Flag of a Navy vice admiral
Flag of a Navy vice admiral

This is a list of vice admirals in the United States Navy from 2000 to 2009. The rank of vice admiral (or three-star admiral) is the second-highest rank normally achievable in the U.S. Navy, and the first to have a specified number of appointments set by statute. It ranks above rear admiral (two-star admiral) and below admiral (four-star admiral).

There have been 107 vice admirals in the U.S. Navy from 2000 to 2009, 20 of whom were promoted to four-star admiral. All 107 achieved that rank while on active duty in the U.S. Navy. Admirals entered the Navy via several paths: 57 were commissioned via the U.S. Naval Academy (USNA), 29 via Naval Reserve Officers Training Corps (NROTC) at a civilian university, 10 via Officer Candidate School (OCS), 5 via Aviation Officer Candidate School (AOCS), 4 via direct commission (direct), one via the U.S. Merchant Marine Academy (USMMA), and one via direct commission inter-service transfer from the U.S. Army (USA).

List of admirals

Entries in the following list of vice admirals are indexed by the numerical order in which each officer was promoted to that rank while on active duty, or by an asterisk (*) if the officer did not serve in that rank while on active duty. Each entry lists the admiral's name, date of rank,[a] active-duty positions held while serving at three-star rank,[b] number of years of active-duty service at three-star rank (Yrs),[c] year commissioned and source of commission,[d] number of years in commission when promoted to three-star rank (YC),[e] and other biographical notes.[f]

List of U.S. Navy vice admirals from 2000 to 2009
# Name Photo Date of rank[a] Position[b] Yrs[c] Commission[d] YC[e] Notes[f]
1 Gordon S. Holder
Vice Admiral Gordon S. Holder.jpg
1 Mar 2000   4 1968 (OCS) 32 (1946–        )
2 Joseph W. Dyer Jr.
Vice Adm. Joseph W. Dyer, Jr.jpg
30 Jun 2000[1] 3 1970 (AOCS)[g] 30 (1947–        ) Naval aviator.
3 John J. Grossenbacher
Vice Adm. John J. Grossenbacher.gif
4 Jul 2000   3 1970 (USNA) 30 (1946–        )[h]
4 Paul G. Gaffney II
Paul Gaffney DN-SC-00-03211.jpg
7 Jul 2000   3 1968 (USNA) 32 (1946–        ) President, Monmouth University, 2003–2013; Chair, Ocean Exploration Advisory Board, 2014–2017.
5 James W. Metzger
Vice Adm. James W. Metzger (2).gif
12 Jul 2000   5 1971 (USNA) 29 (1949–        )
6 Michael D. Haskins
Portrait of US Navy Vice Admiral Michael D. Haskins.jpg
31 Jul 2000   3 1966 (USNA) 34 (1942–        ) Naval aviator. President, Vice Admiral James B. Stockdale Center for Ethical Leadership, 2005–2007.
* John B. Nathman
US Navy 040618-N-0000X-001 U.S. Navy file photo of Vice Adm. John B. Nathman.jpg
1 Aug 2000   4 1970 (USNA) 30 (1948–        )[i] Naval aviator. Promoted to admiral, 1 Dec 2004.
7 Toney M. Bucchi
Vice Adm. Toney M. Bucchi.jpg
6 Oct 2000   3 1970 (NROTC) 30 (1946–        ) Naval aviator.
8 Richard W. Mayo
Portrait of US Navy Vice Admiral Richard W. Mayo. (covered) - DPLA - 917e181dfd464b435de9c76ba3896d9a.jpeg
16 Oct 2000   4 1968 (NROTC) 32 (1946–        )
* Timothy J. Keating
US Navy 021114-N-0000X-002 Vadm. Keating Commander Fifth Fleet.jpg
1 Nov 2000[5] 5 1971 (USNA) 29 (1949–        )[j] Naval aviator. Promoted to admiral, 1 Jan 2005.
* Michael G. Mullen
Vice Adm. Michael G. Mullen.gif
1 Nov 2000[6]
  • Commander, U.S. Second Fleet/Commander, Striking Fleet Atlantic (COMSECONDFLT/COMSTRIKFLTLANT), 2000–2001.
  • Deputy Chief of Naval Operations, Resources, Requirements, and Assessments (DCNO N8), 2001–2003.
3 1968 (USNA) 32 (1946–        )[i][k][l] Promoted to admiral, 28 Aug 2003.
9 Martin J. Mayer
Vice Adm. Martin J. Mayer.gif
22 Nov 2000   3 1966 (OCS) 34 (1944–        )
10 Malcolm I. Fages
Rear Adm. (upper half) Malcolm I. Fages.jpg
1 May 2001   3 1969 (NROTC) 32 (1946–        )
11 Albert H. Konetzni Jr.
Albert H. Konetzni, Jr. (2).jpg
4 May 2001   3 1966 (USNA) 35 (1944–        )
12 Timothy W. LaFleur
Vice Adm. Timothy W. LaFleur.jpg
18 May 2001[7] 4 1970 (USNA) 31 (1948–        )
13 Alfred G. Harms Jr.
Vice Admiral Alfred G. Harms Jr., USN (covered).jpg
24 May 2001   3 1971 (NROTC) 30 (1949–        ) President, Lake Highland Preparatory School, 2017–2022.
14 John B. Totushek
Vice Adm. John B. Totushek.jpg
7 Jun 2001[8] 2 1966 (NROTC) 35 (1944–        ) Naval aviator. First active-duty Navy Reserve officer to achieve the rank of vice admiral.
15 Keith W. Lippert
Vice Adm. Keith W. Lippert.jpg
20 Jul 2001   5 1968 (NROTC) 33 (1947–        ) Supply Corps.
16 J. Cutler Dawson Jr.
Rear Adm. (lower half) J. Cutler Dawson, USN.jpg
27 Jul 2001  
  • Commander, U.S. Second Fleet/Commander, Striking Fleet Atlantic (COMSECONDFLT/COMSTRIKFLTLANT), 2001–2003.
  • Deputy Chief of Naval Operations, Resources, Requirements, and Assessments (DCNO N8), 2003–2004.
3 1970 (USNA) 31 (1948–        ) President/CEO, Navy Federal Credit Union, 2004–2019.
17 Michael L. Cowan
Michael L. Cowan (2).jpg
10 Aug 2001[9] 3 1971 (direct) 30 (1944–        ) Medical Corps.
18 Richard J. Naughton
US Navy 030606-N-0000X-007 U.S. Navy photo of Vice Adm. Richard J. Naughton.jpg
7 Jun 2002   1 1968 (USNA) 34 (1946–2011)[m] Resigned, 2003.
19 Phillip M. Balisle
Vice Adm. Phillip M. Balisle.jpg
28 Jun 2002   3 1970 (OCS) 32 (1948–        )
* Robert F. Willard
Vice Adm. Robert F. Willard.jpg
18 Jul 2002[11] 3 1973 (USNA) 29 (1950–        )[i][j] Naval aviator. Promoted to admiral, 18 Mar 2005.
20 Michael D. Malone
US Navy 011001-N-0000X-001 Official file photo of Vice Adm. Michael D. Malone.jpg
2 Aug 2002   2 1970 (USNA) 32 (1948–2019)[12] Naval aviator.
21 Kevin P. Green
Kevin P. Green.jpg
18 Sep 2002  
  • Deputy Chief of Naval Operations, Plans, Policy and Operations (DCNO N3/N5), 2002–2004.
2 1971 (USNA) 31 (1949–        )
22 Gerald L. Hoewing
VADM Gerald L Hoewing.gif
1 Oct 2002   3 1971 (NROTC) 31 (1949–        ) Naval aviator.
23 Lowell E. Jacoby
VADM Lowell E. Jacoby, DN-SD-03-09298.jpg
17 Oct 2002   3 1969 (AOCS) 33 (1945–        ) Director of Naval Intelligence, 1997–1999.
24 David L. Brewer III
VADM David L Brewer.jpg
23 Oct 2002[13] 4 1970 (NROTC) 32 (1946–        ) Superintendent, Los Angeles Unified School District, 2006–2009.[14]
25 Stanley R. Szemborski
Vice Adm. Stanley R. Szemborski.jpg
19 Nov 2002   5 1971 (USNA) 31 (1949–        )
26 Albert T. Church III
Albert T Church III.jpg
Mar 2003   2 1969 (USNA) 34 (1947–        ) First cousin once removed of U.S. Senator Frank Church.
27 Michael J. McCabe
Portrait of Rear Admiral (lower half) Michael J. McCabe, USN (covered).jpg
28 May 2003   2 1970 (AOCS) 33 (1948–        ) First University of Portland alumnus to achieve flag rank in the Navy.
28 Rodney P. Rempt
Rodney Rempt.jpg
1 Aug 2003   4 1966 (USNA) 37 (1945–        ) President, Naval War College, 2001–2003.
* Gary Roughead
Vice Adm. Gary Roughead.jpg
15 Aug 2003[15]
  • Commander, U.S. Second Fleet/Commander, Striking Fleet Atlantic/Commander, Naval Forces North Fleet East/Commander, Joint Task Force 120/Commander, Joint Task Force 950 (COMSECONDFLT/COMSTRIKFLTLANT/COMNAVNFE/CDRJTF 120/CDRJTF 950), 2003–2004.
  • Deputy Commander, U.S. Pacific Command (DCDRUSPACOM), 2004–2005.
2 1973 (USNA) 30 (1951–        )[k] Promoted to admiral, 1 Sep 2005.
* Eric T. Olson
RADM Eric Olson 2003.jpg
2 Sep 2003[16] 4 1973 (USNA) 30 (1952–        )[j] Navy SEAL. Promoted to admiral, 6 Jul 2007. First Navy SEAL to attain rank of vice admiral.
* Kirkland H. Donald
VADM Kirkland H. Donald.jpg
5 Sep 2003[17] 1 1975 (USNA) 28 (1953–        )[n] Promoted to admiral, 1 Jan 2005.[o]
29 David C. Nichols Jr.
Vice Adm. David C. Nichols, Jr.jpg
7 Oct 2003   4 1974 (USA) 29 (1950–        )[p]
30 John G. Cotton
Vice Adm. John G. Cotton.jpg
18 Oct 2003   5 1973 (USNA) 30 (1951–        ) Naval aviator.
* Henry G. Ulrich III
Vice Adm. Harry G. Ulrich III (2).jpg
4 Nov 2003   2 1972 (USNA) 31 (1950–        ) Promoted to admiral, 22 Jul 2005.
31 Walter B. Massenburg
Walter B. Massenburg Navy Portrait.jpg
1 Dec 2003   4 1970 (NROTC) 33 (1949–        ) Naval aviator.
32 Albert M. Calland III
Albert Calland, official Navy photo portrait.jpg
26 Mar 2004   3 1974 (USNA) 30 (1952–        )[q] Navy SEAL. Resigned as CIA deputy director, 2006.
33 James D. McArthur Jr.
Vice Adm. James D. McArthur, Jr.jpg
26 Mar 2004   3 1972 (USNA) 32 (1949–        ) Naval aviator.
34 Kevin J. Cosgriff
Vice Adm. Kevin J. Cosgriff (2).jpg
24 Jun 2004   4 1971 (USMMA) 33 (1949–        )
35 Justin D. McCarthy
Vice Adm. Justin D. McCarthy.jpg
Aug 2004  
  • Director, Material Readiness and Logistics (N4), 2004–2007.
3 1969 (OCS) 35 (1947–        ) Supply Corps.
36 Donald C. Arthur Jr.
Vice Adm. Donald C. Arthur.jpg
3 Aug 2004[19] 3 1974 (direct) 30 (1950–        ) Medical Corps.
37 Ronald A. Route
VADMRARoute.jpg
12 Aug 2004   3 1971 (USNA) 33 (1949–        ) President, Naval War College, 2003–2004; President, Naval Postgraduate School, 2013–2019.
38 James M. Zortman
Zortman.jpg
17 Aug 2004   3 1973 (USNA) 31 (1951–        ) Naval aviator.
* James G. Stavridis
Vice Adm. James G. Stavridis.jpg
1 Sep 2004[20] 2 1976 (USNA) 28 (1955–        )[q][j][r] Promoted to admiral, 18 Oct 2006. Dean, The Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, 2013–2018.
* Mark P. Fitzgerald
Vice Adm. Mark P. Fitzgerald.jpg
1 Oct 2004   3 1973 (NROTC) 31 (1951–        ) Naval aviator. Promoted to admiral, 30 Nov 2007.
* Jonathan W. Greenert
Vice Adm. Jonathan W. Greenert.jpg
1 Oct 2004[21]
  • Commander, U.S. Seventh Fleet (COMSEVENTHFLT), 2004–2006.
  • Deputy Chief of Naval Operations, Integration of Capabilities and Resources (DCNO N8), 2006–2007.
3 1975 (USNA) 29 (1953–        )[i][k] Promoted to admiral, 29 Sep 2007.
39 Charles L. Munns
VADM C.L.Munns.jpg
15 Oct 2004   3 1973 (USNA) 31 (1950–        )
40 Lewis W. Crenshaw Jr.
Vice Adm. Lewis W. Crenshaw, Jr.jpg
4 Nov 2004  
  • Deputy Chief of Naval Operations, Resources, Requirements and Assessments (DCNO N8), 2004–2006.
2 1974 (USNA) 30 (1952–        )
41 Joseph A. Sestak Jr.
VADM Joseph A. Sestak, Jr.jpg
17 Nov 2004  
  • Deputy Chief of Naval Operations, Warfare Requirements and Programs (DCNO N6/N7), 2004–2005.
1 1974 (USNA) 30 (1951–        )[s] Relieved as deputy chief of naval operations, 2005. U.S. Representative from Pennsylvania's 7th congressional district, 2007–2011.[22]
42 J. Kevin Moran
Vice Adm. J. Kevin Moran.jpg
3 Dec 2004   3 1974 (USNA) 30 (1952–        ) Naval aviator.
43 Terrance T. Etnyre
Vice Adm. Terrance T. Etnyre.jpg
4 Mar 2005   3 1971 (OCS) 34 (1947–        )
44 Evan M. Chanik Jr.
Vice Adm. Evan M. Chanik, Jr.jpg
17 Mar 2005   3 1973 (USNA) 32 (1951–        ) Naval aviator.
45 Barry M. Costello
Barry Costello.jpg
7 May 2005   2 1973 (NROTC) 32 (1951–        )
46 John D. Stufflebeem
Vice Adm. John Dickson Stufflebeem.jpg
20 May 2005   3 1975 (USNA) 30 (1952–        )[t] Naval aviator. Relieved, 2008.
47 Paul E. Sullivan
VADM Sullivan 2005 DN-SD-06-03596.jpg
15 Jul 2005   3 1974 (USNA) 31 (1952–        )
48 Ann E. Rondeau
Ann E. Rondeau.jpg
1 Aug 2005   7 1974 (OCS) 31 (1951–        ) President, College of DuPage, 2016–2019; President, Naval Postgraduate School, 2019–present.
49 John G. Morgan Jr.
Vice Adm. John G. Morgan, Jr.jpg
15 Aug 2005  
  • Deputy Chief of Naval Operations, Plans, Policy and Operations (DCNO N3/N5), 2005.
  • Deputy Chief of Naval Operations, Information, Plans and Strategy (DCNO N3/N5), 2005–2008.
3 1972 (NROTC) 33 (1950–        )
* Patrick M. Walsh
Vice Adm. Patrick M. Walsh.jpg
3 Nov 2005   2 1977 (USNA) 28 (1955–        )[i] Naval aviator. Promoted to admiral, 5 Apr 2007.
* John C. Harvey Jr.
101306 VADM Harvey uncovered.jpg
22 Nov 2005  
  • Deputy Chief of Naval Operations, Manpower, Personnel, Training and Education/Chief of Naval Personnel (DCNO N1/CNP), 2005.
  • Deputy Chief of Naval Operations, Total Force/Chief of Naval Personnel (DCNO N1/CNP), 2005–2008.
  • Director, Navy Staff (DNS/N09B), 2008–2009.
4 1973 (USNA) 32 (1951–        ) Promoted to admiral, 24 Jul 2009. Virginia Secretary of Veterans and Defense Affairs, 2014–2017.
50 Robert T. Conway Jr.
Robert T. Conway, Jr.jpg
14 Mar 2006   3 1972 (OCS) 34 (1950–        )
51 Mark J. Edwards
Vice Adm. Mark J. Edwards.jpg
16 Jun 2006  
  • Deputy Chief of Naval Operations, Communication Networks (DCNO N6), 2006–2008.
2 1972 (NROTC) 34 (1950–        )
52 Robert B. Murrett
RobertBMurrett.jpg
7 Jul 2006   4 1975 (NROTC) 31 (1952–        ) Director of Naval Intelligence, 2005–2006; Deputy Director, Institute for National Security and Counterterrorism, 2011–present.
53 Nancy E. Brown
Nancy Elizabeth Brown.jpg
Aug 2006  
  • Director, Command, Control, Communications and Computer Systems, Joint Staff, J6, 2006–2009.
3 1974 (OCS) 32 (1952–        ) Deputy Director, White House Military Office, 1999–2000.
54 William D. Crowder
William Crowder.jpg
12 Sep 2006  
  • Commander, U.S. Seventh Fleet (COMSEVENTHFLT), 2006–2008.
  • Deputy Chief of Naval Operations, Information, Plans and Strategy (DCNO N3/N5), 2008.
  • Deputy Chief of Naval Operations, Operations, Plans and Strategy (DCNO N3/N5), 2008–2009.
3 1974 (USNA) 28 (1952–        )
55 P. Stephen Stanley
VICE ADMIRAL P. STEPHEN STANLEY.JPG
6 Dec 2006   6 1975 (USNA) 31 (1952–        )
56 Melvin G. Williams Jr.
WilliamsMG.png
1 Jan 2007   3 1978 (USNA) 28 (1955–        ) U.S. Associate Deputy Secretary of Energy, 2011–2013.
57 Michael K. Loose
Vice Adm. Michael K. Loose.jpg
31 Jan 2007[24]
  • Deputy Chief of Naval Operations, Fleet Readiness and Logistics (DCNO N4), 2007–2010.
3 1975 (NROTC) 32 (1953–        ) Civil Engineer Corps.
58 John J. Donnelly
Vice Adm. John J. Donnelly.jpg
3 Feb 2007  
  • Commander, Submarine Forces/Commander, Submarine Force, U.S. Atlantic Fleet/Commander, Allied Submarine Command/Commander, Task Force 46/Commander, Task Force 82/Commander, Task Force 144/Commander, Task Force 84 (COMSUBFOR/COMSUBLANT/COMASC/CTF-46/CTF-82/CTF-144/CTF-84), 2007–2010.
3 1975 (USNA) 32 (1952–        )
59 David J. Venlet
David J. Venlet.jpg
16 Feb 2007   5 1974 (USNA) 33 (1954–        ) Naval aviator.
* Samuel J. Locklear III
Vice Adm. Samuel Locklear III, Commander, U.S. Third Fleet - official portrait.jpg
3 May 2007[25]
  • Commander, U.S. Third Fleet (COMTHIRDFLT), 2007–2009.
  • Director, Navy Staff (DNS/N09B), 2009–2010.
3 1977 (USNA) 30 (1954–        )[j] Promoted to admiral, 6 Oct 2010.
60 Jeffrey L. Fowler
Jeffrey L. Fowler.jpg
8 Jun 2007   3 1978 (USNA) 29 (1956–        ) Resigned, 2010.[26]
61 H. Denby Starling II
Vice Adm. H. Denby Starling II.jpg
15 Jun 2007   3 1974 (NROTC) 33 (1952–        ) Naval aviator.
62 Thomas J. Kilcline Jr.
VADM Thomas Kilcline Jr.jpg
22 Jun 2007   3 1973 (USNA) 34 (1951–        ) Naval aviator.
63 Joseph Maguire
Vice Adm. Joseph Maguire.jpg
28 Jun 2007   3 1974 (NROTC) 33 (1951–        ) Navy SEAL. Director, National Counterterrorism Center, 2018–2019.
64 David Architzel
Vice Admiral David Architzel, Commander, Naval Air Systems Command, Commander, Naval Air Systems Command, (USN).JPG
1 Aug 2007   5 1973 (USNA) 34 (1951–        ) Naval aviator.
65 Adam M. Robinson Jr.
Admiral Adam M. Robinson Jr.jpg
27 Aug 2007   4 1977 (direct)[u] 30 (1950–        )[q] Medical Corps. Director, Veterans Affairs Maryland Health Care System, 2015–2020; Director, Veterans Affairs Pacific Islands Health Care System, 2020–present.[27]
66 Jeffrey A. Wieringa
Vice Adm. Jeffrey A. Wieringa.jpg
29 Aug 2007   3 1976 (AOCS) 31 (1955–        )[q] Naval aviator.
* James A. Winnefeld Jr.
Winnefeld 2010.jpg
14 Sep 2007[28] 3 1978 (NROTC) 29 (1956–        )[j][v] Naval aviator. Promoted to admiral, 19 May 2010. Chair, President's Intelligence Advisory Board, 2022–present.
67 Richard K. Gallagher
Vice Adm. Richard K. Gallagher.jpg
1 Oct 2007   5 1976 (USNA) 31 (1952–        ) Naval aviator.
68 Robert T. Moeller
VADM Robert T Moeller.jpg
10 Oct 2007   3 1974 (NROTC) 33 (1951–2011)
69 William D. Sullivan
William D Sullivan.jpg
11 Oct 2007   2 1972 (OCS) 35 (1950–        )
70 Carl V. Mauney
Vice Adm. Carl V. Mauney (2).jpg
15 Oct 2007   3 1975 (NROTC) 32 (1953–        )
71 Bernard J. McCullough III
Bernard J. McCullough, III.jpg
1 Nov 2007   4 1975 (USNA) 32 (1953–        )
72 Anthony L. Winns
Vice Adm. Anthony L. Winns.jpg
9 Nov 2007   4 1978 (USNA) 30 (1956–        )[29]
73 Derwood C. Curtis
DC Curtis Vice Admiral USN 2009.JPG
13 Mar 2008   3 1976 (USNA) 32 (1953–        )
* Mark E. Ferguson III
VADM Ferguson.jpg
16 Apr 2008  
  • Deputy Chief of Naval Operations, Manpower, Personnel, Training and Education/Chief of Naval Personnel (DCNO N1/CNP), 2008–2011.
3 1978 (USNA) 30 (1956–        )[i] Promoted to admiral, 22 Aug 2011.
74 David J. Dorsett
VADM Dorsett.JPG
4 Jun 2008   3 1978 (NROTC) 30 (1956–        )
* William H. McRaven
William H McRaven.JPG
13 Jun 2008[30] 3 1977 (NROTC) 31 (1955–        )[j] Navy SEAL. Promoted to admiral, 8 Aug 2011. Chancellor, University of Texas System, 2015–2018.
* Harry B. Harris Jr.
Vice Admiral Harry Harris.jpg
13 Jun 2008[31] 5 1978 (USNA) 30 (1956–        )[j] Promoted to admiral, 16 Oct 2013. U.S. Ambassador to South Korea, 2018–2021.
* William E. Gortney
Vice Admiral William Gortney official photo.jpg
5 Jul 2008[32] 4 1977 (AOCS) 31 (1955–        )[j] Naval aviator. Promoted to admiral, 14 Sep 2012.
75 John M. Bird
Vice Adm. John M. Bird.jpg
12 Jul 2008  
  • Commander, U.S. Seventh Fleet (COMSEVENTHFLT), 2008–2010.
  • Director, Navy Staff (DNS/N09B), 2010–2012.
4 1977 (USNA) 31 (1955–        )
76 Dirk J. Debbink
Dirk J. Debbink official photo.jpg
22 Jul 2008   4 1977 (USNA) 31 (1955–        )
77 Peter H. Daly
VADM Peter H. Daly, USN.jpg
Aug 2008   3 1977 (NROTC) 31 (1955–        ) CEO, U.S. Naval Institute, 2011–present.
78 Bruce E. MacDonald
VADM Bruce E. MacDonald.jpg
4 Aug 2008   1 1978 (NROTC) 30 (1955–        ) Judge Advocate General's Corps. Convening Authority, Office of Military Commissions, 2010–2013. First three-star judge advocate general of the Navy.
79 Kevin M. McCoy
Vice Admiral Kevin M. McCoy (uncovered).jpg
8 Aug 2008   5 1978 (NROTC) 30 (1956–        )[q]
* Bruce W. Clingan
VADM Bruce W. Clingan - official portrait.jpg
27 Aug 2008   4 1977 (NROTC) 31 (1955–        ) Naval aviator. Promoted to admiral, 24 Feb 2012.
80 Robert S. Harward Jr.
Harward 2011.jpg
3 Nov 2008   5 1979 (USNA) 29 (1956–        )[q] Navy SEAL.
81 Alan S. Thompson
Thompson Alan Navy.jpg
19 Nov 2008   3 1976 (NROTC) 32 (1954–        )
82 John M. Mateczun
John M. Mateczun.jpg
8 Dec 2008   4 1973 (direct) 35 (1947–        )
83 Michael C. Vitale
Michael C. Vitale, United States Navy Vice Admiral official photo.jpg
30 Jan 2009   3 1977 (NROTC) 32 (1955–        )
84 Joseph D. Kernan
Kernan white.jpg
Jun 2009   4 1977 (USNA) 32 (1955–        ) U.S. Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence, 2017–2020.[33]
85 Richard W. Hunt
Richard W. Hunt.jpg
13 Jun 2009   4 1976 (OCS) 33 (1953–        )
86 James W. Houck
VADM James W. Houck.jpg
14 Aug 2009   3 1980 (USNA) 29 (1958–        ) Judge Advocate General's Corps. Interim Dean, Penn State Law and School of International Affairs, 2021–present.
87 Mark D. Harnitchek
VADM Harnitchek Official Photo.jpg
12 Nov 2009   5 1977 (NROTC) 32 (1955–        ) Supply Corps.

Timeline

2000–2009

Mark D. HarnitchekJames W. HouckRichard W. HuntJoseph D. KernanMichael C. VitaleJohn M. MateczunAlan S. ThompsonRobert HarwardBruce W. ClinganKevin M. McCoyBruce E. MacDonaldPeter H. Daly (U.S. Navy)Dirk J. DebbinkJohn M. BirdWilliam E. GortneyHarry B. Harris Jr.William H. McRavenDavid J. DorsettMark E. Ferguson IIID.C. CurtisAnthony L. WinnsBernard J. McCullough IIICarl V. MauneyWilliam D. SullivanRobert T. MoellerRichard K. GallagherJames A. Winnefeld Jr.Jeffrey A. WieringaAdam M. Robinson Jr.David ArchitzelJoseph MaguireTom Kilcline Jr.H. Denby Starling IIJeffrey L. FowlerSamuel J. Locklear IIIDavid J. VenletJohn J. DonnellyMichael K. LooseMelvin Williams (admiral)P. Stephen StanleyWilliam D. CrowderNancy Elizabeth BrownRobert B. MurrettMark J. EdwardsRobert Conway (admiral)John C. Harvey Jr.Patrick M. WalshJohn Morgan (admiral)Ann E. RondeauPaul E. SullivanJohn Dickson StufflebeemBarry M. CostelloEvan M. Chanik Jr.Terrance T. EtnyreJ. Kevin MoranJoe SestakLewis W. Crenshaw Jr.Charles L. MunnsJonathan W. GreenertMark P. FitzgeraldJames G. StavridisJames M. ZortmanRonald A. RouteDonald ArthurJustin D. McCarthyKevin J. CosgriffJames D. McArthur Jr.Albert M. Calland IIIWalter B. MassenburgHenry G. Ulrich IIIJohn G. CottonDavid C. NicholsKirkland H. DonaldEric T. OlsonGary RougheadRodney P. RemptMichael J. McCabeAlbert T. Church IIIStanley R. SzemborskiDavid L. Brewer IIILowell E. JacobyGerald L. HoewingKevin P. GreenMichael D. MaloneRobert F. WillardPhillip BalisleRichard J. NaughtonMichael L. CowanJ. Cutler Dawson Jr.Keith W. LippertJohn B. TotushekAlfred G. Harms Jr.Timothy W. LaFleurAlbert H. Konetzni Jr.Malcolm I. FagesMartin J. MayerMichael MullenTimothy J. KeatingRichard W. MayoToney M. BucchiJohn B. NathmanMichael D. HaskinsJames W. MetzgerPaul G. Gaffney IIJohn J. GrossenbacherJoseph W. Dyer Jr.Gordon S. HolderIraq WarWar in Afghanistan (2001–2021)

History

See also: List of United States Navy vice admirals on active duty before 1960 § History

Civil War

Stephen C. Rowan

The grade of vice admiral in the United States Navy was created by Congress in December 1864 to honor David G. Farragut for his victory at the Battle of Mobile Bay during the American Civil War. The promotion made Farragut the senior officer in the Navy but did not give him command of all naval forces, unlike the corresponding grade of lieutenant general that had been revived for Ulysses S. Grant earlier that year.[34] After the war, Farragut was promoted to admiral and his vacated vice admiralcy was filled by David D. Porter. When Farragut died in 1870, Porter succeeded him as admiral and Stephen C. Rowan became vice admiral. Three years later, Congress stopped further promotions to admiral or vice admiral, and the vice admiral grade expired with Rowan in 1890.[35]

After the Spanish-American War, Congress tried to revive the grade to reward William T. Sampson and Winfield S. Schley for winning the Battle of Santiago de Cuba, but the officers feuded bitterly over credit for the victory and their partisans in the Senate could not agree on who would be the senior vice admiral, so neither was promoted.[36][37] Even after Sampson died in 1902, his admirers continued to prevent Schley from being promoted, while Schley's friends blocked all moves to elevate any other officer over him during his lifetime, such as an attempt to promote Robley D. Evans to vice admiral on the retired list in 1909. No new vice admirals were created until after Schley's death in 1911.[38][39]

World War I

Henry T. Mayo

In 1915, Congress authorized the President to designate the commanders in chief of the Pacific, Atlantic, and Asiatic Fleets to hold the rank of admiral, and their seconds in command the rank of vice admiral. The chief of naval operations (CNO) received the rank of admiral the following year.[40] Because Porter and Rowan had been promoted permanently to vice admiral and then never gone to sea again, Congress made these new ranks strictly ex officio. Upon relinquishing command, an officer lost his designation as admiral or vice admiral and reverted to his permanent grade of rear admiral.[41] The three fleet commanders were immediately made admirals to match the rank of their foreign counterparts, but only the second in command of the Atlantic Fleet, Henry T. Mayo, was designated a vice admiral, since the Pacific and Asiatic Fleets were too small to employ their vice admirals.[42]

Albert Gleaves

When the United States entered World War I, Congress generalized the law to let the President designate up to six commanders of any fleet or subdivision of a fleet to hold ranks higher than rear admiral, of which up to three could be admirals and the rest vice admirals. This allowed William S. Sims to be designated vice admiral as commander of U.S. Naval Forces in European Waters. The other two vice admiral designations went to the Atlantic Fleet's two battleship force commanders.[43] When the Asiatic Fleet's commander in chief retired in December 1918, his four-star designation was transferred to Sims, whose vacated vice admiralcy went to Albert Gleaves, commander of the Atlantic Fleet's cruiser and transport force.[44] By the end of 1918, all three seagoing admirals and all three vice admirals were assigned to the Atlantic and European theaters, including the four-star commander in chief of the Pacific Fleet, who had taken a force to patrol the South Atlantic Ocean.[45]

William L. Rodgers

With the end of hostilities in Europe, the six designations for admirals and vice admirals were redistributed in 1919. The commanders in chief of the Atlantic and Pacific Fleets remained admirals. About half of the major ships in the Atlantic Fleet transferred to the Pacific Fleet, which was now large enough to employ a vice admiral to command its battleship force. A second vice admiral commanded the battleship force of the Atlantic Fleet, and a third vice admiral, Gleaves, commanded its cruiser and transport force. The sixth designation returned to the Asiatic Fleet when Sims left his European command, but its commander in chief, William L. Rodgers, was promoted only to vice admiral since Gleaves was already slated to be its admiral, so for a few months there were four vice admirals and only three admirals, including the CNO.[46]

In September 1919, Gleaves was appointed commander in chief of the Asiatic Fleet with the rank of admiral. Rodgers remained vice admiral in command of Division 1 of the Asiatic Fleet until January 1920, so for the first and only time, the Pacific, Atlantic, and Asiatic Fleets each had an admiral and vice admiral, as originally envisioned in 1915.[47]

Interwar

In 1922 the three fleets were combined into a single United States Fleet with three admirals and three vice admirals. One admiral served as commander in chief of the United States Fleet (CINCUS), a second admiral as commander in chief of the Asiatic Fleet, and the third admiral as commander in chief of the former Pacific Fleet, now the Battle Fleet. A vice admiral commanded the former Atlantic Fleet, now the Scouting Fleet, and a second vice admiral commanded the battleship divisions of the Battle Fleet.[48] The Battle Fleet and Scouting Fleet became the Battle Force and Scouting Force, respectively, when the United States Fleet was reorganized into type commands in 1931.[49] When the Pacific and Atlantic Fleets were reconstituted in February 1941, CINCUS was dual-hatted as commander in chief of the Pacific Fleet (CINCPAC), and the commander in chief of the Atlantic Fleet was made an admiral by downgrading the Battle Force's commander to vice admiral and its battleship commander to rear admiral.[50]

The third vice admiral designation moved from the Asiatic Fleet to the commander of U.S. Naval Forces in European Waters in 1920 and lapsed when the European force was disbanded in 1929. It was revived the next year for the commander of the Scouting Fleet's light cruiser divisions and subsequently the Scouting Force's cruisers, before migrating in 1935 to the commander of the Battle Force's aircraft.[51]

William V. Pratt

A flag officer in the United States Fleet climbed a cursus honorum that nominally began with command of a battleship division as a rear admiral, followed by command of all battleship divisions in the Battle Force as a vice admiral, then command of the entire Battle Force as an admiral, and finally either CINCUS, the highest office afloat, or CNO, the highest office ashore—or both, in the case of William V. Pratt.[52] Upon leaving the fleet, it was normal for a former three- or four-star commander to revert to his permanent grade of rear admiral and remain on active duty until statutory retirement as president of the Naval War College, commandant of a naval district, or member of the General Board.[40]

Since there were four admirals and only three vice admirals, it was not uncommon to skip the rank of vice admiral entirely, especially for commanders in chief of the Asiatic Fleet, which was seen as a four-star consolation prize for flag officers who were out of the running for CINCUS or CNO.[52] By the early 1940s, neither the CNO (Harold R. Stark), CINCUS (Claude C. Bloch, James O. Richardson), nor CINCPAC (Husband E. Kimmel, Chester W. Nimitz) had ever been a vice admiral.

World War II

Robert L. Ghormley

In July 1941, Congress authorized the President to designate, at his own discretion, up to nine additional officers to carry the ex officio rank of vice admiral while performing special or unusual duty, for a total of 12 vice admirals in the permanent establishment.[53] The first of the nine new vice admiral designations was assigned to Robert L. Ghormley, then serving as special observer in the U.S. Embassy in London.[54] After the United States entry into World War II in December 1941, the new commander in chief of the Atlantic Fleet, Royal E. Ingersoll, was designated a vice admiral after his predecessor, Ernest J. King, was appointed commander in chief of the United States Fleet (COMINCH, formerly CINCUS) and took the Atlantic Fleet's four-star designation with him.[55] The remaining seven vice admiral slots were quickly filled by the director of the Office of Procurement and Material and the commanders of U.S. Naval Forces, Southwest Pacific; ANZAC Force; the service forces in the Atlantic and Pacific Fleets; and two anti-submarine task forces in the Atlantic Fleet.

Russell Willson

All 12 vice admiral designations were in use by March 1942, when a headquarters reorganization called for two more vice admirals to be vice chief of naval operations and chief of staff to COMINCH. Frederick J. Horne and Russell Willson were nominated to be temporary vice admirals,[56] under a 1941 statute that authorized an unlimited number of appointments in all grades for temporary service during a national emergency, with temporary flag officers needing confirmation by the Senate.[57] The statute technically created temporary grades only up to rear admiral, but the Senate confirmed Horne and Willson as vice admirals anyway,[58] and continued to confirm temporary admirals and vice admirals when nominated. Dozens of temporary vice admirals were appointed during World War II, either to serve in a specified job or simply for the duration of the national emergency.

Postwar

The Officer Personnel Act of 1947 consolidated the various laws governing vice admiral appointments. Previously, the President had controlled a pool of 12 vice admiral designations that he could assign at his own discretion.[59] In addition, the Senate could confirm an unlimited number of officers nominated by the President to hold the temporary personal grade of vice admiral, either while serving in a particular job or for the duration of a national emergency.[57] Under the new law, all vice admirals had to be confirmed by the Senate, and held that temporary grade only while serving in a particular job. The maximum number of vice admirals was proportional to the total number of flag officers.[60]

The new law also made any former admiral or vice admiral eligible to retire with that rank,[60] simplifying the hodgepodge of rules that had promoted various classes of retirees piecemeal. Originally every designated admiral and vice admiral retired in his permanent grade of rear admiral. In 1930 Congress promoted officers on the retired list to their highest rank held during World War I, which was defined as having ended on July 2, 1921, so John D. McDonald, who became vice admiral on July 1, 1921, was promoted, but William R. Shoemaker, who became vice admiral only a week later, was not.[61][62] In 1942 former fleet commanders were allowed to retire as admiral or vice admiral if they had served in that grade for at least a year, a cutoff that John H. Dayton and Walter R. Sexton both missed by about two weeks. Dayton lived long enough to be advanced back to vice admiral by the Officer Personnel Act of 1947, but Sexton did not.[63]

Lynde D. McCormick

Postwar vice admirals typically headed directorates in the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, numbered fleets, type commands, sea frontiers, senior educational institutions like the National War College and the Naval War College, or other interservice or international positions. Upon completing their capstone assignments, many senior flag officers resumed the prewar pattern of remaining on active duty in a lower grade until statutory retirement, in contrast to Army and Air Force general officers who usually preferred to retire immediately to avoid demotion. For example, Lynde D. McCormick reverted from vice admiral to rear admiral but rose again to vice admiral and admiral before dropping to vice admiral for his final assignment.[64]

Tombstone promotions

Further information: List of United States Navy tombstone vice admirals

David W. Bagley

In 1925 Congress authorized Navy and Marine Corps officers who had been specially commended for performance of duty in actual combat during World War I to retire with the rank of the next higher grade but not its pay. Such honorary increases in rank at retirement were dubbed tombstone promotions, since their only tangible benefit was the right to carve the higher rank on the officer's tombstone.[65][66] Later laws expanded eligibility beyond World War I and to officers already on the retired list. Tombstone promotions were limited in 1947 to duty performed before the end of World War II, meaning before January 1, 1947, and halted entirely in 1959.[67] By May 29, 1959, there were 154 vice admirals on the retired list who had never served on active duty in that rank, not counting those already deceased.[68]

Robert C. Giffen

Dozens of vice admirals received tombstone promotions to admiral.[68] Even if a vice admiral reverted to rear admiral, he could still retire as a vice admiral and then claim a tombstone promotion to admiral, but only if he had satisfactory service in the temporary grade of vice admiral during World War II. For example, Gerald F. Bogan, David W. Bagley, Robert C. Giffen, and Alexander Sharp Jr. all reverted to rear admiral after serving as a vice admiral, and all qualified for a tombstone promotion, but only Bagley was advanced to admiral when he retired.

Modern use

Vice Adm. John B. Totushek passes through the sideboys at the U.S. Navy Reserve change of command ceremony on October 18, 2003.
Vice Adm. John B. Totushek passes through the sideboys at the U.S. Navy Reserve change of command ceremony on October 18, 2003.

Vice admirals in the United States Navy typically serve as senior leaders of directorates in the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, numbered fleet commanders[y] as well as commanders of high-level type and geographic commands, including the commanders of the naval submarine forces, naval surface forces, and the chief of Navy reserve. Heads of Navy staff corps such as the judge advocate general[z] and (customarily) the surgeon general are also vice admirals. The superintendent of the United States Naval Academy has been a three-star vice admiral without interruption since John R. Ryan's tenure began in 1998.

As with any other service branch, vice admirals can hold joint assignments, of which there are 20 to 30 at any given time. Among the most prestigious of them is the director of the Joint Staff (DJS), principal staff advisor to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and historically considered a stepping stone to four-star rank.[75] Since 2007, all deputy commanders of the unified combatant commands have been of three-star rank,[aa] as are directors of Defense Agencies not headed by a civilian such as the director of the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIRDIA).[76] Internationally-based three-star positions from 2000 to 2009 include the United States military representative to the NATO Military Committee (USMILREP), the commander of Allied Joint Force Command Lisbon (JC Lisbon), and the security coordinator for the Palestinian National Authority in Israel. All nominees for three-star rank must be confirmed via majority by the Senate before the appointee can take office and thus assume the rank.[77]

Three-star positions, elevations and reductions

The directorates of the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations underwent significant restructuring between 2000 and 2009.

Vice Adm. Bruce E. MacDonald is pinned with his new rank by his wife, Karen, on August 4, 2008.
Vice Adm. Bruce E. MacDonald is pinned with his new rank by his wife, Karen, on August 4, 2008.

Two positions directly responsible to the Chief of Naval Operations were elevated to three-star grade between 2000 and 2009.

Vice Adm. Bernard J. McCullough III at a change of command ceremony, July 27, 2011.
Vice Adm. Bernard J. McCullough III at a change of command ceremony, July 27, 2011.

A number of Navy commands were established, elevated to or downgraded from three-star level between 2000 and 2009.

Additionally, on October 1, 2001, a single type commander was designated as the "follow-on" lead for a type of weapon system for the overall operating forces of the Navy, leading several Pacific and Atlantic type commanders to be dual-hatted as overall type commanders for the entire service.[86] The aviation, submarine and surface warfare type commanders, Vice Admirals John B. Nathman, John J. Grossenbacher, Timothy W. LaFleur assumed their dual hats on the same date.

Senate confirmations

Vice Adm. David C. Nichols relieves Vice Adm. Patrick M. Walsh as commander of U.S. Naval Forces Central Command in Bahrain, November 3, 2005.
Vice Adm. David C. Nichols relieves Vice Adm. Patrick M. Walsh as commander of U.S. Naval Forces Central Command in Bahrain, November 3, 2005.

While it is rare for three-star or four-star nominations to face even token opposition in the Senate, nominations that do face opposition due to controversy surrounding the nominee in question are typically withdrawn. Nominations that are not withdrawn are allowed to expire without action at the end of the legislative session.

Additionally, events that take place after Senate confirmation may still delay or even prevent the nominee from assuming office.

Legislative history

The following list of Congressional legislation includes all acts of Congress pertaining to appointments to the grade of vice admiral in the United States Navy from 2000 to 2009.[ab]

Each entry lists an act of Congress, its citation in the United States Statutes at Large, and a summary of the act's relevance, with officers affected by the act bracketed where applicable. Positions listed without reference to rank are assumed to be eligible for officers of three-star grade or higher.

List of legislation on appointments of vice admirals from 2000 to 2009
Legislation Citation Summary
Act of October 30, 2000

[Floyd D. Spence National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2001]

 114 Stat. 1654A–103
  • Raised statutory rank of the chief of Naval Reserve to vice admiral (John B. Totushek).
Act of December 2, 2002

[Bob Stump National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2003]

 116 Stat. 2487
 116 Stat. 2525
  • Established a Department of Defense Test Resource Management Center and assigned director statutory grade of lieutenant general or vice admiral.
  • Exempted the senior military assistant to the secretary of defense from number and percentage limitations on general or flag officers, if serving in grade of lieutenant general or vice admiral.
Act of October 28, 2004

[Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2005]

 118 Stat. 1875
  • Removed requirement for deputy and assistant chiefs of naval operations to be selected from line officers of the Navy (John B. Nathman, J. Cutler Dawson Jr., Kevin P. Green, Gerald L. Hoewing).
Act of January 6, 2006

[National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2006]

 119 Stat. 3226
  • Prohibited frocking of officers below grade of major general or rear admiral to grades above major general or rear admiral.
Act of January 28, 2008

[National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2008]

 122 Stat. 94
 122 Stat. 115
  • Raised statutory rank of the judge advocate general of the Navy to vice admiral (Bruce E. MacDonald).
  • Increased percentage of general or flag officers that may be appointed above grade of major general or rear admiral from 15.7% to 16.3%.
  • Allowed officers serving in grade of lieutenant general, general, vice admiral, or admiral to continue holding such position for up to 60 days following reassignment from such position, unless placed sooner in another designated position.
Act of October 14, 2008

[Duncan Hunter National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2009]

 122 Stat. 4433
 122 Stat. 4436
  • Increased percentage of flag officers in the Navy that may be appointed above grade of rear admiral from 16.3% to 16.4%.
  • Revised cap on total number of authorized Navy flag officers to be reduced to 160, of which 32 may be appointed above grade of rear admiral pending a congressional report by the secretary of defense.
  • Authorized the secretary of defense to designate up to 68 officers above grade of major general or rear admiral for joint duty assignments.
Act of October 28, 2009

[National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2010]

 123 Stat. 2273
  • Capped total number of Navy flag officers who may be appointed above grade of rear admiral at 32, of whom not more than six to be above grade of vice admiral, pursuant to changes made under NDAA 2009.

Gallery

See also

References

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  72. ^ "Admonish, Reprimand 5 Naval Men". The Windsor Daily Star. May 24, 1946. p. 8.
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Notes

  1. ^ a b Dates of rank are taken, where available, from the U.S. Navy register of active and retired commissioned officers, or from the flag officer's official biography. The date listed is that of the officer's first promotion to vice admiral. If such a date that qualifies for the above cannot be found, the next date substituted should be that of the officer's assumption of his/her first three-star appointment. Failing which, the officer's first Senate confirmation date to vice admiral should be substituted. For officers promoted to vice admiral on the same date, they should be organized first by date of promotion to four-star rank, number of years spent as a vice admiral, then by the tier of their first listed assignment upon promotion to vice admiral (joint assignments followed by service assignments).
  2. ^ a b Positions listed are those held by the officer when promoted to vice admiral. Dates listed are for the officer's full tenure, which may predate promotion to three-star rank or postdate retirement from active duty. Positions held in an acting capacity are italicized.
  3. ^ a b The number of years of active-duty service at three-star rank is approximated by subtracting the year in the "Date of rank" column from the last year in the "Position" column. Time spent between active-duty three-star assignments is not counted.
  4. ^ a b The year commissioned is taken to be the year the officer graduated from the U.S. Naval Academy, or equivalent. Sources of commission are listed in parentheses after the year of commission and include: the United States Naval Academy (USNA); Naval Reserve Officers Training Corps (NROTC) at a civilian university; NROTC at a senior military college such as the Virginia Military Institute (VMI), Norwich University (Norwich), Pennsylvania Military College (PMC), or Widener University (Widener); Officer Candidate School (OCS); the United States Merchant Marine Academy (USMMA); the Massachusetts Maritime Academy (MMA); United States Military Academy (USMA); and the United States Air Force Academy (USAFA).
  5. ^ a b The number of years in commission before being promoted to three-star rank is approximated by subtracting the year in the "Commission" column from the year in the "Date of rank" column.
  6. ^ a b Notes include years of birth and death; awards of the Medal of Honor, Congressional Gold Medal, Presidential Medal of Freedom, or honors of similar significance; major government appointments; university presidencies or equivalents; familial relationships with significant military officers or significant government officials such as U.S. Presidents, cabinet secretaries, U.S. Senators, or state governors; and unusual career events such as premature relief or death in office.
  7. ^ Commissioned via the Aviation Reserve Officer Candidate (AVROC) Program.
  8. ^ Nomination to be Chairman, Nuclear Regulatory Commission withdrawn, 2004.[2][3][4]
  9. ^ a b c d e f Served as Vice Chief of Naval Operations (VCNO).
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i Served as a combatant commander (CCDR).
  11. ^ a b c Served as Chief of Naval Operations (CNO).
  12. ^ Served as Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff (CJCS).
  13. ^ Resigned, Jun 2003, and retired as rear admiral.[10]
  14. ^ Served as Director, Naval Reactors.
  15. ^ Donald was frocked to the grade of admiral on November 5, 2004 to serve as Director, Naval Reactors, with date of rank effective January 1, 2005.
  16. ^ Transferred from U.S. Army, 1974.
  17. ^ a b c d e f Promoted directly from rank of rear admiral (lower half).
  18. ^ Served as Supreme Allied Commander Europe (SACEUR).
  19. ^ Relieved, July 2005, and retired as rear admiral.
  20. ^ Relieved, Mar 2008, and retired as rear admiral.[23]
  21. ^ Directly commissioned via the Armed Forces Health Professions Scholarship Program (HPSP).
  22. ^ Served as Vice Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff (VJCS).
  23. ^ Confirmed by Senate as vice admiral for temporary service while serving as Commander, Western Sea Frontier, 18 Jan 1944; while serving as Commander, Hawaiian Sea Frontier, 27 Nov 1944; and until detachment from duty as member of the Joint Mexican-United States Defense Commission, 28 Jul 1945. Reverted to rear admiral, 31 Jan 1946; retired as vice admiral and advanced to tombstone admiral, 1 Apr 1947.
  24. ^ Confirmed as vice admiral for temporary service while serving as Commander, Caribbean Sea Frontier, 22 Mar 1944; and until detachment from duty as Commander, Service Force, Atlantic Fleet, 24 Jul 1945. Reverted to rear admiral, 3 Dec 1945; reprimanded for misconduct while Commander, Caribbean Sea Frontier, preventing retirement in highest wartime grade; retired as rear admiral and advanced to tombstone vice admiral, 1 Sep 1946.
  25. ^ These include fleets subordinated to U.S. Fleet Forces Command (Second Fleet), U.S. Naval Forces Central Command (Fifth Fleet) and the U.S. Pacific Fleet (Third Fleet, Seventh Fleet). The Fourth Fleet, under U.S. Naval Forces Southern Command, is commanded by a two-star rear admiral.
  26. ^ Per the 2017 NDAA, the JAG's statutory three-star rank was repealed, however it remains a vice admiral's billet.[74]
  27. ^ The deputy commander of the United States European Command was a four-star billet until it was downgraded on October 1, 2007 to allow for a four-star officer to lead the new United States Africa Command.
  28. ^ Legislative history compiled from the U.S. Congress official website and U.S. Government Publishing Office official website.

Bibliography