Washington Navy Yard
Part of Naval Support Activity Washington
Southeast Washington, D.C. in the United States
An aerial view of Washington Navy Yard during 2021
Washington Navy Yard is located in Washington, D.C.
Washington Navy Yard
Washington Navy Yard
Washington Navy Yard is located in the District of Columbia
Washington Navy Yard
Washington Navy Yard
Washington Navy Yard is located in the United States
Washington Navy Yard
Washington Navy Yard
Coordinates38°52′24″N 76°59′49″W / 38.87333°N 76.99694°W / 38.87333; -76.99694
TypeNaval support base
Site information
OwnerDepartment of Defense
OperatorUS Navy
Controlled byNaval District Washington
WebsiteOfficial website
Site history
Built1799 (1799)
In use1799 – present
Garrison information
CAPTAIN Mark C. Burns
Official nameWashington Navy Yard
Designated19 June 1973
Designated11 May 1976
Reference no.73002124
Areas of significance
  • Architecture
  • Industry
  • Military
ArchitectBenjamin Latrobe et al.
Designated8 November 1964[1]

The Washington Navy Yard (WNY) is a ceremonial and administrative center for the United States Navy, located in Washington, D.C. It is the oldest shore establishment of the U.S. Navy, situated along the Anacostia River in the Navy Yard neighborhood of Southeast D.C.

Formerly operating as a shipyard and ordnance plant, the yard currently serves as home to the Chief of Naval Operations and is headquarters for the Naval Sea Systems Command, Naval Reactors, Naval Facilities Engineering Systems Command, Naval History and Heritage Command, Navy Installations Command, the National Museum of the United States Navy, the U.S. Navy Judge Advocate General's Corps, Marine Corps Institute, the United States Navy Band, and other more classified facilities.

In 1998, the yard was listed as a Superfund site due to environmental contamination.[2]


The history of the yard can be divided into its military history and cultural and scientific history.


See also: History of the United States Navy and History of Washington, D.C.

The land was purchased under an Act of Congress on July 23, 1799. The Washington Navy Yard was established on October 2, 1799, the date the property was transferred to the Navy. It is the oldest shore establishment of the U.S. Navy. The Yard was built under the direction of Benjamin Stoddert, the first Secretary of the Navy, under the supervision of the Yard's first commandant, Commodore Thomas Tingey, who served in that capacity for 29 years.

Latrobe Gate, the ceremonial entrance to the Navy Yard

The original boundaries that were established in 1800, along 9th and M Street SE, are still marked by a white brick wall that surrounds the Yard on the north and east sides. The following year, two additional lots were purchased. The north wall of the Yard was built in 1809 along with a guardhouse, now known as the Latrobe Gate. After the Burning of Washington in 1814, Tingey recommended that the height of the eastern wall be increased to ten feet (3 m) because of the fire and subsequent looting.

The southern boundary of the Yard was formed by the Anacostia River (then called the "Eastern Branch" of the Potomac River). The west side was undeveloped marsh. The land located along the Anacostia was added to by landfill over the years as it became necessary to increase the size of the Yard.

From its first years, the Washington Navy Yard became the navy's largest shipbuilding and shipfitting facility, with 22 vessels constructed there, ranging from small 70-foot (21 m) gunboats to the 246-foot (75 m) steam frigate USS Minnesota. The USS Constitution came to the Yard in 1812 to refit and prepare for combat action.

During the War of 1812, the Navy Yard was important not only as a support facility but also as a vital strategic link in defense of the capital city. Sailors of Navy Yard were part of the hastily assembled American army, which, at Bladensburg, Maryland, opposed the British forces marching on Washington.

Benjamin King 1764 -1840, navy yard master blacksmith who fought at Bladensburg

An independent volunteer militia rifle company of civilian workers in the Washington Navy Yard was organized by the United States naval architect William Doughty in 1813, and they regularly drilled after working hours. In 1814, Captain Doughty's volunteers were designated the Navy Yard Rifles and assigned to serve under the overall command of Major Robert Brent of the 2nd Regiment of the District of Columbia Militia who was the first mayor of Washington, D.C. In late August, they were ordered to assemble at Bladensburg, Maryland, to form the first line of defense in protecting the United States' capital city along with the majority of the American forces was ordered to retreat.[3] The Chesapeake Bay Flotilla of Joshua Barney joined the combined forces of Navy Yard sailors, and the U.S. Marines of the nearby Marine Barracks of Washington, D.C., and were positioned to be the third and final line of the American defenses. Together, they effectively used devastating artillery and fought in hand-to-hand combat with cutlasses and pikes against the British regulars before being overwhelmed. Benjamin King (1764-1840), a navy yard civilian master blacksmith, fought at Bladensburg. King accompanied Captain Miller's Marines into battle. King took charge of a disabled gun and was instrumental in bringing that gun into action. Captain Miller remembered King's gun "cut down sixteen of the enemy."[4][5]

As the British marched into Washington, holding the Yard became impossible. Seeing the smoke from the burning Capitol, Tingey ordered the Yard burned to prevent its capture by the enemy. Both structures are now individually listed on the National Register of Historic Places. On August 30, 1814, Mary Stockton Hunter, an eyewitness to the vast conflagration, wrote her sister: "No pen can describe the appalling sound that our ears heard and the sight our eyes saw. We could see everything from the upper part of our house as plainly as if we had been in the Yard. All the vessels of war on fire-the immense quantity of dry timber, together with the houses and stores in flames produced an almost meridian brightness. You never saw a drawing room so brilliantly lighted as the whole city was that night."[6]

Carpenters time book dated Nov 22, 1819, enumerates the time ship carpenters, ship joiners and boat builders spent on different jobs. The projects listed include refitting the USS Congress, USS Columbia, working in the Mould Loft, and building "Patterns." In the lower right-hand corner is a doodle of two shorebirds. Time book may have been that of early WNY employee William Easby 1791 -1854. Navy Library Collection

Among the vessels that were burned at the Yard were two warships under construction and nearing completion: the original Columbia, a 44-gun frigate, and the Argus, an 18-gun brig being built to replace an earlier Argus, which had been captured by the British a year earlier following a fierce engagement off the coast of Wales.[7]

Civilian employment

From its beginning, the navy yard had one of the biggest payrolls in town, with the number of civilian mechanics and laborers and contractors expanding with the seasons and the naval Congressional appropriation.[8]

Before the passage of the Pendleton Act on 16 January 1883, applications for employment at the navy yard were informal, mainly based on connections, patronage, and personal influence. An example from 1806 is the employment of Winthrop and Samuel Shriggins, two ship carpenters who were hired at $2.06 per diem, based on the approval of Secretary of the Navy, Robert Smith (cabinet member), 12 March 1806. While a former seaman Adam Keizer, was hired because he "was with Captain William Bainbridge at Tripoli."[9][10] On occasion, a dearth of applicants required a public announcement; the first such documented advertisement was by Commodore Thomas Tingey on 15 May 1815 "To Blacksmiths, Eight or Ten good strikers capable of working on large anchors, and other heavy ship work, will find constant employ and liberal wages, by application at the navy yard, Washington" [11] Following the War of 1812, the Washington Navy Yard never regained its prominence as a shipbuilding facility. The waters of the Anacostia River were too shallow to accommodate larger vessels, and the Yard was deemed too inaccessible to the open sea. Thus came a shift to what was to be the character of the yard for more than a century: ordnance and technology. During the next decade, the Navy Yard grew to become by 1819 the largest employer in Washington, D.C., with a total number of approximately 345 workers.

In 1826 noted writer Anne Royall, toured the navy yard. She wrote,[12]

"The navy yard is a complete work-shop, where every naval article is manufactured: it contains twenty-two forges, five furnaces, and a steam-engine. The shops are large and convenient; they are built of brick and covered with copper to secure them from fire. Steel is prepared here with great facility. The numbers of hands employed vary; at present there are about 200. A ship-wright has $2,50 per day, out of which he maintains his wife and family if he have any. Generally wages are very low for all manner of work; a common laborer gets but 75 cents per day, and finds himself. The whole interior of the yard exhibits one continual thundering of hammers, axes, saws, and bellows, sending forth such a variety of sounds and smells, from the profusion of coal burnt in the furnaces, that it requires the strongest nerves to sustain the annoyance."

"Sailors or Laborers Wanted" for Washington Navy Yard, City of Washington Gazette 1 Dec 1819

In 1819, Betsey Howard became the first female worker documented at the navy yard (and perhaps in the federal service), followed shortly after by Ann Spieden. Both Howard and Spieden were employed as horse cart drivers, "and like their male counterparts employed per diem, at $1.54 a day, working whole or part days as required."[13][14] In 1832 the Washington Navy Yard Hospital, hired Eleanor Cassidy O'Donnell to work as a nurse.

Eleanor Cassidy O'Donnell, pioneer nurse, at Washington Navy Yard Hospital payroll,8 March 1832

During the Civil War the navy hired about two dozen women as seamstresses in the Ordnance Department, Laboratory Division. The Department produced naval shells and gunpowder. The women sewed canvas bags that were used to charge ordnance aboard naval vessels. They also sewed flags for naval vessels. Most of these workers were paid about $1.00 per day.[15] Their work was dangerous, for there was always the risk of a single errant spark igniting nearby gunpowder or pyrotechnics with catastrophic results, such as the explosion and fire on 17 June 1864 that killed 21 young women working at the U.S. Army Arsenal Washington D.C.[16][17]

During World War II, the Washington Navy Yard at its peak employed over 20,000 civilian workers, including 1,400 female ordnance workers.[18]

The Yard was also a leader in technology as it possessed one of the earliest steam engines in the United States. The steam engine was the high-tech marvel of the early District and often commented on by authors and visitors. Samuel Batley Ellis, an English immigrant, was the first steam engine operator, and in 1810 was paid the high wage of $2.00 per day. The steam engine ran the sawmill and manufactured anchors, chain, and steam engines for vessels of war.[19] Because of its proximity to the nation's Capitol, the Washington Navy Yard Commandant, was routinely tasked requests from the Secretary of the Navy and the members of Congress. For example on 2 July 1811, Secretary of the Navy Paul Hamilton (politician) ordered Commodore Tingey to provide a "4th of July 18 gun salute, commencing at Sunrise and another commencing at 12 o'clock and yet another commencing at Sunset. Hamilton then added a note that "Rockets are to be displayed on common before the North front of the President's house and could not the USS Wasp be brought West of the bridge or near the bridge, dressed in colors!" [20] The 1835 Washington Navy Yard labor strike was the first labor strike of federal civilian employees.[21] The unsuccessful strike was from 29 July to 15 August 1835. The strike was over working conditions and in support of a ten-hour day.[22][23]

Station log March 12–13, 1828, listing Betsey Howard and Widow Speiden as cart drivers

Enslaved Labor

For the first thirty years of the 19th century, the Navy Yard was the District's principal employer of enslaved and some free African Americans. Their numbers rose rapidly, and by 1808, the enslaved made up one-third of the workforce.[24] The number of enslaved workers gradually declined during the next thirty years. However, free and some enslaved African Americans remained a vital presence. One such person was former slave, later freeman, Michael Shiner 1805-1880 whose diary chronicled his life and work at the navy yard for over half a century [25] There is the documentation for enslaved labor euphemistically called "servants" still working in the blacksmith shop as late as August 1861.[26]

1829 "A List of Colored men free & Slaves..." with slaveholders. Diarist, Michael Shiner, is enumerated, 6th from the bottom

Civil War Era

During the American Civil War, the Yard once again became an integral part of the defense of Washington. Commandant Franklin Buchanan resigned his commission to join the Confederacy, leaving the Yard to Commander John A. Dahlgren. President Abraham Lincoln, who held Dahlgren in the highest esteem, was a frequent visitor. The famous ironclad USS Monitor was repaired at the Yard after her historic battle with the CSS Virginia. The Lincoln assassination conspirators were brought to the Yard following their capture. The body of John Wilkes Booth was examined and identified on the monitor USS Montauk, moored at the Yard.

Washington Navy Yard payroll for May 1862 with the laboratory workers (seamstresses) who sewed canvass bags for gunpowder and flags for naval ships. The Civil War was the first time the navy yards hired women full-time in any significant number

Following the war, the Yard continued to be the scene of technological advances. In 1886, the Yard was designated the manufacturing center for all ordnance in the Navy. Commander Theodore F. Jewell was Superintendent of the Naval Gun Factory from January 1893 to February 1896.


Ordnance production continued as the Yard manufactured armament for the Great White Fleet and the World War I navy. The 14-inch (360 mm) naval railway guns used in France during World War I were manufactured at the Yard.

In WWII, the Washington Navy Yard & Naval Gun Factory employed women in large numbers for trade and craft jobs for the first time. This image dated January 1, 1943, shows female lathe operators.

By World War II, the Yard was the largest naval ordnance plant in the world. The weapons designed and built there were used in every war in which the United States fought until the 1960s. At its peak, the Yard consisted of 188 buildings on 126 acres (0.5 km2) of land and employed nearly 25,000 people. Small components for optical systems, parts of Little Boy, and enormous 16-inch (406mm) battleship guns were all manufactured here. In December 1945, the Yard was renamed the U.S. Naval Gun Factory. Ordnance work continued for some years after World War II until finally phased out in 1961. Three years later, on July 1, 1964, the activity was re-designated the Washington Navy Yard. The deserted factory buildings began to be converted to office use.[27] In 1963, ownership of 55 acres of the Washington Navy Yard Annex (western side of Yard including Building 170) was transferred to the General Services Administration.[28] The Yards at the Southeast Federal Center are part of this former property and now includes the headquarters for the United States Department of Transportation.[29]

The Washington Navy Yard was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1973, and designated a National Historic Landmark on May 11, 1976.[27][30] It is part of the Capitol Riverfront Business Improvement District. It is also part of the Navy Yard, also known as Near Southeast, neighborhood. It is served by the Navy Yard – Ballpark Metro station on the Green Line.


The Marine Corps Museum was located on the first floor of the Marine Corps Historical Society in Building 58. The museum closed on July 1, 2005, during the establishment of the National Museum of the Marine Corps near Marine Corps Base Quantico. The Yard was headquarters to the Marine Corps Historical Center. That moved in 2006 to Quantico.

Cultural and scientific

The Washington Navy Yard was the scene of many scientific developments. In 1804 at the request of President Thomas Jefferson, navy yard blacksmith Benjamin King built the first White House water closet/toilet. For which Architect Benjamin Latrobe reminded King, " How shall I get the president of the United States into good humor with you about his Water Closet, & his side roof which you were to make? He complains bitterly of you using the privilege of a Man of Genius against him, - that is of being a little forgetful. – I so well know the goodness of your disposition, that I am determined, if possible, to want his quarreling with you at all events about so dirty a business as a Water Closet."[31] King in 1805 again at Jefferson's behest built the first fire engine for the White House°.[32] In December 1807 Robert Fulton approached Robert Smith, Secretary of the Navy and requested that a test of his new torpedo, be authorized at the Washington Navy Yard.[33] Fulton specifically asked that the Navy fabricate copper harpoon torpedoes and provide small boats manned with gunner's mates and boat crews. He envisioned a limited trial on the feasibility of sinking a small sloop. The trial was never funded and a perplexed and exasperated Fulton complained to Jefferson about the naval establishment.[34]

On 4 May 1810 Secretary of the Navy Paul Hamilton (politician), notified Commodore Thomas Tingey, Navy had "conditionally consented" to testing Fulton's Torpedo system and that he was enclosing a copy of Mr. Fulton's "Torpedo War". Hamilton also added "You will prepare and transmit to Mr. Fulton at New York your objections to his system..."[35] In September 1810 the Secretary Hamilton agreed to test Fulton's torpedo, and Commodore Thomas Tingey was directed to transport via stage coach two torpedo harpoon guns from Washington Navy Yard to New York "for Mr. Fulton".[36] To Fulton's chagrin, after a number of attempts the torpedo test ended in failure. In 1822, Commodore John Rodgers built the country's first marine railway for the overhaul of large vessels. John A. Dahlgren developed his distinctive bottle-shaped cannon that became the mainstay of naval ordnance before the Civil War. In 1898, David W. Taylor developed a ship model testing basin, which was used by the Navy and private shipbuilders to test the effect of water on new hull designs. The first shipboard aircraft catapult was tested in the Anacostia River in 1912, and a wind tunnel was completed at the Yard in 1916. The giant gears for the Panama Canal locks were cast at the Yard. Navy Yard technicians applied their efforts to medical designs for prosthetic hands and molds for artificial eyes and teeth.

Navy Yard was Washington's earliest industrial neighborhood. One of the earliest industrial buildings nearby was the eight-story brick Sugar House, built in Square 744 at the foot of New Jersey Avenue, SE, as a sugar refinery in 1797–98. In 1805, it became the Washington Brewery, which produced beer until it closed in 1836. The brewery site was just west of the Washington City Canal in what is now Parking Lot H/I in the block between Nationals Park and the historic DC Water pumping station.[37]

The Washington Navy Yard often functions as a ceremonial gateway to the nation's capital. From early on, due to its proximity to the White House, the navy yard was the site of recurrent presidential visits. The Washington Navy Yard station log confirms many of these visits, for example, those of John Tyler 5 July 1841, James K. Polk 4 March 1845, Franklin Pierce 14 December 1853, and Abraham Lincoln,18 May 1861 and 25 July 1861. There are also entries for foreign delegations and celebrities, e.g., 7 September 1825 for General Lafayette and 15 May 1860 for the visit of the first Japanese Embassy.[38] The body of World War I's Unknown Soldier was received here. Charles A. Lindbergh returned to the Navy Yard in 1927 after his famous transatlantic flight.

During the Civil War, a small number of women worked at the Navy Yard as flag makers and seamstresses, sewing canvas bags for gunpowder.[39] Women again entered the workforce in the 20th century in significant numbers during WWII, where they worked at the Naval Gun Factory making munitions.[39] Following the war, most were discharged. In the modern era, women working at the Yard have increased their presence in executive, managerial, administrative, technical, and clerical positions.

From 1984 to 2015, the decommissioned destroyer USS Barry (DD-933) was a museum ship at the Washington Navy Yard as "Display Ship Barry" (DS Barry). Barry was frequently used for change of command ceremonies for naval commands in the area.[27] Due to declining visitors to the ship, the expensive renovations she required, and the District's plans to build a new bridge that would trap her in the Anacostia River, Barry was towed away during the winter of 2015-2016 for scrapping.[40] The U.S. Navy held an official departure ceremony for the ship on 17 October 2015.[41][42][43]

Today, the Navy Yard houses a variety of activities. It serves as headquarters, Naval District Washington, and houses numerous support activities for the fleet and aviation communities. The Navy Museum welcomes visitors to the Navy Art Collection[44] and its displays of naval art and artifacts, which trace the Navy's history from the Revolutionary War to the present day. The Naval History and Heritage Command is housed in a complex of buildings known as the Dudley Knox Center for Naval History. Leutze Park is the scene of colorful ceremonies.

2013 shooting

Main article: Washington Navy Yard shooting

On September 16, 2013, a shooting took place at the Yard. Shots were fired at the headquarters for the Naval Sea Systems Command Headquarters building #197. Fifteen people, including 13 civilians, one D.C. police officer, and one base officer, were shot. Twelve fatalities were confirmed by the United States Navy and D.C. Police.[45][46] Officials said the gunman, Aaron Alexis, a 34-year-old civilian contractor from Queens, New York, was killed during a gunfight with police.[47]


The Yard serves as a ceremonial and administrative center for the U.S. Navy, home to the Chief of Naval Operations. It is headquarters for the Naval Sea Systems Command, Naval Reactors, Naval Facilities Engineering Command, Naval Historical Center, the Department of Naval History, the U.S. Navy Judge Advocate General's Corps, the United States Navy Band, the U.S. Navy's Military Sealift Command and numerous other naval commands. Several Officers' Quarters are located at the facility.

Building 126

Building 126 is located by the Anacostia River, on the northeast corner of 11th and SE O Streets. The one-story building, built between 1925 and 1938, was recently renovated to be a net-zero energy building as part of the Washington Navy Yard Energy Demonstration Project. Features include two wind turbines, five geothermal wells, a battery energy storage system, one-hundred thirty-two 235 kW solar photovoltaic panels, and windows of electrochromic smart glass.[48]

Although inventoried and determined eligible for listing in the National Register of Historic Places, it is currently not part of an existing district.[49] Until 1950, Building 126 functioned as the receiving station laundry. Afterward, it served as the site of the Washington Navy Yard Police Station. Currently, it acts as the Visitor Center for the Yard.[50]


See also


  1. ^ "District of Columbia Inventory of Historic Sites" (PDF). DC.GOV – Office of Planning. State Historic Preservation Office, D.C. Office of Planning. September 30, 2009. p. 171. Retrieved May 23, 2023.
  2. ^ U.S. EPA. "Washington Navy Yard". Superfund Information Systems: Site Progress Profile. Archived from the original on June 16, 2011. Retrieved July 18, 2011.
  3. ^ Doughty, William Captain, 2nd Regiment (Brent's) District of Columbia Militia War of 1812, NARA RG 94
  4. ^ "Register of Patients at Naval Hospital Washington DC 1814". NHHC. Retrieved October 26, 2023.
  5. ^ "About this Collection | James Madison Papers, 1723-1859 | Digital Collections | Library of Congress". Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. 20540 USA. Retrieved March 14, 2024.
  6. ^ Mary Stockton Hunter, The Burning of Washington, D.C. New York Historical Society Quarterly Bulletin 1924, pp 80–83.
  7. ^ Roosevelt, Theodore (1902). The Naval War of 1812, or the History of the United States Navy during the Last War with Great Britain, Part II. New York, NY: G.P. Putnam's Sons. pp. 45–47. Retrieved August 2, 2022. On August 20th, Major-General Ross and Rear-Admiral Cockburn, with about 5,000 soldiers and marines, moved on Washington by land… Ross took Washington and burned the public buildings; and the panic-struck Americans foolishly burned the Columbia, 44, and Argus, 18, which were nearly ready for service.
  8. ^ Sharp, John G. History of the Washington Navy Yard Civilian Workforce 1799 -1962 (Naval History and Heritage Command: Washington DC 2005)4., accessed 28 July 2018 https://www.history.navy.mil/content/dam/nhhc/browse-by-topic/heritage/washington-navy-yard/pdfs/WNY_History.pdf
  9. ^ Thomas Tingey to Robert Smith, 12 March 1806, Letters Received by the Secretary of the Navy, "Captains Letters" volume 4, letter 47, Roll 0004, National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C.
  10. ^ "Washington Navy Yard Employee listing dated 23 May 1806 (148 names)". www.genealogytrails.com. Retrieved March 14, 2024.
  11. ^ City of Washington Gazette 15 May 1815, p.3
  12. ^ Royal, Anne Newport, Sketches of the History, Life and Manner in the United States by a Traveler, (New Haven, by the author, 1826), p.140
  13. ^ "[UPDATED] Washington Navy Yard Station Log November 1822 - December 1889". NHHC. Retrieved March 14, 2024.
  14. ^ "Washington Navy Yard Payroll for Mechanics and Laborers 1819-1820". genealogytrails.com. Retrieved March 14, 2024.
  15. ^ "Washington Navy Yard 1862 Female Wages Laboratory". genealogytrails.com. Retrieved March 14, 2024.
  16. ^ Daily National Intelligencer, Washington, D.C., June 18, 1864, 3.
  17. ^ "Fireworks, Hoopskirts—and Death". National Archives. June 30, 2017. Retrieved March 14, 2024.
  18. ^ Sharp, John G. History of the Washington Navy Yard Civilian Workforce 1799 -1962 Naval History and Heritage Command 2005, pp72-76.accessed 5 December 2017 https://www.history.navy.mil/content/dam/nhhc/browse-by-topic/heritage/washington-navy-yard/pdfs/WNY_History.pdf
  19. ^ Papers of Benjamin Henry Latrobe, Maryland Historical Society, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1984-1988 Vol.II, pp 908 – 910.
  20. ^ Paul Hamilton to Tingey, 2 July 1811, Navy Department, Miscellaneous Records of the Navy Department, Records Group 45, Roll 0175, p.33, National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C.
  21. ^ The Encyclopedia of Strikes in American History editors Aron Brenner, Benjamin Daily and Emanuel Ness, (New York:M.E.Sharpe, 2009),.xvii.
  22. ^ Maloney, Linda M. The Captain from Connecticut: The Life and Naval Times of Isaac Hull. Northeastern University Press: Boston, 1986 pp 436 - 437
  23. ^ "washington.html". www.usgwarchives.net. Retrieved March 14, 2024.
  24. ^ "wny2.html". www.usgwarchives.net. Retrieved March 14, 2024.
  25. ^ John G. Sharp, Diary of Michael Shiner Relating to the History of the Washington Navy Yard 1813-1869 Naval History and Heritage Command 2015 Retrieved Oct. 30, 2016
  26. ^ Navy-yard, Washington: History from Organization, 1799, to Present Date. U.S. Government Printing Office. 1890.
  27. ^ a b c "National Register of Historic Places Inventory – Nomination Form". National Park Service. November 1, 1975. Retrieved July 7, 2009.
  28. ^ "Request for Determination of Eligibility to the National Register of Historic Places for the Washington Navy Yard Annex". General Services Administration. Historic American Buildings Survey. November 1976. Retrieved July 24, 2009.
  29. ^ "The Road to Reuse…" (PDF). General Services Administration. Environmental Protection Agency. May 2009. Retrieved March 16, 2016.
  30. ^ "National Historic Landmarks Survey" (PDF). National Park Service. Retrieved July 7, 2009.
  31. ^ "Benjamin Latrobe Letter to Benjamin King about Jefferson's Water Closet". www.genealogytrails.com. Retrieved March 14, 2024.
  32. ^ The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Second Series, Jefferson's Memorandum Books, vol. 2, ed. James A Bear, Jr. and Lucia C. Stanton. (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1997), entry for 8 July 1805, 1143–1171.
  33. ^ Tingey to Robert Smith, 16 December 1807, Letters from Captains to the Secretary of the Navy ("Captains Letters"), Volume 9, 1 Sept 1807 - 31 Dec 1807, Letter 82, RG 260, National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C.
  34. ^ "Torpedo War - Rodgers - Fulton". NHHC. Retrieved March 14, 2024.
  35. ^ Hamilton to Tingey, 4 May 1810, Miscellaneous Records of the Navy Department, Letters, 1810, p. 22, Roll 0175, RG45, National Archives and Records Administration
  36. ^ Paul Hamilton to Tingey, 30 May 1810, Miscellaneous Records of the Navy Department, Record Group 45, Roll, 0175, p.26, National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C.
  37. ^ Peck, Garrett (2014). Capital Beer: A Heady History of Brewing in Washington, D.C. Charleston, SC: The History Press. ISBN 978-1626194410.
  38. ^ "[UPDATED] Washington Navy Yard Station Log November 1822 - December 1889". NHHC. Retrieved March 14, 2024.
  39. ^ a b Sharp, John G. (2005). History of the Washington Navy Yard Civilian Workforce, 1799-1962 (PDF). Washington Navy Yard: Naval District Washington. Retrieved April 3, 2017.
  40. ^ Copper, Kyle (May 6, 2016). "Museum ship at Navy Yard leaving the nation's capital". WTOP. Retrieved May 6, 2016.
  41. ^ Dingfelder, Sadie (September 10, 2015). "Bidding farewell to the Barry". Washington Post.
  42. ^ Morris, Mass Communication Specialist 2nd Class Tyrell K. (October 17, 2015). "Navy Bids Farewell to Display Ship Barry". Washington: United States Navy, Chief of Information.((cite news)): CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  43. ^ Eckstein, Megan (October 19, 2015). "Washington Navy Yard Says Goodbye to Display Ship Barry". USNI News.
  44. ^ Navy Art Collection Archived April 26, 2009, at the Wayback Machine web-page. Naval History & Heritage Command official website. Retrieved March 9, 2010.
  45. ^ "Washington Navy Yard shooting: Active shooter sought in Southeast D.C". WJLA TV. Archived from the original on September 16, 2013. Retrieved September 16, 2013.
  46. ^ "4 killed, 8 injured in a shooting at Washington Navy Yard". Washington Times. Retrieved September 16, 2013.
  47. ^ DC Navy Yard Gunshots; September 16, 2013; CNN.
  48. ^ Miller, Kiona. "Navy Yard Visitor's Center Completes Net Zero Project". Naval District Washington. Department of the Navy. Retrieved August 6, 2013.
  49. ^ "11th Street Bridges Final Environmental Impact Statement" (PDF). District of Columbia Department of Transportation. Government of the District of Columbia. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 10, 2014. Retrieved August 6, 2013.
  50. ^ "Record of Decision for Sites 1, 2, 3, 7, 9, 11, and 13 Washington Navy Yard" (PDF). Naval Facilities Engineering Command Washington. United States Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved August 6, 2013.