Ships of the United States Navy
Ships in current service
Ships grouped alphabetically
Ships grouped by type
Three US amphibious warfare ships in 2011 - the Landing Helicopter Dock USS Makin Island (LHD 8) leading the Landing Platform Dock USS New Orleans (LPD 18), rear, and the Landing Ship Dock USS Pearl Harbor (LSD 52), fore

This is a list of United States Navy amphibious warfare ships. This type of ship has been in use with the US Navy since World War I.

Ship status is indicated as either currently active [A] (including ready reserve), inactive [I], or precommissioning [P]. Ships in the inactive category include only ships in the inactive reserve, ships which have been disposed from US service have no listed status. Ships in the precommissioning category include ships under construction or on order.

Historical overview

There have been four generations of amphibious warfare ships, with each generation having more capability than the previous:

World War II

During the naval build-up for World War II, many Maritime Commission (MARCOM) standard designs were converted to US Navy amphibious warfare ships. In the Cold War these and newer standard designs were built under MARCOM's successor agency, the United States Maritime Administration (MARAD):

In the following lists MARCOM types are abbreviated as 'MC type' and MARAD as 'MA type'; 'MC types' became 'MA types' in 1950.


The first amphibious warfare ships had a top speed of 12 to 17 knots. With the appearance of higher speed submarines at the end of World War II, the US Navy decided that all new amphibious warfare ships would have to have a minimum speed of 20 knots (37 km/h; 23 mph) to increase their chances of survival. All new ships with a full flight deck (LPH, LHA, LHD), the Landing Platform Docks (LPD) and the High Speed Transport destroyer conversions (APD/LPR) would meet this criterion. The other major types would see relatively small numbers of new ships constructed with this 20 knot requirement, with the last appearing in 1969.[1]


Amphibious warfare ships were considered by the US Navy to be auxiliaries and were classed with hull classification symbols beginning with 'A' until 1942. Many ships were reclassed at that time as landing ships and received new hull symbols beginning with 'L'; others would retain 'A' hull symbols until 1969 and then receive 'L' symbols. This article pairs the two lists of what are the same ships, with each 'L' list preceding the respective 'A' list. Littoral Combat Ships also use 'L' hull symbols but are not solely intended for amphibious warfare.

In 2015 the US Navy created new hull classification symbols that began with an 'E' to designate 'expeditionary' vessels. Expeditionary vessels are designed to support low-intensity missions, allowing more expensive, high-value amphibious warfare ships to be re-tasked for more demanding missions. Most of these ships are not commissioned warships, but rather are operated by the Military Sealift Command.[2]

Amphibious assault ship (General Purpose) (LHA)

USS Tarawa (LHA 1)
USS America (LHA-6)

Further information: Landing helicopter assault

Tarawa class

The Tarawa-class LHA was the first to combine the features of the well deck of the Landing Ship Dock (LSD) or Landing Platform Dock (LPD) and the full flight deck of the Landing Platform Helicopter (LPH) into one ship. Though not designed to carry Landing Craft Air Cushion (LCAC)s, they could accommodate one in their well decks.[3]

America class

The America-class LHA would be a follow-on to the Wasp-class LHD. The first two ships, America and Tripoli, would not have a well deck, so as to dedicate more space to the support of air operations. This was criticized as a repeat of the mistakes of the LPH concept, and so it was decided that Bougainville and all future ships of this class would have a well deck.[4]

Amphibious assault ship (multi-purpose) (LHD)

USS Bonhomme Richard (LHD-6)

Further information: Landing helicopter dock

Wasp class

The well deck of the Tarawa-class LHA was not designed to accommodate the LCAC, which came into service just six years after the last of that class was completed. The Wasp-class LHD and the later units of the America-class LHA were designed to be LCAC compatible; the Wasp-class could carry 3 LCACs.[8]

Landing Platform Helicopter (LPH)

USS Iwo Jima (LPH-2)
USS Princeton (LPH-5)
Thetis Bay (LPH-6)

Further information: Landing platform helicopter

The Landing Platform Helicopter (LPH) would be the first ships to operate helicopters for large scale air assault behind beaches. One major defect of the LPH concept was that these ships did not carry landing craft to disembark Marines when weather or hostile anti-aircraft systems grounded helicopters; only Inchon would be modified to carry two landing craft. In such situations the LPH would be reliant on landing craft supplied by other ships, which proved awkward in practice. This defect would drive the design of the Tarawa-class LHA, in effect a LPH with a well deck.[10]

Commencement Bay class: MC type T3

Iwo Jima class

As the 'definitive' LPH design under project SCB 157, the Iwo Jima class would be the only class to be built as such, with sufficient 'hotel' accommodations for the embarked Marines. All other LPH ships would be conversions of aircraft carriers, and so had accommodation deficiencies (for example, some Marine units could not bunk together, and water distillation was insufficient to allow all personnel showers within a 24 hour period).[10]

After their retirement as amphibious warfare ships, one (Inchon) would be converted to carry minesweeping helicopters as a mine countermeasures support ship (MCS). All of these ships would be scrapped or sunk as targets by 2018.

Essex class

The following LPH ships were converted Essex class aircraft carriers, due to budget constraints with the construction of the Iwo Jima class ships.[13]

Casablanca class: MC type S4-S2-BB3

Thetis Bay was a converted Casablanca class escort carrier. Under the hull designation CVHA-1, she was the prototype for the LPH concept.[14]

Landing Platform Dock (LPD)

USS Raleigh (LPD-1)
USS Austin (LPD-4)
USS Dubuque (LPD-8), note temporary telescoping helicopter hangar
USS Trenton (LPD-14)
USS San Antonio (LPD-17)

Further information: Amphibious transport dock and Command ship

The Landing Platform Dock (LPD) concept began as a compromise design, an attempt to build a ship with much more capability than a Landing Ship Dock (LSD) - the LPD superficially resembles an LSD with an enlarged flight deck - but without the expense of a LPH. The well deck is smaller than that of an LSD. The Raleigh and Austin classes could be fitted with a temporary telescoping helicopter hangar.[15]

Several of these ships were built with space dedicated for command capabilities. Two of these, La Salle and Coronado, would be redesignated as auxiliary command ships (AGF).

Raleigh class

Austin class

Austin class (Cleveland subclass)

Austin class (Trenton subclass)

San Antonio class

Further information: LX(R)-class amphibious warfare ship

The San Antonio-class were the first LPDs designed to accommodate Landing Craft Air Cushion (LCAC); two could be carried. They were also the first LPDs to be built with a permanent helicopter hangar.[16]

Landing Ship Dock (LSD)

USS Ashland (LSD-1)
USS Casa Grande (LSD-13)
USS Thomaston (LSD-28)
USS Anchorage (LSD-36)
USS Whidbey Island (LSD-41)
USS Harper's Ferry (LSD-49)

Further information: Dock landing ship

The LSD came as a result of a British requirement during World War II for a vessel that could carry large landing craft across the seas at speed. The design was developed and built in the US for the Royal Navy and the US Navy, with the US Navy originally classifying these ships as Mechanized artillery transports (APM), then changing them to LSDs. The first LSDs could carry 36 Landing Craft Mechanized (LCM) at 16 knots (30 km/h) in a flooding well deck, the first ships with this capability. Late in the war they were modified with the addition of a temporary superdeck over the well deck; this could carry vehicles, support helicopter operations, or be removed for outsized cargo.[18]

In December 2020 the U.S. Navy's Report to Congress on the Annual Long-Range Plan for Construction of Naval Vessels stated that it was planned that all LSDs would be placed Out of Commission in Reserve by 2027.[19]

Ashland class

Casa Grande class

Thomaston class

The Thomaston class, designed under project SCB 75, would be the first class of LSDs capable of 20 knots.[24]

Anchorage class

The Anchorage class, designed under project SCB 404, was basically the Thomaston class with the well deck enlarged (49 feet longer and 2 feet wider) to accommodate the new larger LCU-1610 class. They would later be modified to carry up to 3 Landing Craft Air Cushion (LCAC).[27]

Whidbey Island class

The Whidbey Island-class were the first LSDs designed to accommodate LCACs - up to 5 could be carried - and the first in which the helicopter deck would not be removable.[28]

Harpers Ferry class

The Harpers Ferry-class is basically the Whidbey Island-class with more cargo capacity at the expense of a shorter well deck which could carry 2 LCACs.[30]

Mechanized artillery transports (APM)

The APM hull classification was short-lived; it was changed to Landing Ship Dock (LSD).[31]

Amphibious command ship (LCC)

USS Mount McKinley (LCC-7)
USS Taconic (LCC-17)
USS Blue Ridge (LCC-19)

Further information: Amphibious command ship and Command ship

All Amphibious force flagships (AGC) in service in 1969 were reclassed as Amphibious Command Ships (LCC), which should not be confused with the World War II era Landing craft, control (LCC).

Mount McKinley class: MC type C2-S-AJ1

Adirondack class

Blue Ridge class

The Blue Ridge-class would be the only amphibious command ships purposely built as such by the US Navy, and the first and only class capable of exceeding 20 knots. Their hulls were based on the Iwo Jima-class Landing Platform Helicopter (LPH) design due to the need for flat deck space for multiple antennas. After the retirement of the fleet flagships [cruisers] (see also List of cruisers of the United States Navy § Command cruisers (CLC, CC)) these ships would be pressed into that role despite their lack of speed relative to carrier strike groups.[32]

Amphibious force flagship (AGC)

USS Ancon (AGC-4)
USS Catoctin (AGC-5)
USS Biscayne (AGC-18)

Further information: Amphibious command ship § World War II, and Command ship

All Amphibious Force Flagships (AGC) in service in 1969 were reclassed as Amphibious command ships (LCC).

Appalachian class: MC type C2-S-B1

Troop transport conversion

Coast Guard cutter conversions

Mount McKinley class: MC type C2-S-AJ1

Adirondack class

Barnegat class

Presidential yacht (never used as a true AGC)

Amphibious cargo ship (LKA)

USS Libra (LKA-12)
USS Thuban (LKA-19)
USS Rankin (LKA-103)
USS Tulare (LKA-112)
USS Charleston (LKA-113)

Further information: Amphibious cargo ship

All Attack cargo ships (AKA) in service in 1969 were reclassed as Amphibious Cargo Ships (LKA).

Arcturus class

Andromeda class: MC type C2

Tolland class

Tulare class

The Tulare would be the first AKA/LKA capable of 20 knots: MA type C4-S-1A[33]

Charleston class

Attack cargo ship (AKA)

Further information: Amphibious cargo ship

The Attack Cargo Ship (AKA) hull symbol was introduced on 1 February 1943; all AKA ships remaining in service in 1969 were reclassed as Amphibious cargo ships (LKA).

The Tulare and the Charleston class would be the only AKA/LKAs capable of 20 knots.[33]

Amphibious transport (LPA)

USS Chilton (LPA-38)
USS Clinton (LPA-144)
USS Francis Marion (LPA-249)

Further information: Attack transport

All Attack transports (APA) in service in 1969 were reclassed as Amphibious Transports (LPA).

The Paul Revere class would be the first and only class of APA/LPA capable of 20 knots.[34]

Attack transport (APA)

Further information: Attack transport

Two transports with the hull symbol AP, USS George F. Elliott (AP-13) and USS Leedstown (AP-73), had been configured as attack transports but were sunk in 1942 before the introduction of the APA hull symbol on 1 February 1943.

All attack transports (APA) in service in 1969 were reclassified as amphibious transports (LPA).

Doyen class: MC type P1-S2-L2

Harris class

McCawley class

Heywood class

Harry Lee class

President Jackson class: MC type C3-A, C3-P or C3-P&C

Crescent City class: MC type C3-P or C3-Delta

Joseph Hewes class

John Penn class

Edward Rutledge class

Arthur Middleton class: MC type C3-P&C

Bayfield class: MC type C3-S-A2

Ormsby class: MC type C2-S-B1

Sumter class: MC type C2-S-E1

Windsor class: MC type C3-S-A1, C3-S-A3, or C3-S-A2

Gilliam class: MC type S4-SE2-BD1

Frederick Funston class: MC type C3-S-A1

Haskell class: MC type VC2-S-AP5

(* cancelled in 1945)

Paul Revere class: MA type C4-S-1A

The Paul Revere class would be the first and only class of APA/LPA capable of 20 knots.[34]

Amphibious transport, small (LPR)

USS Barber (LPR-57)
USS Kirwin (LPR-90)

Further information: High-speed transport

In 1969 the remaining destroyer escorts which had been converted into High-speed transports (APD)s were reclassified as Amphibious transports, small (LPR)s.

Charles Lawrence class

Crosley class

High-speed transport (APD)

Further information: High-speed transport

High-speed Transports (APD) were converted destroyers and destroyer escorts; they received the US hull classification symbol APD: "AP" for transport and "D" for destroyer. In 1969, the remaining ships were reclassified as Amphibious transport, small (LPR). This classification is not to be confused with hull code "HST", also for "High Speed Transport", currently assigned only to experimental high-speed catamaran designs, and high-speed catamarans chartered from private ferry companies.

Transport submarine (LPSS)

USS Grayback (LPSS-574)

Main article: List of submarines of the United States Navy

Transport submarine (APS, ASSP, APSS)

USS Perch (ASSP-313)

Main article: List of submarines of the United States Navy

Inshore fire support ship (LFR)

USS Carronade LFS-1

Landing craft air cushion (LCAC)

Main article: Landing Craft Air Cushion

Further information: Hovercraft § United States military

See also: List of patrol vessels of the United States Navy § Patrol air cushion vehicle (PACV)

Landing craft, control (LCC)

Not to be confused with the later Amphibious command ship (LCC).

During World War II a number of small boats were built to direct the movements of landing craft as they approached beaches. These were 56 feet in length, displaced 30 tons, and ran 13-16 knots in speed. They were equipped with multiple radios and SO radar (the same radar as on PT boats). During the invasion of southern France they were used to control drone minesweepers.[37]

Landing craft infantry (LCI)

The United States Navy built 932 Landing Craft Infantry ships in World War II.

Main article: List of United States Navy Landing Craft Infantry (LCI)

Landing Craft Mechanized (LCM)

The United States Navy built 11,144 landing craft Motorized, designated Landing Craft Mechanized (LCM) in World War II.[38]

Further information: Landing Craft Mechanized

Landing craft support (large) (Mark 3), a.k.a. LCS(L)(3)

Further information: Landing Craft Support

Landing craft tank (LCT)

The United States Navy built 1,394 landing craft tank, designated Landing Craft Tank (LCT) in World War II. Those that were still in use in 1949 were redesignated as Landing Craft, Utility.

Further information: Landing Craft Tank

Landing craft utility (LCU)

The United States Navy built the LCU 1466, 1610 and 1627 classes after World War II.[39] Seventy old LCUs (likely ex-LCTs) were retired from amphibious duties and reclassified as Harbor utility craft (YFU).

Further information: Landing Craft Utility § LCU 1466, 1610 and 1627 classes

Landing ship medium (LSM)

Towards the end of World War II the United States Navy built 558 Landing Ship Medium (LSM) type vessels across three classes. They were originally designed under the classification Landing Craft Tank - Mark 7 but were reclassified after exceeding 200 feet in length.

Main article: List of United States Navy Landing Ship Medium (LSM)

As of February 2023 the US Marine Corps has proposed the purchase of 18 to 35 modern LSMs; this LSM concept was previously known as the Light Amphibious Warship (LAW).[40][41]

Landing ship, tank (LST)

USS De Soto County (LST-1171)
USS Newport (LST-1179)

The United States Navy built nearly 1,200 tank landing ships, classified as "Landing Ship, Tank" or "LST", from the World War II-era up through the early 1970s.[42] The Newport class, which entered service in 1969, would be the last class built and the only class capable of exceeding 20 knots. The 1987 introduction of Landing Craft Air Cushion (LCAC) — which allowed for over-the-horizon amphibious landings onto a far larger number of beaches — made LSTs obsolete, but they remained with the fleet for another decade because they were the only means by which the hundreds of thousands of gallons of motor vehicle fuel needed by a Marine Expeditionary Force could be landed. Only the development of tankers with the Offshore Petroleum Discharge System (OPDS) and the later development of special fuel bladders which gave the LCACs a tanker capability allowed for their retirement.[43]

Main article: List of United States Navy LSTs § By class

Landing ship, tank, hospital (LSTH)

Further information: Landing Ship, Tank (Hospital)

Atlantic tank landing ship (ATL)

The ATL hull classification was short-lived; it was changed to Landing Ship Tank (LST).[44]

Vehicle landing ship (LSV)

USS Montauk (LSV-6)
USNS Comet (T-AK-269)

The World War II LSVs were converted from surplus minelayers (CM) and netlayers (AN) into ships which could carry and launch amphibious vehicles.[45] After the war most were slated to become mine countermeasures support ships (MCS), but only two were actually converted.

Further information: Minelayer and Netlayer

The post-WW2 LSVs were among the first roll-on/roll-off cargo ships.[46]

Patrol craft, control (PCC)


Thirty-five PC-461-class submarine chasers were converted into amphibious landing control vessel during World War II and reclassified as Patrol Craft, Control after the war. Extra personnel (eight radiomen, two signalmen, one quartermaster and two communications officers), accommodations and improved radar and communications equipment were added. PCs proved exceptionally adept as Control Vessels, guiding waves of landing craft during numerous amphibious landings in the European and Pacific Theaters.[47]

Patrol craft sweeper, control (PCSC)

Thirteen Patrol Craft Sweepers (which were built on 134-foot YMS-1-class minesweeper hulls) were converted into amphibious landing control vessel during World War II and reclassified as Patrol Craft Sweeper, Control.[48]

Expeditionary medical ship (EMS)

Main article: List of United States Navy hospital ships § Expeditionary Medical Ship

Expeditionary fast transport (EPF)

USNS Spearhead (T-EPF-1)

Further information: Expeditionary fast transport

Spearhead class

In January 2023, the Navy announced that three Expeditionary Medical Ships (EMS) had been approved in the 2023 military budget.[50] By May 2023 the three ships had been officially reclassified from EPF to EMS.[51]

Expeditionary mobile base (ESB)

USS Lewis B. Puller ESB-3

Further information: Expeditionary Transfer Dock § Expeditionary Mobile Base (ESB) variants

Lewis B. Puller class

Note there is no ESB-1 or ESB-2, the ESB and ESD hulls have one sequence.

Afloat forward staging base (AFSB)

The Afloat forward staging base (AFSB) was reclassified as the Expeditionary mobile base (ESB) on 4 September 2015.

Expeditionary transfer dock (ESD)

USNS Montford Point (T-ESD-1)

Further information: Expeditionary Transfer Dock

Montford Point class

Mobile landing platform (MLP)

The Mobile landing platform (MLP) was reclassified as the Expeditionary transfer dock (ESD) on 4 September 2015.

Littoral combat ship (LCS)

Main article: Littoral combat ship § List of littoral combat ships

Further information: Littoral combat ship § Irregular warfare and amphibious modules

Barracks ships

Barracks ships are auxiliaries that are used in a variety of roles, not only for amphibious warfare.

Self-propelled barracks ship (APB)

Main article: List of auxiliaries of the United States Navy § Self-propelled barracks ships (APB)

Non self-propelled barracks ship (APL)

Main article: List of auxiliaries of the United States Navy § Barracks craft (APL)

Offshore petroleum distribution system (OPDS) ships

USNS Vice Adm. K. R. Wheeler (T-AG-5001)
SS Chesapeake (AOT-5084), note the green barge-like Single Anchor Leg Mooring (SALM) on the deck aft of center for use in deploying the OPDS hoses, hose reels are forward

OPDS ships support amphibious operations by pumping needed fuel ashore without the need for port facilities. They do not have unique hull classification symbols.[54]

Pump vessels


All OPDS tankers have been scrapped.

See also



  1. ^ Friedman, 2002, pp 311-345
  2. ^ "U.S. Navy Program Guide 2013" (PDF). United States Navy. 6 November 2013. Retrieved 5 December 2013. See pages 101–102
  3. ^ Friedman, 2002, pp 370-372
  4. ^ Jean, Grace V. (September 2008). "Marines Question the Utility of Their New Amphibious Warship". National Defense Magazine. National Defense Industrial Association. Archived from the original on 6 December 2010.
  5. ^ Shelbourne, Mallory (October 2022). "Navy Awards Ingalls Shipbuilding $2.4B to Start LHA-9". USNI News. United States Naval Institute.
  6. ^ Mongilio, Heather (December 2022). "SECNAV Names Next Big Deck Amphib USS Fallujah". USNI News. United States Naval Institute.
  7. ^ a b c LaGrone, Sam (July 2022). "Senate FY 2023 Appropriations Bill Adds $4B to Navy Shipbuilding, Money for New Amphibs". United States Naval Institute. Retrieved 28 July 2022.
  8. ^ Friedman, 2002, pp 448-449
  9. ^ "Notable U.S. Navy Ships Lost Since World War II". US Naval Institute. Retrieved 13 August 2022.
  10. ^ a b Friedman, 2002, pp 357-358, 370-372
  11. ^ Friedman, 2002, pp 355-356
  12. ^ a b c d e f g Operation Dominic I (PDF) (DNA6040F), Washington, DC: Defense Nuclear Agency, 1983, archived from the original (PDF) on 23 August 2012, retrieved 12 January 2014
  13. ^ Friedman, 2002, pp 359-363
  14. ^ Friedman, 2002, p 350
  15. ^ Friedman, 2002, pp 364-365
  16. ^ Friedman, 2002, pp 458-463
  17. ^ LaGrone, Sam (July 2022). "Navy Commissions Amphibious Warship USS Fort Lauderdale". USNI News. United States Naval Institute.
  18. ^ Friedman, 2002, pp 127-131
  19. ^ "Report to Congress on the Annual Long-Range Plan for Construction of Naval Vessels" (PDF). Office of the Chief of Naval Operations. 9 December 2020. p. 16. Retrieved 2 February 2021.
  20. ^ a b c Martin, Edwin J; Rowland, Richard H (April 1, 1982). Castle Series, 1954 (PDF). Washington DC: Defense Nuclear Agency. OCLC 831905820. DNA 6035F – via Defense Technical Information Center.
  21. ^ a b c "Analysis of Radiation Exposure for Navy Personnel at Operation Ivy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-09-27.
  22. ^ a b c d e Berkhouse, L. H.; Davis, S. E.; Gladeck, F.R.; Hallowell, J. H.; Jones, C. R.; Martin, E. J.; McMullan, F. W.; Osborn, M. J.; Rogers, W. E. (1983). Operation Sandstone: 1948 (PDF). Washington, D. C.: Defense Nuclear Agency. p. 40. OCLC 10437826. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 21, 2013. Retrieved August 17, 2011 – via Defense Technical Information Center.
  23. ^ a b "Operation WIGWAM, Report of Commander, Task Group 7.3" (PDF). Defense Technical Information Center. July 22, 1955. Archived (PDF) from the original on December 1, 2021. Retrieved December 1, 2021.
  24. ^ Friedman, 2002, pp 329-331
  25. ^ a b "Archived copy - National Defense Reserve Fleet Inventory For the month ending September 30, 2011" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-02-24. Retrieved 2012-01-04.
  26. ^ a b c "Ships Associated with SHAD Tests". Archived from the original on July 26, 2013. Retrieved 21 September 2012.
  27. ^ Friedman, 2002, pp 331-334
  28. ^ Friedman, 2002, pp 440-442
  29. ^ Mongilio, Heather (July 2022). "Navy Decommissions USS Whidbey Island". USNI News. United States Naval Institute.
  30. ^ Friedman, 2002, p 448
  31. ^ Friedman, 2002, pp 129-130
  32. ^ Friedman, 2002, pp 428-431
  33. ^ a b Friedman, 2002, pp 313-325
  34. ^ a b Friedman, 2002, pp 325
  35. ^ . Retrieved 21 August 2023
  36. ^ . Retrieved 21 August 2023
  37. ^ Friedman, 2002, pp 278-283
  38. ^ Colton, Tim. "WWII Construction Records, Landing Craft". Colton Company. Archived from the original on June 22, 2006. Retrieved 2007-12-11.
  39. ^ Friedman, 2002, pp 390
  40. ^ Shelbourne, Mallory (February 2023). "Marine Corps Requirements Call for 9 Light Amphibious Ships per Regiment". USNI News. United States Naval Institute.
  41. ^ Grady, John (February 2023). "SECNAV Del Toro 'Excited' About New Landing Ship Mediums". USNI News. United States Naval Institute.
  42. ^ Priolo, Gary P. (2005). "Tank Landing Ship (LST) Index". NavSource Online. NavSource Naval History. Retrieved 2007-12-11.
  43. ^ Friedman, 2002, pp 339–344
  44. ^ Friedman, 2002, p 117
  45. ^ Friedman, 2002, pp 178-182
  46. ^ Friedman, 2002, pp 468-470
  47. ^ "PC World War II Service". Patrol Craft Sailor Association.
  48. ^ Friedman, Small Combatants, pp. 91-93
  49. ^ LaGrone, Sam (February 2023). "Crew-Optional USNS Apalachicola Delivers to the Navy, Ship's Unmanned Future Unclear". USNI News. United States Naval Institute.
  50. ^ "These Speedy New Navy Medical Ships Are Designed with the Pacific in Mind". 17 January 2023. Retrieved 18 January 2023.
  51. ^ Mongilio, Heather (May 2023). "SECNAV Del Toro Names New Class of Medical Ships After Bethesda Medical Center". USNI News. United States Naval Institute.
  52. ^ Fuentes, Gidget (February 2024). "Navy Commissions Latest Sea Base USS John L. Canley". USNI News. United States Naval Institute.
  53. ^ Shelbourne, Mallory (October 2022). "NASSCO Lays Keel for Future Expeditionary Sea Base USS Robert E. Simanek". USNI News. United States Naval Institute.
  54. ^ "Offshore Petroleum Discharge System (OPDS)". Retrieved 24 March 2023.


  1. ^ USS Oak Hill participated in Operation Ivy and Operation Dominic
  2. ^ USS Fort Marion participated in Operation Wigwam and Operation Dominic
  3. ^ USS Mount McKinley participated in Operation Sandstone and Operation Wigwam
  4. ^ USS Estes participated in Operation Ivy and Operation Castle
  5. ^ USS Leo participated in Operation Ivy and Operation Castle


Museum ships