U.S. Navy Civil Engineer Corps
U.S. Naval Civil Engineer Corps Insignia
Active2 March 1867 – present
CountryUnited States of America
AllegianceUnited States U.S.
BranchU.S. Navy (Active & Reserve Component)
TypeStaff Corps
Nickname(s)Crossed Bananas
EngagementsSicily, North Africa, Normandy, Guadalcanal, Bougainville, Kwajalein, Roi-Namur, Battle of Saipan, Tinian, Guam, Tarawa, Peleliu, Philippines, Iwo Jima, Okinawa, Operation Highjump, Korea, Operation Deep Freeze, Vietnam, Iraq, Afghanistan
Chief of Civil EngineersRADM Dean VanderLey, CEC, USN

The Civil Engineer Corps (CEC) is a staff corps of the United States Navy. CEC officers are professional engineers and architects, acquisitions specialists, and Seabee Combat Warfare Officers who qualify within Seabee units. They are responsible for executing and managing the planning, design, acquisition, construction, operation, and maintenance of the Navy's shore facilities. The Civil Engineer Corps is under the command of the Chief of Civil Engineers and Commander, Naval Facilities Engineering Systems Command. On 12 August 2022, RADM Dean VanderLey relieved RADM John W. Korka, becoming the 46th commander of NAVFAC and Chief of Civil Engineers.[1]

Present day CEC ranks range from CWO2 to RADM, though the community is phasing out Chief Warrant Officer ranks in favor of Limited Duty Officers. Several Civil Engineer Corps officers, primarily those serving during or around the time of World War II, have held the rank of Vice Admiral, and one officer, Ben Moreell, has held the four-star rank of Admiral, but there are no current billets within the US Navy that require Civil Engineer Corps officers of either rank. The worldwide CEC Active- and Reserve-Component authorized end strength is shown below.

Authorized End Strength, as of October 2023 (510X, 653X, 753X designators)
Active 1,277 0 0 1 2 80 182 287 398 164 161 1 1 0 0
Reserve 438 0 0 1 1 24 72 144 111 43 42 0 0 0 0
Total 1,715 0 0 2 3 104 254 431 509 207 203 1 1 0 0


WWII Naval Officers from the Civil Engineer Corps, Medical Corps, Dental Corps and Supply Corps assigned to Naval Construction Battalions had a Silver Seabee on their Corps insignia.
Capt. John N. Laycock (CEC) discussing his modular pontoon box system with Admiral Moreell.
Lt Cmdr. Edward Swain Hope CEC was the most senior African American officer in the United States Navy during WWII.

Civil engineers were employed by the Navy Department as early as 1827, when Mr. Loammi Baldwin was appointed to superintendent of the construction of dry docks at Boston and Norfolk.[2] Prior to the passage of the Act of 2 March 1867 civil engineers were appointed by the Secretary, but under authority of that act they were to be commissioned by the President by and with the advice and consent of the Senate; they were appropriated for as part of the civil establishment at the several navy yards and stations under the control of the Bureau of Yards and Docks until 1870.[2] At that time their pay was regulated by section 3 of the Act of 15 July 1870 that "fixed" the annual pay of officers of the Navy on the active list.[2] Appropriations for their pay have been made since 1870 under the head of "Pay of the Navy".

The discretionary authority given to the President by the Statute of 3 March 1871, to determine and fix the relative rank of civil engineers was not exercised until the 24th of February 1881, when relative rank was conferred upon them and fixed as follows: One with the relative rank of captain (Capt), two with that of commander (Cdr), three with that of lieutenant-commander (Lcdr), and four with that of lieutenant (Lt).[2]

The Navy Regulations for 1876 failed to list civil engineers among the staff officers of the Navy, and the uniform regulations for that year did not prescribe a uniform or a corps device for that class of officer. In 1881, after having had relative rank conferred upon them, civil engineers were instructed by Uniform Circular dated 24 August to wear the uniform of officers of the line with whom they had relative rank - omitting the star, but with the distinctive letters C.E. (Old English) embroidered in silver in the center. The same letters to be similarly embroidered on frogs of epaulets.

In 1905, two crossed silver sprigs, each composed of two oak leaves and an acorn (sometimes called "Crossed Bananas"), was adopted as the insignia of the Civil Engineer Corps replacing the Old English letters C.E. These were to be worn on the epaulets, shoulder straps and collar of the service coat.[2] While the pattern of this corps device remained the same, uniform regulations issued in 1919 specified that it was to be embroidered in gold instead of silver and worn on the sleeve of frock, evening dress, and blue service coats, above the gold lace strips, and on shoulder marks for white service coat and overcoat. By these same regulations the light blue cloth worn under the sleeve strips, and worn on the shoulder marks since 1899, was abolished as a distinction of the corps, however is still present in the light blue color of the stripes worn by enlisted, pay grades E-3 and below in the Navy's construction field.

In 1939 the CEC was composed of 126 active officers. By VJ day that number had grown to only 200. However, there were over 10,000 reservists providing the leadership of the Construction Battalions.[2] In December 1941 Admiral Ben Moreell proposed the creation of three Naval Construction Battalions. A problem then confronted BuDocks, who would command the Construction Battalions? Naval regulations stated that military command of naval personnel was strictly limited to line officers, yet BuDocks deemed it essential that these Construction Battalions be commanded by officers of the Civil Engineer Corp, who were trained in the skills required for construction work. The newly formed Bureau of Naval Personnel (BuPers), successor to the Navy's Bureau of Navigation, strongly opposed this transgression of Naval tradition. Admiral Moreell took the question personally to the Secretary of the Navy, Frank Knox, who, on 19 March 1942, gave authority for officers of the Civil Engineer Corps to exercise military authority over all officers and enlisted men assigned to construction units otherwise known as the Seabees. For those engineers assigned to the Seabees a silver Seabee was mounted to the center of the CEC crossed oak leaves insignia. The Seabee logo incorporated the CEC insignia, with one on each arm of the Seabee, just above each glove.

Capt. Brockenbrough (CEC) CB 71, Third Marine Division Shore Party Commander on Bougainville.[3]

Besides providing the command leadership and engineering skills needed by the Naval Construction Force (NCF), the CEC made a major contribution to the war effort. CAPT. John N. Laycock created the Seabee's "magic box".[4] Today's Navy lighterage pontoon is a direct descendant of his creation.

LVT-2 doodlebug going through tests on Saipan. It was a CEC assault concept vehicle.[5]
"NCDU 45", Ensign Karnowski CEC Chief Carpenters Mate Conrad C. Millis, MM2 Equipment Operator Lester Meyers and three sailors. The unit received a Presidential Unit Citation (United States) with Ens. Karnowski earning the Navy Cross & French Croix de Guerre with Palm, while MM2 Meyers received a Silver Star.[6]

Early in 1943 the Navy began training its first African American officers. In May, MIT graduate Edward Swain Hope, was the first to enter the CEC. He went through training at Camp Endicott and was posted as the Public Works officer at Manana Barracks, Hawaii Territory as a Lieutenant. Manana Barracks was the largest "black installation" the U.S. military had. He eventually was promoted to Lieutenant Commander which made him the Navy's highest ranking African American during WWII.

The first CEC killed in Pacific combat were Lt. Irwin W. Lee and Lt. (jg) George W. Stephenson along with 23 enlisted of the 24th CB. They died in an air raid on 2 July 1943 on Rendova Island. The Seabees named their Naval Training Center at Quoddy Village Eastport, Maine, Camp Lee-Stephenson in honor of them.[7]

The first CEC killed in the Atlantic combat was Lt. Carl M. Olson of St Paul, Minnesota, on 10 September 1943 at Salerno, Italy. His design for the landing end of pontoon assemblies was used throughout the war.[8]


U.S. Naval insignia, brass subdued per USMC regulation for CEC in CBs transferred to the Corps.
ChCarp. W. H. Achenson (CEC) awarded Silver Star for UDT 1 actions

During WWII the Seabees had a number of battalions transferred to the Marine Corps.[11][12][13] Those battalions were then given USMC designations and the men were given standard Marine Corps issue in addition to their dress naval uniform. For CEC the standard gold and silver officer corps insignia was replaced by a brass subdued one on the garrison hat. The battalions involved were the 18th, 19th, 25th, 53rd and 121st.(see 17th Marine Regiment, 18th Marine Regiment, 19th Marine Regiment, and 20th Marine Regiment) The 31st and 133rd CBs were issued USMC fatigues and attached to the shore parties of the 4th Marine Division and 5th Marine Division for Iwo Jima. The CEC involved would have worn the subdued insignia also. Other battalions were tasked with Marine Corps shore party assignments both prior to and post-Iwo Jima.

Tasked as combat engineers, the CEC of the 18th and 121st CBs designed a detachable ramp mounted on a LVT-2.[5] Its purpose was to enable the Marines to land on Tinian's beaches bordered by coral embankments up to 15 feet high. Ten LVTs were modified using iron beams salvaged from a sugar factory on Saipan.[5] The commanding General Harry Schmidt was skeptical of the design. He ordered that a vehicle test one, a hundred times, before he would use it in combat. The ramps not only stood up, but they allowed the Marines to land where there were no defenses as a landing there had been thought impossible.[5] The astonished Japanese were overwhelmed and outflanked due to the ramps. The LVTs were nicknamed "doodlebugs".

USMC Shore party Commanders

Naval Combat Demolition Units

Operational Naval Demolition Unit No. 1. was the very first USN "demolitions" unit. In early May 1943, a two-phase "Naval Demolition Project" was directed by the Chief of Naval Operations "to meet a present and urgent requirement". The first phase began at Amphibious Training Base (ATB) Solomons, Maryland with the establishment of Operational Naval Demolition Unit No. 1. Six Officers and eighteen enlisted men reported from NTC Camp Peary dynamiting and demolition school, for a four-week course. Those Seabees, led by Lt. Fred Wise CEC, were immediately sent to participate in the invasion of Sicily.[14][15] When the unit returned to Camp Peary most of the men were assigned to the new Naval Combat Demolition Units being formed there.

Naval Combat Demolition Units were led by junior CEC officers.[16] There were over 200 NCDUs formed with all but five being requisitioned for the UDTs.


Lt. Crist (CEC), Lt. Cmdr. Kaufmann and Lt. Carberry right to left at awards ceremony

V Amphibious Corps had identified coral as an issue for Amphibious landings in the Pacific and determined Naval Constructions Battalions had the only people with any experience with the material. Lt. Thomas C. Crist CEC, from NCB 10 was in Honolulu from Canton Island where he had been involved in a lagoon coral head clearance project.[17] His being in Pearl Harbor turned out to be pivotal in UDT history. Admiral Turner and V Amphibious Corps were interested in dealing with coral and had identified the Seabees as the only people with any applicable knowledge. The Admirals staff learned of Lt. Crist's presence in Pearl Harbor and ordered him to report. The Admiral commissioned Lt. Crist with developing a method to blast coral under combat conditions and staging qualified men in Pearl to form a unit for that task. Lt. Crist had staged 30 officers and 150 enlisted from the 7th Naval Construction Regiment when the disaster at Tarawa happened. With Kwajalein the next operation, Lt. Crist's 180 men were used to form UDT 1 and UDT 2. Cmdr. E. D. Brewster (CEC) was selected to command UDT 1 and Lt Crist was picked for UDT 2. That did not last as Admiral Connelly wanted a commander with combat experience. So, Lt. Crist was made ops officer for team 2. At Kwajalein Ensign L. Leuhrs and Carp. W. Acheson CEC anticipated that they may not to get the intel Admiral Turner wanted just paddling a dinghy and wore swim trunks under their fatigues. They decided to strip down and go in the water in broad daylight on a hostile beach to get what the Admiral wanted. Doing that changed the UDT mission model and made them the predecessors of the Navy's special ops. Upon returning to Hawaii Lt. Crist was named as the first Training Officer of the UDT program. He was in the position only a short time when he was selected as commander of UDT 3. For the Marianas operations of Kwajelein, Roi-Namur, Siapan, Tinian, Eniwetok, and Guam. Admiral Turner recommended sixty silver stars and over three hundred bronze stars with Vs for the Seabees and others of UDTs 1-7,[18] which was unprecedented in U.S. Naval and Marine Corps history.[18] For UDTs 5 and 7 every officer received a silver star and all the enlisted received bronze stars with Vs for Operation Forager (Tinian).[14] For UDTs 3 and 4 every officer received a silver star and all the enlisted received bronze stars with Vs for Operation Forager (Guam).[14] Admiral Richard Lansing Conolly felt the commanders of teams 3 and 4 (Lt. Crist and Lt. W.G. Carberry) should have received Navy Crosses.[14] When UDT 3 returned from Leyte in November 1944 it became the training instructors of the Maui school and Lt. Crist was made base Training Officer again.[19] The team would remain in these jobs until April 1945 when it was sent to Fort Pierce to do the same job there. Lt. Crist had been promoted to Lt. Cmdr. and was sent back to Hawaii but his Team 3 Seabees would train teams 12–22.[19]

Diving masks were not common in 1944 and a few men had tried using goggles at Kwajalein.[20] They were a rare item in the Hawaiian sports stores so Lt. Crist and Seabee Chief Howard Roeder and put in a request to the Supply Corps for them.[20] Fortuitously, a diving mask ad was spotted in a magazine. That prompted a priority dispatch to the States appropriating the store's entire stock.[20]

In 1944 the Navy created an unheralded program to dredge harbors to increase accessibility and stevedoring productivity at advance bases. The 301st CB was created for the job and given two ex-NCDU (CEC) and two ex-UDT (CEC) to assist. Between them they had three Silver stars and a Bronze star for valor.

Prisoners of War

During WWII fifteen CEC were taken as prisoners of war.[21] All were in the Pacific and all were taken at the onset of hostilities at Cavite, Philippines, Wake, and Guam.[21] Six would die: one executed, two from friendly fire, and three from mal-treatment.[21] One POW, Lt. Jerry Steward CEC, received the Navy Cross, Purple Heart with three gold stars, Army Distinguished Unit Badge with Oak leaf cluster, Philippine Distinguished Service Star and was the most decorated CEC officer of WWII. Postwar he retired as a Rear Admiral.[21]

Camp David

The presidential retreat is officially Naval Support Facility Thurmont. The CEC staffs the base command. The Marine Corps provides base security while Seabees oversee base operations and maintenance. The current base commander is Capt. Christopher S. Casne (CEC) while the executive officer is Lcdr. Christopher L. Adcock (CEC).[22]

Chiefs of Civil Engineers

No. Portrait Chief of Civil Engineer Took office Left office Time in office Command Chief of Naval Operations
Dean VanderLey[23]
VanderLey, DeanRADM
Dean VanderLey[23]
12 August 2022Incumbent1 year, 307 daysNaval Facilities Engineering Systems CommandMichael M. Gilday
John W. Korka[24]
Korka, John W.RADM
John W. Korka[24]
19 October 201812 August 20223 years, 297 daysNaval Facilities Engineering Systems CommandJohn M. Richardson
Michael M. Gilday
Bret J. Muilenburg[25]
Muilenburg, Bret J.RADM
Bret J. Muilenburg[25]
4 November 201519 October 20182 years, 349 daysNaval Facilities Engineering CommandJohn M. Richardson
Katherine L. Gregory[26]
Gregory, Katherine L.RADM
Katherine L. Gregory[26]
26 October 20124 November 20153 years, 9 daysNaval Facilities Engineering CommandJonathan Greenert
John M. Richardson
Christopher J. Mossey[27]
Mossey, Christopher J.RADM
Christopher J. Mossey[27]
21 May 201026 October 20122 years, 158 daysNaval Facilities Engineering CommandGary Roughead
Jonathan Greenert
Wayne "Greg" Shear
Shear, Wayne “Greg” Jr.RADM
Wayne "Greg" Shear
27 October 200621 May 20103 years, 206 daysNaval Facilities Engineering CommandMichael Mullen
Gary Roughead
Michael K. Loose
Loose, Michael K.RADM
Michael K. Loose
24 October 200327 October 20063 years, 3 daysNaval Facilities Engineering CommandVern Clark
Michael Mullen
Michael R. Johnson
Johnson, Michael R.RADM
Michael R. Johnson
20 October 200024 October 20033 years, 4 daysNaval Facilities Engineering CommandVern Clark
Louis M. Smith
Smith, Louis M.RADM
Louis M. Smith
25 September 199820 October 20002 years, 25 daysNaval Facilities Engineering CommandJay L. Johnson
Vern Clark
David J. Nash
Nash, David J.RADM
David J. Nash
15 September 199525 September 19983 years, 10 daysNaval Facilities Engineering CommandMichael Boorda
Jay L. Johnson
Jack E. Buffington
Buffington, Jack E.RADM
Jack E. Buffington
18 September 199215 September 19952 years, 362 daysNaval Facilities Engineering CommandFrank Kelso
Michael Boorda
David E. Bottorff
Bottorff, David E.RADM
David E. Bottorff
27 October 198918 September 19922 years, 327 daysNaval Facilities Engineering CommandCarlisle Trost
Frank Kelso
Benjamin F. Montoya
Montoya, Benjamin F.RADM
Benjamin F. Montoya
14 August 198727 October 19892 years, 74 daysNaval Facilities Engineering CommandCarlisle Trost
John Paul Jones Jr.
Jones, John Paul Jr.RADM
John Paul Jones Jr.
31 August 198414 August 19872 years, 348 daysNaval Facilities Engineering CommandJames D. Watkins
Carlisle Trost
William M. Zobel
Zobel, William M.RADM
William M. Zobel
15 January 198131 August 19843 years, 229 daysNaval Facilities Engineering CommandThomas B. Hayward
James D. Watkins
Donald G. Iselin
Iselin, Donald G.RADM
Donald G. Iselin
27 May 197715 January 19813 years, 233 daysNaval Facilities Engineering CommandJames L. Holloway III
Thomas B. Hayward
Albert R. Marschall
Marschall, Albert R.RADM
Albert R. Marschall
11 May 197327 May 19774 years, 16 daysNaval Facilities Engineering CommandElmo Zumwalt
James L. Holloway III
Walter M. Enger
Enger, Walter M.RADM
Walter M. Enger
29 August 196911 May 19733 years, 255 daysNaval Facilities Engineering CommandThomas Hinman Moorer
Elmo Zumwalt
Alexander C. Husband
Husband, Alexander C.RADM
Alexander C. Husband
1 November 196529 August 19693 years, 301 daysNaval Facilities Engineering CommandDavid L. McDonald
Thomas Hinman Moorer
Peter Corradi
Corradi, PeterRADM
Peter Corradi
12 February 196231 October 19653 years, 261 daysBureau of Yards and DocksGeorge Whelan Anderson Jr.
David L. McDonald
Eugene J. Peltier
Peltier, Eugene J.RADM
Eugene J. Peltier
2 December 195730 January 19624 years, 59 daysBureau of Yards and DocksArleigh Burke
George Whelan Anderson Jr.
Robert H. Meade
Meade, Robert H.RADM
Robert H. Meade
8 November 195530 November 19572 years, 22 daysBureau of Yards and DocksArleigh Burke
John Richard Perry
Perry, John R.RADM
John Richard Perry
3 November 195325 September 19551 year, 326 daysBureau of Yards and DocksRobert Carney
Arleigh Burke
Joseph F. Jelley
Jelley, Joseph F.RADM
Joseph F. Jelley
1 December 19493 November 19533 years, 337 daysBureau of Yards and DocksForrest Sherman
Lynde D. McCormick
William Fechteler
Robert Carney
John J. Manning
Manning, John J.RADM
John J. Manning
1 December 19451 December 19494 years, 0 daysBureau of Yards and DocksErnest J. King
Chester W. Nimitz
Louis E. Denfeld
Forrest Sherman
Ben Moreell
Moreell, BenRADM
Ben Moreell
1 December 19371 December 19458 years, 0 daysBureau of Yards and DocksWilliam D. Leahy
Harold Rainsford Stark
Ernest J. King
Norman M. Smith
Smith, Norman M.RADM
Norman M. Smith
23 December 193330 November 19373 years, 342 daysBureau of Yards and DocksWilliam Harrison Standley
William D. Leahy
Archibald L. Parsons
Parsons, Archibald L.RADM
Archibald L. Parsons
23 December 192922 December 19333 years, 364 daysBureau of Yards and DocksCharles Frederick Hughes
William V. Pratt
William Harrison Standley
Luther E. Gregory
Gregory, Luther E.RADM
Luther E. Gregory
20 December 192121 December 19298 years, 1 dayBureau of Yards and DocksRobert Coontz
Edward Walter Eberle
Charles Frederick Hughes
Charles W. Parks
Parks, Charles W.RADM
Charles W. Parks
11 January 191815 December 19213 years, 338 daysBureau of Yards and DocksWilliam S. Benson
Robert Coontz
Frederic R. Harris
Harris, Frederic R.RADM
Frederic R. Harris
21 January 191630 November 19171 year, 313 daysBureau of Yards and DocksWilliam S. Benson
Homer R. Stanford
Stanford, Homer R.RADM
Homer R. Stanford
14 January 191213 January 19163 years, 364 daysBureau of Yards and DocksCharles E. Vreeland
Bradley A. Fiske
William S. Benson
Richard C. Hollyday
Hollyday, Richard C.RADM
Richard C. Hollyday
26 March 190713 January 19124 years, 293 daysBureau of Yards and DocksRichard Wainwright
Charles E. Vreeland
Harry H. Rousseau
Rousseau, Harry H.RADM
Harry H. Rousseau
6 January 190725 March 190778 daysBureau of Yards and Docks
Mordecai T. Endicott
Endicott, Mordecai T.RADM
Mordecai T. Endicott
4 April 18985 January 19078 years, 276 daysBureau of Yards and Docks
Edmund O. Matthews
Matthews, Edmund O.CDRE
Edmund O. Matthews
21 March 189416 March 18983 years, 360 daysBureau of Yards and Docks
Norman H. Farquhar
Farquhar, Norman H.CDRE
Norman H. Farquhar
6 March 18906 March 18944 years, 0 daysBureau of Yards and Docks
George D. White
White, George D.CDRE
George D. White
2 April 188927 February 1890331 daysBureau of Yards and Docks
David B. Harmony
Harmony, David B.CDRE
David B. Harmony
27 March 18852 April 18894 years, 6 daysBureau of Yards and Docks
Edward T. Nichols
Nichols, Edward T.CDRE
Edward T. Nichols
4 June 18811 March 18853 years, 270 daysBureau of Yards and Docks
Richard L. Law
Law, Richard L.CDRE
Richard L. Law
1 July 18784 June 18812 years, 338 daysBureau of Yards and Docks
John C. Howell
Howell, John CummingsCDRE
John C. Howell
21 September 18741 July 18783 years, 283 daysBureau of Yards and Docks
Christopher R. P. Rodgers
Rodgers, Christopher Raymond PerryCDRE
Christopher R. P. Rodgers
1 October 187121 September 18742 years, 355 daysBureau of Yards and Docks
Daniel Ammen
Ammen, DanielCAPT
Daniel Ammen
1 May 18691 October 18712 years, 153 daysBureau of Yards and Docks
Joseph Smith
Smith, JosephCAPT
Joseph Smith
25 May 18461 May 186922 years, 341 daysBureau of Yards and Docks
Lewis Warrington
Warrington, LewisCAPT
Lewis Warrington
31 August 184225 May 18463 years, 267 daysBureau of Yards and Docks

Notable Seabees

See also


  1. ^ Christopher, Dunne. "NAVFAC Holds Change of Command". Naval Facilities Engineering Systems Command. Retrieved 13 August 2022.
  2. ^ a b c d e f Anonymous (2007-04-01). "A history of the Navy Civil Engineer Corps, 1867 – 2007" (PDF). Naval Facilities Engineering Systems Command. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2019-03-28.
  3. ^ a b 71st U.S. Naval Construction Battalion. U.S. Navy Seabee Museum. p. 14.
  4. ^ The Navy's Pinup Boxes, Popular Science, Commodore W. Mack Angas CEC, Feb. 1946 "Navy's pin-up Boxes", February 1946, Popular Science illustrations of NPL units
  5. ^ a b c d Seabees and doodlebugs at Tinian, This date in Seabee History July 24, 1944, Seabee Museum website, Port Hueneme, CA[V]
  6. ^ Blazich, Frank A. (6 June 2014). "Opening Omaha Beach: Ensign Karnowski and NCDU-45". Seabees Online. Navy Facilities Engineering Command. Retrieved 18 October 2017.
  7. ^ CAMP LEE-STEPHENSON MONUMENT AT QUODDY VILLAGE, EASTPORT, MAINE, CEC / Seabee Historical Foundation PO Box 657, Gulfport, MS 39502, (228) 865-0480, info@seabeehf.org [1]
  8. ^ The King Bee. Capt. A.N. Olsen (CEC), Trafford Publishing, 2007
  9. ^ Wilfred L. Painter, NHHC website, Seabee Museum Archive, Port Hueneme, CA, Jan. 31, 2020 [2]
  10. ^ 16th Naval Construction Battalion, Seabee Museum Archives, Port Hueneme, CA., p. 7 [3]
  11. ^ Huie, William Bradford (1945). Can Do!: The Story of the Seabees. New York: E. P. Dutton.
  12. ^ "WWII CB uniform". Weebly.com. Retrieved 18 October 2017.
  13. ^ "WWII CB uniform, 1944 Leatherneck Magazine". weebly.com. Retrieved 18 October 2017.
  14. ^ a b c d Naked Warriors, Cdt. Francis Douglas Fane USNR (Ret.), St. Martin's Press, 175 Fifth Ave, New York, NY 10010, 1996, pp. 122, 131, ISBN 0-312-95985-0
  15. ^ "Seal History: Origins of Naval Special Warfare – WWII". Navy Seal Museum Archives. Retrieved 18 October 2017.
  16. ^ "Seabee online magazine- this week in Seabee History". Archived from the original on 2017-10-13. Retrieved 2017-10-13.
  17. ^ Lt Crist, "The MOCK-UP", Fort Pierce Amphibious Training Base (ATB) Newspaper, 20 July 1945 , p. 4, Fort Pierce SEAL Archives, Fort Pierce, FL.
  18. ^ a b "America's First Frogman", Elizabeth K. Bush, Naval Institute Press, 291 Wood Road, Annapolis, Maryland, 2012, Chapt. 7, ISBN 978-1-61251-298-3 [4]
  19. ^ a b "The Teams in World War II". View of the Rockies. Retrieved 18 October 2017.
  20. ^ a b c Naked Warriors, Cdr. Francis Douglas Fane USNR (Ret.), St. Martin's Press, 175 Fifth Ave, New York, NY 10010, 1996, p. 82, ISBN 0-312-95985-0
  21. ^ a b c d CEC WWII prisoners of war, Civil Engineering Corps History, Naval History Heritage Command, Seabee Museum Archives,Port Hueneme,CA [5]
  22. ^ Biographies, CNIC, Naval Support Facility Thurmont web page, Commander, Navy Installations Command, 716 Sicard Street SE, Suite 1000 Washington, DC 20374-5140 [6]
  23. ^ Navy Biography: Dean VanderLey
  24. ^ Navy Biography: John W. Korka
  25. ^ Navy Biography: Bret J. Muilenburg
  26. ^ Navy Biography: Katherine L. Gregory
  27. ^ Navy Biography: Christopher J. Mossey
  28. ^ "Admiral John J. Manning Dead; Led the Seabees at Normandy". The New York Times.