The Council of the Royal County of Berkshire

Berkshire County Council
Berkshire
Coat of arms or logo
Banner of the arms of the County Council
Type
Type
History
Established1 April 1889
Disbanded1 April 1998
Preceded byCourt of Quarter Sessions
Succeeded bySix unitary authorities - West Berkshire, Windsor and Maidenhead, Wokingham, Bracknell Forest, Reading and Slough.
Leadership
Chairman
C.C. Trembath[1]
Seats87
Elections
First-past-the-post
Last election
6 May 1993
Meeting place
Berkshire Shire Hall.jpg
Shire Hall, Shinfield Park, Reading

The Council of the Royal County of Berkshire, also known as the Berkshire County Council, was the top-tier local government administrative body for Berkshire from 1889 to 1998. The local authority had responsibilities for education, social services, public transport, planning, emergency services and waste disposal, and had 87 members. Berkshire County Council shared power with six lower-tier district councils, each of which directed local matters.

On 1 April 1998, under the provisions of the Local Government Act 1992, it was abolished and replaced by its six former districts, the unitary authorities of West Berkshire, Windsor and Maidenhead, Wokingham, Bracknell Forest, Reading and Slough.

History

Further information: History of local government in England

Creation

Further information: Local Government Act 1888

The Local Government Act 1888 created County Councils to replace the Court of Quarter Sessions and elections in 1888 brought about the county council's launch.[2]

From A History of the first Berkshire County Council:

There can be little doubt from reading the debates in Hansard that many advocates of elected County Councils thought they would bring about a new heaven and a new earth, and it is also clear that many others regarded the new County Councils as local parliaments. Both schools of thought were in time to be disillusioned.

Berkshire County Council established its meeting place in the assize courts in Reading.[3] Meanwhile the administrative staff and committee rooms of the County Council were accommodated in the shire hall next door.[3] Following the Local Government Act 1972, the council found a need to move to bigger premises at Shire Hall in Shinfield Park in the winter of 1980/1981,[4] at an estimated cost of £27.5 million.[5]

List of chairmen

Berkshire County Council had both a council leader and the mostly ceremonial role of chairman (no women are known to have been chair during the council’s existence).

Chairmanships were unlimited in duration or number of times (e.g. Sir George Robert Mowbray held the chairmanship twice in – 1944-1946 and 1960-1965).

In 1965, Chairman Sir Louis Dickens changed the term of office to 3 years, to be changed one year before elections. In 1974, the Local Government Act changed the size of and nature of the council, hence the distinction between 'Old' and 'New' County Councils.

Old Berkshire County Council (1889-1974)

William George Mount (Chairman of the preceding Court of Quarter Sessions 1887-1889) 1889-1905 Conservative

Albert Richard Tull 1905-1906

William Hew Dunn 1906-1911

Sir Robert Gray Cornish Mowbray 1911-1916

James Herbert Benyon 1916-1926

Sir William Arthur Mount 1926-1930

Thomas Skurray 1931-1938

- Known by the famous poem:

Alderman Arthur Thomas Loyd OBE 1938-1944 Conservative

Sir George Robert Mowbray 1944-1946

Henry Arthur Benyon 1946-1947

Herbert James Thomas 1947-1954

William John Cumber 1954-1957

Colonel Granville Watson 1957-1960

Sir George Robert Mowbray (As above) 1960-1965

Air Commodore Sir Louis Walter Dickens (Instituted 3 year Chairmanships)1965-1968

Derrick Aylmer Frederick Henry Howard Hartley Russell 1968-1971

Richard Henry Carilef Seymour 1971-1974 [6]

New Berkshire County Council (1974-1998)

Frederick Derwent Pickering 1974-1977 Conservative

Lt. Col. Richard Watt 1977-1980 Conservative

Lewis David Moss 1980-1982 Conservative

W.T. Timperley 1982-1983 Labour

Ian Morgan[7] 1983-1986 Conservative

Frederick Gareth Robert Gimblett 1986-1989 Conservative

William Anthony Wiseman (‘Tony Wiseman’)[8] 1989-1992 Conservative

Ronald James Day[8] 1992-1995 Liberal Democrat

C.C. Trembath 1995-1998 Liberal Democrat

Abolition and creation of the Unitary Authorities

Further information: Local Government Act 1992

The 1990s led to the restoration of county boroughs under a new name, "unitary authorities", which radically changed the administrative map of England. The Banham Review of 1992 sought to consolidate local authorities where possible and abolish unnecessary tiers of government. The changes to Berkshire County Council in 1998 were part of the final wave of changes resulting from the act.[9]

The council was abolished, and the ceremonial county is now governed by the six unitary authorities: West Berkshire, Windsor and Maidenhead, Wokingham, Bracknell Forest, Reading and Slough. The general secretary of the National Association of Local Government Officers described the re-organisation as a "completely cynical manoeuvre".[10]

Aftermath

One of the last Chairmen of Berkshire County Council, Tony Wiseman, went on to found CRAG (a combination of the Readingstoke Action Group and CPRE) with a number of other former members of the council. CRAG successfully opposed Wokingham borough council's plan for building of houses between Reading and Basingstoke (to create a conurbation dubbed Readingstoke).[11][12]

After the abolition and until the 2009 local government reforms, the ceremonial county of Berkshire was unique in England as being the only non-metropolitan county to have no County Council throughout its entire area, with the entire county governed by unitary authorities.

Powers and composition

As stated above, under the Local Government Act 1972[13] the chief responsibilities of Berkshire County Council, in common with other non-metropolitan county authorities, included education, social services, public transport, planning, emergency services and waste disposal. It served to provide a strategic county-wide framework within which the differing plans of its six district councils could be harmonised.

As with many County Councils, the Local Government Act 1972 changed the structure of the council, and a large area around Abingdon and the Vale of the White Horse became part of Oxfordshire while Slough, which had been within Buckinghamshire, became part of Berkshire.[14] The former County Borough of Reading - which had been part of the historic assize and ceremonial county - also became part of the administrative county.

Elections to the Berkshire County Council

Elections were held to Berkshire County Council every 3 years, with chairmen being selected in the second year of each term (in all years after 1965).[15] After the 1974 re-organisation elections were held every four years, the last full election taking place in 1993.

Political Composition

Party in control Years
No overall control 1889–1974
Conservative 1974–1990
No overall control 1990–1998

Between 1889 and 1945, the Council was fairly apolitical, although two of the Chairmen (William George Mount and Arthur Loyd) went on to become Conservative MP's.

Following the 1945 General election, the Labour Party won 17 councillors in 1945.[16] Despite this win, Labour were still a minority and party politics didn't really come to the fore until 1974, with the Local Government Act 1972. This Act also brought representatives of the former County Borough of Reading on to the County Council for the first time and brought the Borough of Slough into the County from Buckinghamshire while the northern part of the county was transferred to Oxfordshire.

The council was then dominated by the Conservatives, until 1990 when they lost overall control but continued to run the Council's administration.

In 1992 a Lib Dem coalition with Labour took majority control of the Council and, following the 1993 elections, dominated the council until the coalition fractured in 1996. A Lib Dem minority administration with Conservative support then ran the council until it was split into unitary authorities. The final leader of the council, from July 1996 to March 1998, was Bob Mowatt, a Liberal Democrat, although for the final couple of months his deputy, Jeff Brooks, was serving as acting leader.[17][18][19]

Coat of arms

See also: List of English counties' coats of arms

Owing to the reorganisation of the council under the Local Government Act 1972, the coat of arms for Berkshire County Council is different before and after 1974.

Pre 1974 (1947-1974)

Coat of arms of Berkshire County Council from 1961 to 1974.
Coat of arms of Berkshire County Council from 1961 to 1974.

Arms and Crest [the stag argent] granted 18 July 1947. Crest changed and supporters granted 7 April 1961.

The coat of arms granted by the College of Arms to the Berkshire County Council are described as:

From Civic Heraldry:

The two Royal Lions are appropriate because Berkshire is a Royal County, a privilege is unique among shire counties. They are derived from the arms attributed to the Norman kings and have association with Reading Abbey, which was founded by Henry I. The embattled border to the shield is intended to represent the castles of the County, of which Windsor is the best known survivor.

The crest is based upon the badge of the old Royal Berkshire Militia, and there is a tradition that a banner with this symbol, or one similar, was carried by the men of Berkshire at the Battle of Agincourt. The stag under the oak is assumed to represent the stags and oaks of Windsor Forest, which gave royal sport to the Saxon and Norman kings. William I, who had an eye for good hunting country when he chose Windsor for his residence and began its famous Castle [sic].

The Red Lion Supporter is another Royal symbol, and the Tudor Rose on the Lion's collar, a Royal association with Windsor Castle. The White Horse is a reference to the historic carving in the chalk of a great White Horse on the top of the Downs near Uffington. The horse has a pendant with a wedge shape upon it; this shape is known in heraldry as a "pile" and its inclusion here tells in punning form of the atomic pile at the Atomic Energy Research Establishment at Harwell.[14]

Post 1974 (1974-1998)

Coat of arms of Berkshire County Council from 1974 to 1998.
Coat of arms of Berkshire County Council from 1974 to 1998.

Again from Civic Heraldry:

The arms were based very much upon the former Berkshire Arms. The principal change was the substitution of a Black Horse for a White Horse as the right-hand supporter, the White Horse representing the White Horse of Uffington which is no longer in the county. The Black Horse represents the county's considerable connections with horse-racing, there being a reference in old county histories to the ancient native horses of Berkshire being black. The six-pointed star on the collar, refers to the six borough and districts in the county, and also to the close association of Slough with the celebrated astronomer Sir William Herschel.[14]

And from Berkshire History:

Because the arms were officially granted to the Berkshire County Council and not actually to the county itself, they were altered slightly with the reorganisation of the administrative county boundaries in 1974 (largely the replacement of the white horse with a black one) and, since the council's demise in 1998, officially the county has no arms at all. Attempts to transfer the old arms to the Lord Lieutenancy have, so far, been unsuccessful.[20]

In popular culture

Notes

  1. ^ Evans, Andrew (13 August 1992). "Public Service Management: End of the metropolitan line: County councils face an uncertain future. Andrew Evans recalls how the Government abolished local authorities serving 18 million people". The Independent. independent.co.uk. Retrieved 7 April 2011.
  2. ^ Local Government Act 1888, Section 3
  3. ^ a b "From old Shire Hall to sheer class". Reading Post. 2 March 2006. Archived from the original on 21 March 2012. Retrieved 19 January 2015.
  4. ^ "Shirehall 1981-2000", Berkshire Record Office, 4 February 2012, archived from the original on 12 August 2016, retrieved 4 February 2012
  5. ^ "Ch. 52 specifically sections 2420 and 2488". A History of the first Berkshire County Council 1889-1974.
  6. ^ "Ch. 54". A History of the first Berkshire County Council 1889-1974.
  7. ^ County Council Meeting Minutes 10th November 1984
  8. ^ a b County Council Meeting Minutes 9th May 1992
  9. ^ The Berkshire (Structural Change) Order 1996. SI 1996/1879
  10. ^ "Angry reaction to councils White Paper". The Times. 8 October 1983.
  11. ^ "Debate Protects the Public", Daily Telegraph, 4 February 2012, archived from the original on 28 February 2016, retrieved 4 February 2012
  12. ^ "Goodbye Berkshire, Hello Readingstoke", The Independent, 4 February 2012, retrieved 4 February 2012
  13. ^ see section 'Division of Functions' and citations there
  14. ^ a b c Civic Heraldry, 4 February 2012, archived from the original on 22 February 2012, retrieved 4 February 2012
  15. ^ A History of the first Berkshire County Council 1889-1974
  16. ^ "Ch. 39 specifically section 1903". A History of the first Berkshire County Council 1889-1974.
  17. ^ "New county leader called the 'captain of the Titanic'". Reading Evening Post. 24 July 1996. p. 3. Retrieved 12 June 2022.
  18. ^ "Stand-in council leader backed by Tories". Reading Evening Post. 6 February 1998. p. 7. Retrieved 12 June 2022.
  19. ^ "Farewell tears amid an uncertain future". Reading Evening Post. 1 April 1998. p. 10. Retrieved 12 June 2022.
  20. ^ Berkshire History: Berkshire Coat of Arms and Berkshire Flag, 4 February 2012, archived from the original on 6 February 2012, retrieved 4 February 2012