Lexington, Massachusetts
The Lexington Minuteman statue in Lexington
The Lexington Minuteman statue in Lexington
Flag of Lexington, Massachusetts
Official seal of Lexington, Massachusetts
Etymology: Likely from Laxton, Nottinghamshire
Nickname(s): 
Birthplace of American Liberty
Motto(s): 
"What a Glorious Morning for America!"
Location in Middlesex County in Massachusetts
Location in Middlesex County in Massachusetts
Coordinates: 42°26′50″N 71°13′30″W / 42.44722°N 71.22500°W / 42.44722; -71.22500Coordinates: 42°26′50″N 71°13′30″W / 42.44722°N 71.22500°W / 42.44722; -71.22500
Country United States
State Massachusetts
CountyMiddlesex
RegionNew England
Settled1642
Incorporated1713
Government
 • TypeRepresentative town meeting
Area
 • Total16.5 sq mi (42.8 km2)
 • Land16.4 sq mi (42.5 km2)
 • Water0.1 sq mi (0.4 km2)
Elevation
210 ft (64 m)
Population
 (2020)
 • Total34,454
 • Density2,100/sq mi (810/km2)
Demonym(s)Lexingtonian
Time zoneUTC−5 (Eastern)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−4 (Eastern)
ZIP Codes
02420–02421
Area code(s)339/781
FIPS code25-35215
GNIS feature ID0619401
Websitewww.lexingtonma.gov

Lexington is a suburban town in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States. It is 10 miles (16 km) from Downtown Boston. The population was 34,454 as of the 2020 census.[1] The area was originally inhabited by Native Americans, and was first settled by Europeans in 1641 as a farming community. Lexington is well known as the site of the first shots of the American Revolutionary War, in the Battle of Lexington on April 19, 1775, where the "Shot heard 'round the world" took place. It is home to Minute Man National Historical Park.

History

Buckman Tavern, built 1710
Buckman Tavern, built 1710

Indigenous history

Native Americans inhabited the area that would become Lexington for thousands of years prior to European colonization of the Americas, as attested by a woodland era archaeological site near Loring Hill south of the town center.[2] At the time of European contact, the area may have been a border region between Naumkeag or Pawtucket to the northeast, Massachusett to the south, and Nipmuc to the west, though the land was eventually purchased from the Naumkeag.[2][3][4][5] The contact period introduced a number of European infectious diseases which would decimate native populations in virgin soil epidemics, leaving the area largely uncontested upon the arrival of large groups of English settlers in the Puritan Great Migration. In 1639, the Massachusetts General Court purchased the land that would become present day Lexington, then within the boundaries of Cambridge, from the Naumkeag Squaw Sachem of Mistick.[5]

Colonial history

The area that is now Lexington was first settled circa 1642[6] as part of Cambridge, Massachusetts.[6] As the population increased, Lexington was incorporated as a separate parish, called Cambridge Farms, in 1691. This allowed the residents to have their own local church and minister, although they were still under jurisdiction of the Town of Cambridge. Lexington was incorporated as a separate town in 1713. It was then that it got the name Lexington.[7] How the town received its name is the subject of some controversy. One view is that it was named in honor of Lord Lexington, an English peer.[8][better source needed] Another view is that it was named after Lexington (which was pronounced and is today spelled Laxton) in Nottinghamshire, England.[9]

In the early colonial days, Vine Brook, which runs through Lexington, Burlington, and Bedford, and then empties into the Shawsheen River, was a focal point of the farming and industry of the town. It provided for many types of mills, and in the 20th Century, for farm irrigation.

Battle of Lexington

See also: Battles of Lexington and Concord

On April 19, 1775, what many regard as the first battle of the American Revolutionary War was the Battle at Lexington. On the night of April 18, the British Army had sent out 800 grenadiers and light infantry soldiers on foot from Boston, with the intention of destroying Colonial gunpowder and cannons that were being stored in Concord, as well as capturing two leaders of the Sons of Liberty, John Hancock and Samuel Adams, who were staying in Lexington.[10] Hancock and Adams were warned of the danger by two alarm riders, Paul Revere and William Dawes, who alerted the countryside of the British movements. When the British soldiers arrived on the Lexington Common not long after sunrise, they faced 77 men of the Lexington militia, commanded by Captain John Parker. Someone—still unknown to this day—fired a shot, provoking an exchange of musket fire between the two sides.[10] Eight Lexington militia men were killed, dozens more wounded. After the rout, the British marched on toward Concord. There, several hundred militia and minute men from nearby towns assembled near the Old North Bridge to turn back the British and prevent them from capturing and destroying the Colony's stores of gunpowder and military equipment.[11]

Today, the town annually commemorates the battle on the Battle Green in the Downtown with a reenactment, as part of its Patriots Day festivities.[12]

Painting of the Battle of Lexington
Painting of the Battle of Lexington

Urbanization

For decades after the Revolutionary War, Lexington grew modestly while remaining largely a farming community, providing Boston with much of its produce. Many of these farms became dense housing developments and subdivisions by the 1970s. One notable housing development was the Peacock Farm residential neighborhood. It was designed by architect Walter Pierce and was built between 1952 and 1958. As of 2012, the neighborhood was on the National Register of Historic Places. Lexington always had a bustling downtown area, which remains to this day. Lexington began to prosper, helped by its proximity to Boston, and having a rail line (originally the Lexington and West Cambridge Railroad, later the Boston and Maine Railroad) service its citizens and businesses, beginning in 1846 until 1981. In 1984, Due to the rapid urbanization that occurred in many other suburbs like Lexington, The MBTA proposed expanding the Red Line through Lexington, terminating in Bedford. Despite Lexington and Bedford being on board with the idea, Arlington residents lobbied against the plan and it was shot down by the Board of Selectmen.[13]

Lexington, as well as many of the towns along the Route 128 corridor, experienced a jump in population in the 1960s and 1970s, due to the high-tech boom. Today, many companies are still moving into Lexington, with Takeda and BAE Systems both having huge offices. The urbanization and massive job growth resulted in soaring property values, and the school system becoming nationally recognized for its excellence.[14] The town participates in the METCO program, which buses minority students from Boston to suburban towns to receive better educational opportunities than those available to them in the Boston Public Schools.[15]

Lexington was the Cold War location of the USAF "Experimental SAGE Subsector"[16] for testing a prototype IBM computer that arrived in July 1955[17] for development of a computerized "national air defense network"[18] (the namesake "Lexington Discrimination System" for incoming ICBM warheads was developed in the late 1960s).[19]

Geography

Lexington is located at 42°26′39″N 71°13′36″W / 42.44417°N 71.22667°W / 42.44417; -71.22667 (42.444345, −71.226928).[20]

According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 16.5 square miles (42.8 km2), of which 16.4 square miles (42.5 km2) is land and 0.1 square miles (0.4 km2), or 0.85%, is water.

Lexington borders Burlington, Woburn, Winchester, Arlington, Belmont, Waltham, Lincoln, and Bedford. It has more area than all other municipalities that it borders.

Demographics

See also: List of Massachusetts locations by per capita income

Historical population
YearPop.±%
18501,893—    
18602,329+23.0%
18702,277−2.2%
18802,460+8.0%
18903,197+30.0%
19003,831+19.8%
19104,918+28.4%
19206,350+29.1%
19309,467+49.1%
194013,187+39.3%
195017,335+31.5%
196027,691+59.7%
197031,886+15.1%
198029,479−7.5%
199028,974−1.7%
200030,355+4.8%
201031,394+3.4%
202034,454+9.7%

Source: United States census records and Population Estimates Program data.[21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30]

As of the census[31] of 2010, there had been 31,394 people, 11,530 households, and 8,807 families residing in the town. The population density was 1,851.0 people per square mile (714.6/km2). There were 12,019 housing units at an average density of 691.1 per square mile (266.8/km2). The racial makeup of the town was 68.6% White, 25.4% Asian (15.4% Chinese, 4.8% Asian Indian, 3.2% Korean[32]), 1.5% Black or African American, 0.1% Native American, 0.0% Pacific Islander, 0.5% from other races, and 2.6% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.3% of the population.

There were 11,530 households, out of which 38.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 66.0% were married couples living together, 7.7% had a female householder with no husband present, and 24.1% were non-families. Of all households, 20.8% were made up of individuals, and 12.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.66 and the average family size was 3.10.

In the town, the population was spread out, with 26.4% under the age of 18, 3.5% from 18 to 24, 22.7% from 25 to 44, 28.5% from 45 to 64, and 19.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 44 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.5 males.

In 2018,[33] the mean home price was $910,584, and the median price of a house was $1,050,821. According to a 2018 estimate,[34] the median income for a household in the town was $191,350, and the median income for a family was $218,890. Males had a median income of $101,334 versus $77,923 for females. The per capita income for the town was $70,132. About 1.8% of families and 3.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.2% of those under age 18 and 3.4% of those age 65 or over.

By race, the median household income was highest for mixed race households, at $263,321. Hispanic households had a median income of $233,875. Asian households had a median income of $178,988. White households had a median income of $154,533. Black households had a median income of $139,398. American Indian or Alaskan Native households had a median income of $125,139.[35]

Immigrant population

As of 2020, Lexington has the highest Asian population in Massachusetts, reflecting 36% of the population. 29% of Lexington residents were born outside of the United States.[36] This racial diversity is largely reflected in the Lexington Public Schools, where Asians compose over 40% of the student population.[37]

Government and politics

The town uses a five-member Select Board. The day-to-day operations are handled by a Town Manager hired by the Select Board. A Representative town meeting, acts as the legislative body, made up of 203 members, including 21 citizens elected from each of nine precincts for three-year staggered terms, At-large member positions include the Select Board, Town Counsel, Town Clerk and the School Committee chairman.[38] Article LXXXIX Section 8 of the Massachusetts Constitution permits towns with a population greater than 12,000 to adopt a city form of government. The Town of Lexington meets the population requirement to become a city, but has not done so, in part because it would lose its ability to engage citizens in local government under the Representative Town Meeting form of government.

Lexington is Represented by State Representative Michelle Ciccolo, State Senators Cindy Friedman and Michael Barrett, all Democrats. Lexington is in Massachusetts's 5th congressional district, currently represented by Katherine Clark. Federally, Lexington is heavily Democratic, having not voted Republican since 1980. Even in Scott Brown's upset 2010 Senate special election, he received just 34% of the vote, to Coakley's 64%.

Lexington town vote[39]
by party in presidential elections
Year Democratic Republican Third party
2020 81.3% 16,308 16.6% 3,337 2.0% 403
2016 77.1% 13,900 18.2% 3,279 4.7% 854
2012 70.2% 12,750 29.1% 5,293 0.7% 185
2008 72.2% 12,984 26.1% 4,593 1.7% 199
2004 70.6% 12,334 27.5% 4,834 1.9% 207
2000 63.1% 10,623 26.9% 4,741 10.1% 1,349
1996 63.6% 10,659 27.4% 4,824 9.0% 1,002
1992 55.4% 10,015 26.7% 5,001 17.9% 2,000
1988 57.0% 10,252 40.3% 7,252 2.7% 245
1984 53.1% 9,397 45.8% 8,118 1.1% 184
1980 37.3% 6,557 39.8% 6,999 22% 3,745
1976 49.6% 8,494 45.6% 7,814 4.8% 544
1972 52.1% 8,478 45.7% 7,432 2.2% 366

Emergency services

Law enforcement

The Lexington Police Department (LPD) is responsible for law enforcement in the town of Lexington, handling investigations, patrol, and traffic safety/control, with 51 sworn officers. They also host a youth academy for children aged 12–17 as well as a Police Explorers Program (For high school students interested in the comprehensive learning of Law Enforcement). It is led by Chief of Police Michael McLean.

Fire and rescue

The Lexington Fire Department (LFD) provides both fire and rescue, and emergency medical services to the town of Lexington. The date of its formation is unknown. It is based in the Fire Department Headquarters, with a secondary East Lexington Station, having 61 firefighters and EMS personnel. It is led by Fire Chief Derek Sencabaugh.

Education

Public schools

Main article: Lexington Public Schools (Massachusetts)

Lexington's public education system includes six elementary schools, two middle schools, and one high school. Overall the Lexington school district is among the top ranked in the state and nationally. Bridge Elementary School, Jonas Clarke Middle School, and Harrington Elementary School were High Performing National Blue Ribbon Schools in 2010, 2013, and 2019 respectively.[40][41][42] They have been ranked as top schools based on Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System (MCAS) test scores. Lexington High School was ranked in 2014 as the 19th best high school in the nation by U.S. News.[43] In 2012, 2017, and 2018, Lexington High School won the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Science Bowl competition.[44] In addition to Lexington High School, students may attend Minuteman Regional High School. In 2019 Jonas Clarke Middle School won the National Science Bowl competition.

Private schools

Supplementary education

The Lexington Chinese School (LCS; 勒星頓中文學校) holds its classes at Belmont High School in Belmont.[45] In 2003 over 400 students attended classes at LCS, held on Sundays.[46]

Culture and art

Engraved memorial bricks lining the Lexington Depot sidewalk
Engraved memorial bricks lining the Lexington Depot sidewalk
Historic Mullikan Oak Tree, September 2012
Historic Mullikan Oak Tree, September 2012
Old Belfry in Belfry Hill Park, Clarke Street
Old Belfry in Belfry Hill Park, Clarke Street

Music

Lexington is home to the Lexington Symphony, which performs regularly at Cary Hall.[47][48]

Economy

Major employers in Lexington include Takeda (formerly Shire), BAE Systems, MIT Lincoln Laboratory, Stride Rite, Agilent, Global Insight, CareOne, the Cotting School, Ipswitch, and Lexington Public Schools.[49]

MBTA bus operates three routes that connect with the Red Line at Alewife station in Cambridge.

Points of interest

Notable people

Main article: List of people from Lexington

Sister cities

Lexington is a sister city of:

References

  1. ^ "Census - Geography Profile: Lexington town, Middlesex County, Massachusetts". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved October 27, 2021.
  2. ^ a b Massachusetts Historical Commission (1980). "MHC Reconnaissance Survey Town Report: Lexington" (PDF).
  3. ^ Smith, John (1837). A description of New England; or, The observations, and discoveries of Captain Iohn Smith (admirall of that country) in the north of America, in the year of our Lord 1614; with the successe of sixe ships, that went the next yeare 1615; and the accidents befell him among the French men of warre: with the proofe of the present benefit this countrey affoords; whither this present yeare, 1616, eight voluntary ships are gone to make further tryall. Washington: P. Force.
  4. ^ "Welcome". Native-Land.ca. Retrieved 2021-12-11.
  5. ^ a b "Medford Historical Society Papers, Volume 24., The Indians of the Mystic valley and the litigation over their land". www.perseus.tufts.edu. Retrieved 2021-12-11.
  6. ^ a b Tracing the Past in Lexington, Massachusetts. Edwin B. Worthen.
  7. ^ Lexington, MA Chamber of Commerce Home Page Archived 2015-02-02 at the Wayback Machine
  8. ^ Robert Sutton, 2nd Baron Lexinton
  9. ^ "Lexington - Massachusetts, United States". britannica.com. Retrieved 14 March 2018.
  10. ^ a b "Battles of Lexington and Concord", Wikipedia, 2020-01-11, retrieved 2020-02-01
  11. ^ Fischer, David Hackett. Paul Revere's Ride, pp. 184-232, Oxford University Press, New York, NY, 1994. ISBN 0-19-508847-6.
  12. ^ "Patriots' Day in Lexington | lexingtonma". www.lexingtonma.gov. Retrieved 2022-03-03.
  13. ^ Acitelli, Tom (2014-02-13). "The Red Line Stops in Arlington and Lexington". Curbed Boston. Retrieved 2020-02-01.
  14. ^ "America's Top Schools - Lexington High School #19 in 2014". Newsweek. 13 September 2014.
  15. ^ "METCO FAQ". Massachusetts Department of Education.
  16. ^ Article title
  17. ^ Biweekly Report for 29 July 1955 (PDF) (minutes). Vol. Memorandum 6M-3797. Lincoln Laboratory Division 6. Retrieved 2013-07-25. All XD-1 frames have now been delivered. The LRI and output frame3 arrived 29 July.
  18. ^ "Overview". SAGE: The First [computerized]National Air Defense Network. IBM.com. 7 March 2012. Retrieved 2013-05-08. the AN/FSQ-7…was developed, built and maintained by IBM. … In June 1956, IBM delivered the prototype of the computer to be used in SAGE.
  19. ^ Lemnios, William Z.; Grometstein, Alan A. (November 1, 2002). "Overview of the Lincoln Laboratory Ballistic Missile Defense Program". Lincoln Laboratory Journal. 13.
  20. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
  21. ^ "Total Population (P1), 2010 Census Summary File 1". American FactFinder, All County Subdivisions within Massachusetts. United States Census Bureau. 2010.
  22. ^ "Massachusetts by Place and County Subdivision - GCT-T1. Population Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
  23. ^ "1990 Census of Population, General Population Characteristics: Massachusetts" (PDF). US Census Bureau. December 1990. Table 76: General Characteristics of Persons, Households, and Families: 1990. 1990 CP-1-23. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
  24. ^ "1980 Census of the Population, Number of Inhabitants: Massachusetts" (PDF). US Census Bureau. December 1981. Table 4. Populations of County Subdivisions: 1960 to 1980. PC80-1-A23. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
  25. ^ "1950 Census of Population" (PDF). Bureau of the Census. 1952. Section 6, Pages 21-10 and 21-11, Massachusetts Table 6. Population of Counties by Minor Civil Divisions: 1930 to 1950. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
  26. ^ "1920 Census of Population" (PDF). Bureau of the Census. Number of Inhabitants, by Counties and Minor Civil Divisions. Pages 21-5 through 21-7. Massachusetts Table 2. Population of Counties by Minor Civil Divisions: 1920, 1910, and 1920. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
  27. ^ "1890 Census of the Population" (PDF). Department of the Interior, Census Office. Pages 179 through 182. Massachusetts Table 5. Population of States and Territories by Minor Civil Divisions: 1880 and 1890. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
  28. ^ "1870 Census of the Population" (PDF). Department of the Interior, Census Office. 1872. Pages 217 through 220. Table IX. Population of Minor Civil Divisions, &c. Massachusetts. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
  29. ^ "1860 Census" (PDF). Department of the Interior, Census Office. 1864. Pages 220 through 226. State of Massachusetts Table No. 3. Populations of Cities, Towns, &c. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
  30. ^ "1850 Census" (PDF). Department of the Interior, Census Office. 1854. Pages 338 through 393. Populations of Cities, Towns, &c. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
  31. ^ "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
  32. ^ "QT-P8: Race Reporting for the Asian Population by Selected Categories: 2010". factfinder2.census.gov. 2010 Census. Archived from the original on 12 October 2016. Retrieved 1 June 2014.
  33. ^ "Lexington Home Prices & Values". Zillow. Retrieved 2020-02-01.
  34. ^ "Lexington Home Prices & Values". Zillow. Retrieved 2020-02-01.
  35. ^ "Lexington, MA Income and Careers". Usa.com. Retrieved 2015-02-10.
  36. ^ "US Census Bureau - Quick Facts Lexington". US Census Bureau. US Census Bureau. Retrieved 3 July 2021.
  37. ^ "Enrollment Data". School and District Profiles. Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education. Retrieved 19 May 2021.
  38. ^ "Town Clerk | Town of Lexington MA". www.lexingtonma.gov. Retrieved 2020-02-01.
  39. ^ "Map: Mass. Town-By-Town Election Results". www.wbur.org. Retrieved 2020-02-01.
  40. ^ "2010 National Blue Ribbon Exemplary High Performing Schools" (PDF). U.S. Department of Education.
  41. ^ "2013 National Blue Ribbon Exemplary High Performing Schools" (PDF). U.S. Department of Education.
  42. ^ "National Blue Ribbons School Program". Retrieved 23 July 2020.
  43. ^ https://www.usnews.com/education/best-high-schools/massachusetts/rankings?int= [1].
  44. ^ Past High School National Science Bowl Winners (1991 - 2016) | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC). Science.energy.gov. Retrieved on 2017-05-06.
  45. ^ "關於我們 About Us." Lexington Chinese School. Retrieved on September 8, 2015. "Lexington Chinese School 221 Concord Ave. Belmont, MA 02478, USA (at Belmont High School)" Directions
  46. ^ Hsiao, Teresa. "WEEKEND TRAINING" ( Archived 2015-07-05 at the Wayback Machine). The Patriot Ledger. July 2, 2003 (from the summary page(Archive). Retrieved on September 8, 2015.
  47. ^ "Lexington Symphony | Concert Venue: Cary Memorial Hall". Archived from the original on 2017-02-05. Retrieved 2017-02-04.
  48. ^ "Cary Hall | Lexington Symphony – Czechs & Diamonds – February 11". Archived from the original on 2017-02-05. Retrieved 2017-02-04.
  49. ^ Search Results - Lexington, Massachusetts - ReferenceUSA Current Businesses
  50. ^ "Distinctive trees of Lexington: Mulliken white oak". www.wickedlocal.com. May 29, 2010. Retrieved 23 April 2018.
  51. ^ Willards Woods Conservation Area
  52. ^ Kathleen Burge, Boston Globe, Out to save the modern home, 2011 Feb 24
  53. ^ a b c d e Lexington's Sister Cities Archived 2015-11-24 at the Wayback Machine

Further reading