accessed 12 June 2013
  23. ^ LB Lewisham: Home Park Archived 19 July 2013 at the Wayback Machine Accessed 12 June 2013
  24. ^ LB: Lewisham Kirkdale Green Archived 19 July 2013 at the Wayback Machine Accessed 27 July 2013
  25. ^ London Borough of Lewisham: Riverview Park & River Pool Archived 24 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine Accessed 12 June 2013
  26. ^ LB Lewisham: Southend Park Archived 19 July 2013 at the Wayback Machine Accessed 12 June 2013
  27. ^ "History". Dulwich and Sydenham Golf Club. Dulwich and Sydenham Golf Club. Retrieved 31 May 2017.
  28. ^ Team London on Sydenham Arts Accessed 14 March 2016
  29. ^ Sydenham Arts Accessed 11 March 2016
  30. ^ Sydenham Visual Art Trail Archived 7 May 2016 at the Wayback Machine Accessed 11 March 2016
  31. ^ Event Reviewed by The Arts Desk Accessed 18 April 2016
  32. ^ "Sydenham Arts - Opacity: London Digital Agency". Opacity: London Digital Agency. 24 August 2017. Archived from the original on 7 August 2020. Retrieved 4 September 2017.
  33. ^ Bromley Times article including Andrew Motion quote Accessed 21 June 2016
  34. ^ "St Bartholomew's, Sydenham". Archived from the original on 27 October 2008. Retrieved 30 December 2008.
  35. ^ "Park Court". Archived from the original on 19 October 2015. Retrieved 12 February 2022.
  36. ^ Triggs, Roger (2001). The Men Who Made Gillingham Football Club. Tempus Publishing Ltd. pp. 44–45. ISBN 9780752422435.
  37. ^ "BAIRD, John Logie (1888-1946) | English Heritage". www.english-heritage.org.uk. Retrieved 11 January 2017.
  38. ^ "Sydenham Town Forum • View topic - Crystal Palace in Colour".
  39. ^ Lewis, C.T. Courtney. George Baxter (colour printer) his life and work. p. 72. https://archive.org/stream/georgebaxtercol00lewigoog#page/n212/mode/2up
  40. ^ "Bill Bradley". Cricinfo. Retrieved 12 January 2017.
  41. ^ a b "SYDENHAM: Kelly Brook and Billy Zane's former home for sale". News Shopper. Retrieved 19 October 2020.
  42. ^ Campbell, Thomas (1907). The Complete Poetical Works of Thomas Campbell. Haskell House. pp. xiv. ISBN 9781410224156.
  43. ^ "London's alive with the sound of Maria's success". Evening Standard. 17 November 2006. Retrieved 12 January 2017.
  44. ^ "Pub plans musical tribute to Bud Flanagan". East London Advertiser. Retrieved 12 January 2017.
  45. ^ Holland, Steve (25 May 2000). "Denis Gifford". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 12 January 2017.
  46. ^ David Charles, Rose (2016). Oscar Wilde's Elegant Republic: Transformation, Dislocation and Fantasy in fin-de-siècle Paris. Cambridge Scholars. p. 39. ISBN 978-1443887632.
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  48. ^ "GROVE, Sir George (1820-1900) | English Heritage". www.english-heritage.org.uk. Retrieved 11 January 2017.
  49. ^ Penrose, Justin (6 July 2014). "Rolf Harris home raided months before arrest after plumber found stash of child porn under floorboards". Mirror. Retrieved 12 January 2017.
  50. ^ "how I wrote The Remains of the Day in four weeks". Guardian piece by Ishiguro. 6 December 2014.
  51. ^ "MARX, Eleanor (1855-1898) | English Heritage". www.english-heritage.org.uk. Retrieved 11 January 2017.
  52. ^ "Dame Cicely Saunders, founder of the modern hospice movement, dies". BMJ. 25 December 2016. ISSN 1756-1833.
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  54. ^ "SMITH, Sir Francis Pettit (1808-1874) | English Heritage". www.english-heritage.org.uk. Retrieved 11 January 2017.
  55. ^ Whitmore, Greg (6 July 2013). "Jason Statham: the career so far - in pictures". the Guardian. Retrieved 11 January 2017.
  56. ^ Wyman, Bill (1990). Stone Alone. Viking. pp. 41. ISBN 978-0-670-82894-4.
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  58. ^ TfL: Buses from Sydenham Accessed 30 July 2013
  59. ^ TfL: Buses from Sydenham Hill Accessed 30 July 2013
  60. ^ TfL: Buses from Lower Sydenham Accessed 30 July 2013
  61. ^ TfL: Buses from Upper Sydenham Accessed 30 July 2013
  62. ^ London Borough of Lewisham: Sydenham High Street Archived 12 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine Accessed 12 June 2013
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  64. ^ "London Heathrow Airport". Met Office. Retrieved 17 December 2021.
  65. ^ "Station Data". Met Office. Retrieved 8 May 2020.
  66. ^ "UK Climate Extremes". Met Office. Retrieved 3 July 2021.
  67. ^ "Heathrow Airport Extreme Values". KNMI. Retrieved 29 November 2015.
  68. ^ "Heathrow 1981–2010 mean maximum and minimum values". KNMI. Retrieved 28 December 2017.
  69. ^ "London, United Kingdom – Climate data". Weather Atlas. Retrieved 11 March 2020.
  70. ^ "MIDAS Open: UK daily temperature data, v202007". CEDA Archive. Retrieved 3 July 2021.
  71. ^ "Maximum temperature date records". TORRO. Retrieved 3 July 2021.
  72. ^ "Climate & Weather Averages in London, England, United Kingdom". Time and Date. Retrieved 9 January 2022.
  73. ^ "'Big cat' attacks man in garden". BBC News. 20 March 2005. Retrieved 28 January 2007.
  74. ^ Barkham, Patrick (25 March 2005). "Fear stalks the streets of Sydenham after resident is attacked by a black cat the size of a labrador". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 28 January 2007.
  75. ^ "Jester: Exotic bird of prey continues to elude London zookeepers". BBC News website. 30 March 2022. p. 1. Retrieved 31 March 2022.