Newton, Massachusetts
City of Newton
City Hall
City Hall
Flag of Newton, Massachusetts
Official seal of Newton, Massachusetts
Nickname: 
"The Garden City"
Motto(s): 
"Liberty and Union"
Location in Middlesex County, Massachusetts
Location in Middlesex County, Massachusetts
Newton, Massachusetts is located in Massachusetts
Newton, Massachusetts
Newton, Massachusetts
Location in the United States
Newton, Massachusetts is located in the United States
Newton, Massachusetts
Newton, Massachusetts
Newton, Massachusetts (the United States)
Newton, Massachusetts is located in North America
Newton, Massachusetts
Newton, Massachusetts
Newton, Massachusetts (North America)
Coordinates: 42°20′13″N 71°12′35″W / 42.33694°N 71.20972°W / 42.33694; -71.20972
CountryUnited States
StateMassachusetts
CountyMiddlesex
Settled1630
Incorporated (Town)1681
Incorporated (City)1874
Government
 • TypeMayor–council
 • MayorRuthanne Fuller[1]
Area
 • Total18.16 sq mi (47.03 km2)
 • Land17.83 sq mi (46.17 km2)
 • Water0.33 sq mi (0.86 km2)
Elevation
100 ft (30 m)
Population
 (2020)
 • Total88,923
 • Density4,987.83/sq mi (1,925.84/km2)
Time zoneUTC−5 (Eastern)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−4 (Eastern)
ZIP Codes
02458–02462, 02464–02468
Area code617/857
FIPS code25-45560
GNIS feature ID0617675
Websitewww.newtonma.gov

Newton is a city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States. It is approximately 7 miles (11 km) west of downtown Boston, and comprises a patchwork of thirteen villages without a city center. It is home to the Charles River, Crystal Lake, and Heartbreak Hill, among other landmarks. It is served by several streets and highways (including Route 9, Hammond Pond Parkway, and the Mass Pike), as well as the Green Line D branch run by the MBTA.

At the 2020 U.S. census, the population of Newton was 88,923.[3]

Historically, the area that is now Newton was settled in 1639, and was originally first part of Cambridge (then called "the newe towne"). It split from Cambridge in 1681, and became known by its present name of Newton in 1766. It then became a city in 1874.

History

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17th century

Newton was originally part of "the newe towne", which was settled in 1630 and renamed Cambridge in 1638. The first English settlement of what is now Newton began in 1639. Roxbury minister John Eliot persuaded the Native American people of Nonantum, a sub-tribe of the Massachusett led by a sachem named Waban, to relocate to Natick in 1651, fearing that they would be exploited by colonists.[4] Newton was incorporated as a separate town, known as Cambridge Village, on December 15, 1681, then renamed Newtown in 1691, and finally Newton in 1766.[5] It became a city on January 5, 1874. Newton is known as The Garden City.

In the early 1600s, Watertown had claimed a large area of land on the south side of the Charles River (modern-day Newton). They gave it up to Newtown, except for a strip "two hundred rods long and sixty rods wide" to "protect their fishing privileges".[6]: 82 

18th century

In Reflections in Bullough's Pond, Newton historian Diana Muir describes the early industries that developed in the late 18th and early 19th centuries in a series of mills built to take advantage of the water power available at Newton Upper Falls and Newton Lower Falls. Snuff, chocolate, glue, paper and other products were produced in these small mills but, according to Muir, the water power available in Newton was not sufficient to turn Newton into a manufacturing city, although it was, beginning in 1902, the home of the Stanley Motor Carriage Company, the maker of the Stanley Steamer.[citation needed]

19th century

Nineteenth-century Newton, following the American Civil War, was a patchwork of villages. The northern villages of Auburndale, Newton Corner, Newtonville, and West Newton were the most affluent.[7]: 248  In contrast, both Waban and Chestnut Hill were sparsely populated.[7]: 249 

Several village-based "improvement societies" were founded by residents between 1878 and 1904. No citywide improvement society was ever founded.[7]: 249–250 

Newton, according to Muir, became one of North America's earliest commuter suburbs. The Boston and Worcester, one of North America's earliest railroads, reached West Newton in 1834. Wealthy Bostonian businessmen took advantage of the new commuting opportunity offered by the railroad, building gracious homes on erstwhile farmland of West Newton hill and on Commonwealth street. Muir points out that these early commuters needed sufficient wealth to employ a groom and keep horses, to drive them from their hilltop homes to the station.[citation needed]

20th century

Further suburbanization came in waves. One wave began with the streetcar lines that made many parts of Newton accessible for commuters in the late nineteenth century. The next wave came in the 1920s when automobiles became affordable to a growing upper middle class. Even then, however, Oak Hill continued to be farmed, mostly market gardening, until the prosperity of the 1950s made all of Newton more densely settled.[citation needed]

21st century

Two of the 9/11 hijackers stayed in Newton the night before the attack. The hijackers of American Airlines Flight 11 spent their last night in Newton's Park Inn, an economy motel across the street from the Chestnut Hill Mall and within walking distance of The Atrium.[8]

Runners in the 2024 Boston Marathon pass through the intersection of Commonwealth Avenue and Walnut Street in Newton

Each April on Patriots' Day, the Boston Marathon is run through the city, entering from Wellesley on Route 16 (Washington Street) where runners encounter the first of the four infamous Newton Hills. It then turns right onto Route 30 (Commonwealth Avenue) for the long haul into Boston. There are two more hills before reaching Centre Street, and then the fourth and most noted, Heartbreak Hill, rises shortly after Centre Street. Residents and visitors line the race route along Washington Street and Commonwealth Avenue to cheer the runners.

Geography

Newton Centre's Union Street in 2007

Newton is a suburban city approximately 7 mi (11 km) from downtown Boston, in Middlesex County. It is also bordered by Waltham and Watertown on the north, Needham and the West Roxbury neighborhood of Boston on the south, Wellesley and Weston on the west, and Brookline and the Brighton neighborhood of Boston on the east.

The Charles River flows along the north and west parts of Newton, and Route 128 passes through the western part of the city.

The Mass Pike passes through the more urbanized northern section of the city before heading into Boston. Additional major highways in Newton include Route 9, serving the southern parts of the city, and Hammond Pond Parkway, which is the main north–south route through Chestnut Hill and provides access to Brookline and West Roxbury.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 18.2 square miles (47.1 km2), of which 18.0 square miles (46.6 km2) is land and 0.2 square miles (0.5 km2) (0.82%) is water.

Geological history

Main article: List of stratigraphic units and structural features in Massachusetts

Geologically Newton located within topographic lowland the Boston Basin of the Appalachian Mountain chain.[9][10] This lowland is surrounded by a ring of highland drumlins which were left after the last glaciation twelve thousand years ago.[11][12]

There are several unique outcroppings of rocks around Newton where geologic history revealing of how territory have formed and has changed over the past hundreds millions of years of drift supercontinents and ancient oceans, earthquake activity associated with volcanism and related faulting activity and changing climate. There are mainly three types of bedrock: Roxbury Conglomerate, Cambridge Argillite or Slate, and Brighton Volcanics and the Mattapan Volcanics pre-Cambrian foundation of Dedham Granodiorite. The Boston Border Fault and the Shawmut anticline of Newton formed as the alpine mountains of east-central Massachusetts were created.[13][14][15][16][17][18] Unique outcroppings rocks exposure has steadily declined as Newton area has become increasingly developed.

Topography

Newton has grown around a formation of seven hills. "The general features of Newton are not without interest. Seven principal elevations mark its surface, like the seven hills of ancient Rome, with the difference that the seven hills of Newton are much more distinct than the seven hills of Rome: Nonantum Hill, Waban Hill, Chestnut Hill, Bald Pate Hill, Oak Hill, Institution Hill and Mount Ida."[19]

Villages

Main article: List of villages in Newton, Massachusetts

Rather than having a single city center, Newton is a patchwork of thirteen villages, many boasting small downtown areas of their own. The 13 villages are: Auburndale, Chestnut Hill, Newton Centre, Newton Corner, Newton Highlands, Newton Lower Falls, Newton Upper Falls (both on the Charles River, and both former small industrial sites), Newtonville, Nonantum (also known as Silver Lake or "The Lake"), Oak Hill, Thompsonville, Waban and West Newton. Oak Hill Park is a place within the village of Oak Hill that itself is shown as a separate and distinct village on some city maps (including a map dated 2010 on the official City of Newton website),[20] and Four Corners is also shown as a village on some city maps. Although most of the villages have a post office, they have no legal definition and no firmly defined borders. This village-based system often causes some confusion with addresses and for first-time visitors.[21]

Climate

The record low temperature was −21 °F (−29 °C) in February 1934; the record high temperature was 101 °F (38 °C) in August 1975.[22]

Climate data for Newton, Massachusetts
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 68
(20)
68
(20)
89
(32)
94
(34)
93
(34)
99
(37)
100
(38)
101
(38)
99
(37)
88
(31)
81
(27)
74
(23)
101
(38)
Mean daily maximum °F (°C) 34
(1)
37
(3)
44
(7)
56
(13)
66
(19)
76
(24)
82
(28)
79
(26)
72
(22)
60
(16)
50
(10)
39
(4)
58
(14)
Mean daily minimum °F (°C) 17
(−8)
19
(−7)
27
(−3)
38
(3)
48
(9)
57
(14)
63
(17)
62
(17)
55
(13)
43
(6)
34
(1)
24
(−4)
41
(5)
Record low °F (°C) −14
(−26)
−21
(−29)
−5
(−21)
6
(−14)
27
(−3)
36
(2)
44
(7)
39
(4)
28
(−2)
20
(−7)
5
(−15)
−19
(−28)
−21
(−29)
Average precipitation inches (mm) 4.35
(110)
4.24
(108)
5.58
(142)
4.55
(116)
4.11
(104)
4.31
(109)
4.02
(102)
4.03
(102)
4.06
(103)
4.69
(119)
4.76
(121)
4.89
(124)
53.59
(1,360)
Source: [22]

Demographics

Historical population
YearPop.±%
17901,360—    
18001,491+9.6%
18101,709+14.6%
18201,850+8.3%
18302,376+28.4%
18403,351+41.0%
18505,258+56.9%
18608,382+59.4%
187012,825+53.0%
188016,995+32.5%
189024,379+43.4%
190033,587+37.8%
191039,806+18.5%
192046,054+15.7%
193065,276+41.7%
194069,873+7.0%
195081,994+17.3%
196092,384+12.7%
197091,263−1.2%
198083,622−8.4%
199082,585−1.2%
200083,829+1.5%
201085,146+1.6%
202088,923+4.4%
2022*87,381−1.7%
* = population estimate.
Source: United States census records and Population Estimates Program data.[23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34]
Source:
U.S. Decennial Census[3]

As of the census[35] of 2010, there were 85,146 people, 32,648 households, and 20,499 families residing in the city. The population density was 4,643.6 inhabitants per square mile (1,792.9/km2). There were 32,112 housing units at an average density of 1,778.8 per square mile (686.8/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 79.6% White, 11.5% Asian, 2.5% African American, 0.07% Native American, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.71% from other races, and 1.46% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino residents of any race were 4.1% of the population (0.7% Puerto Rican, 0.6% Mexican, 0.4% Colombian, 0.3% Guatemalan, 0.3% Argentine). (2010 Census Report: Census report Quickfacts.com)

Newton, along with neighboring Brookline, is known for its significant Jewish and Asian populations. The Jewish population as of 2002 was estimated to be 28,002.[36]

There were 31,201 households, out of which 31.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.2% were married couples living together, 8.0% had a female householder with no husband present, and 34.3% were non-families. Of all households, 25.5% were made up of individuals, and 11.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. As of the 2008 US Census, the average household size was 2.60 and the average family size was 3.11.

In the city, 21.2% of the population was under the age of 18, 10.3% was from 18 to 24, 28.2% from 25 to 44, 25.2% from 45 to 64, and 15.1% was 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 86.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 82.7 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $107,696, and the median income for a family was $136,843. Males had a median income of $95,387 versus $60,520 for females. The per capita income for the city was $56,163. About 3.6% of families and 5.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.2% of those under age 18 and 9.4% of those age 65 or over.[37]

As of 2015, 21.9% of the residents of Newton had been born outside of the United States.[38]

Economy

Newton's largest employers include Boston College and Newton-Wellesley Hospital. Companies based in Newton include TechTarget, CyberArk and Upromise. Until July 2015, Newton was also home to the global headquarters of TripAdvisor, the world's largest travel site, reaching nearly 280 million unique monthly visitors.[39] TripAdvisor moved into a newly built headquarters in neighboring Needham.[40]

Income

See also: List of Massachusetts locations by per capita income

Data is from the 2009–2013 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates.[41][42][43]

Rank ZIP code (ZCTA) Per capita
income
Median
household
income
Median
family
income
Population Number of
households
1 02468 $86,528 $201,731 $213,958 5,267 1,868
2 02465 $75,857 $139,763 $163,898 11,673 4,251
3 02462 $74,279 $83,438 $211,779 1,412 682
4 02459 $71,128 $133,801 $173,613 18,339 6,694
Newton $63,872 $119,148 $154,787 86,241 31,295
5 02460 $61,686 $102,276 $139,917 9,046 3,625
6 02461 $61,088 $122,283 $146,343 6,808 2,526
7 02458 $59,071 $95,216 $132,207 11,602 4,791
8 02467 $55,288 $115,493 $151,495 23,092 6,575
9 02464 $51,744 $81,771 $83,816 2,947 1,337
10 02466 $47,551 $105,893 $131,705 9,105 3,098
Middlesex County $42,861 $82,090 $104,032 1,522,533 581,120
Massachusetts $35,763 $66,866 $84,900 6,605,058 2,530,147
United States $28,155 $53,046 $64,719 311,536,594 115,610,216

Arts and culture

The city is home to two symphony orchestras, the New Philharmonia Orchestra of Massachusetts[44][45] and the Newton Symphony Orchestra.[46] The Joanne Langione Dance Center, an American youth dance school was founded in 1976.[47]

Points of interest

The Jackson Homestead.
Chestnut Hill Reservoir

Government

Newton Public Library

City

Newton has an elected strong mayor-council form of government. The council is called the City Council. The mayor is Ruthanne Fuller. Fuller is the first woman to be elected Mayor of Newton.

The elected officials are:

As of November 2023, the makeup of the City Council is:[58]

Ward Ward Councilor At-large Councilor At-large Councilor
1 Maria Scibelli Greenberg Alison Leary John Oliver
2 David Micley Tarik Lucas Susan Albright
3 Julia Malakie Andrea Kelley Pam Wright
4 Randy Block Lenny Gentile Joshua Krintzman
5 Bill Humphrey Andreae Downs Rena Getz
6 Martha Bixby Alan Lobovits Vicki Danberg
7 R. Lisle Baker Rebecca Walker-Grossman Marc Laredo
8 Stephen Farrell Rick Lipof David Kalis

Newton's school committee decides policies and budget for Newton Public Schools. It has nine voting members, consisting of the Mayor of Newton and eight at-large Ward representatives, who are elected.[59]

County

Mismanagement of Middlesex County's public hospital in the mid-1990s left the county on the brink of insolvency, and in 1997 the Massachusetts legislature stepped in by assuming all assets and obligations of the county. The government of Middlesex County was officially abolished on July 11, 1997. The sheriff and some other regional officials with specific duties are still elected locally to perform duties within the county region, but there is no county council or commission. However, communities are now granted the right to form their own regional compacts for sharing services.

These are the remaining elected officers for Middlesex County:

State

House of Representatives:

Senate:

Federal

Congress

Newton town vote by[69]
party in presidential elections
Year Democratic Republican
2020 81.3% 40,907 16.6% 8,357
2016 77.6% 36,463 16.5% 7,764
2012 71.3% 32,099 27.0% 12,154
2008 75.0% 33,360 23.1% 10,283
2004 75.2% 32,061 23.5% 10,025
2000 73.0% 29,918 19.8% 8,132
1996 73.5% 30,005 20.8% 8,499
1992 65.2% 29,136 21.5% 9,623
1988 66.8% 29,039 32.0% 13,892
1984 62.7% 27,343 37.1% 16,184
1980 45.8% 20,173 35.4% 15,621
1976 55.5% 25,116 40.6% 18,372
1972 60.0% 27,470 39.7% 18,172
1968 67.8% 29,427 29.8% 12,936
1964 77.0% 34,854 22.4% 10,124
1960 51.0% 24,482 48.7% 23,421
1956 36.0% 16,650 63.9% 29,546
1952 31.8% 14,492 68.0% 31,087
1948 33.8% 13,349 64.1% 25,292
1944 35.0% 13,670 64.8% 25,268
1940 31.6% 12,101 67.7% 25,629
1936 31.1% 10,634 64.2% 21,936
1932 31.9% 9,514 66.6% 19,892
1928 36.3% 10,438 62.9% 18,074
1924 19.2% 3,836 73.8% 14,738
1920 22.6% 3,689 75.9% 12,407
1916 35.5% 2,585 63.2% 4,605
1912 31.5% 4,047 39.9% 5,125
1908 25.5% 1,470 70.4% 4,053
1904 30.7% 1,658 67.0% 3,613
1900 28.0% 1,328 69.4% 3,294
1896 11.8% 525 80.5% 3,570
1892 40.1% 1,673 58.0% 2,416
1888 39.0% 1,404 57.9% 2,086
1884 38.5% 1,158 52.9% 1,594
1880 26.4% 715 73.2% 1,985
1876 32.0% 832 68.0% 1771
1872 18.3% 285 81.7% 1,272
1868 23.7% 372 76.3% 1,200
Voter Registration and Party Enrollment as of October 17, 2018[70]
Party Number of Voters Percentage
Democratic 25,517 42.30%
Republican 4,110 6.81%
Unaffiliated 30,183 50.03%
Libertarian 120 0.20%
Total 60,323 100%

Education

Public schools

A panoramic view of Newton North High School

Public education is provided by Newton Public Schools.

Elementary

Middle schools

High schools

Private schools

Higher education

Colleges and universities located in Newton include:

Former colleges

Newton Junior College

Newton Junior College, operated by the Newton Public Schools, opened in 1946 to serve the needs of returning veterans who otherwise would not have been able to continue their education due to the overcrowding of colleges and universities at that time. It used the facilities of Newton High School (now Newton North High School) until its own adjacent campus was built. It closed in 1976 due to declining enrollment and increased costs.[78] The availability of such places as UMass Boston contributed to its demise. According to the city, its former campus is now "Claflin Park," a 25-unit multi-family development.

Others

Other former colleges include Aquinas College (1961–1999), Mount Alvernia College (1959–1973), Mount Ida College (1899–2018), and Newton College of the Sacred Heart (1946–1975). Andover Newton Theological School relocated to New Haven, Connecticut (1807–2017).[78]

Media

News

The city's community newspaper The Newton TAB, a weekly print paper published by the Community Newspaper Company, and owned by Gatehouse Media, ceased print publication in May 2022.[79] The Newton Patch covers daily local news out of Newton and offers a platform for locals to post opinion, events, news tips and blogs on the community online platform as well.[80] The Newton Voice. The Newton community is also served by its high school publications, including Newton North High School's Newtonite and Newton South High School's Lion's Roar and Denebola. Fig City News is a free, online community news resource founded by resident volunteers to cover local news and community events in Newton.[81] The Boston Globe occasionally covers Newton.

Television

Residents of Newton have access to a state-of-the-art television studio and community media center, NewTV, located at 23 Needham Street in Newton Highlands. Newton is also home to NECN, a regional news network owned by NBC.

Radio

From 1968 to 2017, the studios and transmitter of WNTN AM-1550 were on Rumford Avenue in Auburndale.

Infrastructure

Hospital

Newton-Wellesley Hospital is located at 2014 Washington Street in Newton. U.S. News & World Report ranks the hospital 13th best in the Boston metro area.

Transportation

Newton is well-served by three modes of mass transit run by the MBTA: light rail, commuter rail, and bus service. The Green Line D branch, (also known as the Riverside branch) is a light rail line running through the center of the city that makes very frequent trips to downtown Boston, ranging from 10 to 30 minutes away. The Green Line B branch ends across from Boston College on Commonwealth Avenue, virtually at the border of Boston's Brighton neighborhood and the City of Newton (an area which encompasses an unincorporated suburban village referred to as Chestnut Hill). The MBTA Worcester commuter rail, serving the northern villages of Newton that are proximate to Waltham, offers less frequent service to Boston. It runs from every half-an-hour during peak times to every couple of hours otherwise. The northern villages are also served by frequent express buses that go to downtown Boston via the Massachusetts Turnpike as well as Waltham.

Newton Centre, which is centered around the Newton Centre MBTA station, has been lauded as an example of transit-oriented development.[82]

The Massachusetts Turnpike (Interstate 90), which basically follows the old Boston and Albany Railroad main line right-of-way, runs east and west through Newton, while Route 128 (Interstate 95) slices through the extreme western part of the city in the Lower Falls area. Route 30 (Commonwealth Avenue), Route 16 (Watertown Street west to West Newton, where it follows Washington Street west) and route 9 (Worcester Turnpike or Boylston Street) also run east and west through the city. Another major Boston (and Brookline) street, Beacon Street, runs west from the Boston city line to Washington Street west of the hospital, where it terminates at Washington Street.

There are no major north–south roads through Newton: every north–south street in Newton terminates within Newton at one end or the other. The only possible exception is Needham Street, which is north–south at the border between Newton and Needham, but it turns east and becomes Dedham Street, and when it reaches the Boston border, it goes south-east.

There are some north–south streets that are important to intra-Newton traveling. Centre Street runs south from the Watertown town line to Newton Highlands, where it becomes Winchester Street and terminates at Nahanton Street. Walnut Street runs south from Newtonville, where it starts at Crafts Street, down to Newton Highlands, where it ends at Dedham Street.[83]

Public safety

The City of Newton Police Department has 139 sworn officers. The Newton Fire Department is fully paid and operates six engine companies, three ladder companies, and one rescue company from six stations.[citation needed]

Notable people

Main article: List of people from Newton, Massachusetts

Cemeteries

In popular culture

Sister cities

Newton is currently twinned with:

See also

References

  1. ^ Levin, Andy. "Ruthanne Fuller sworn in as Newton's mayor". Newton TAB. Archived from the original on January 2, 2018. Retrieved January 2, 2018.
  2. ^ "2020 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved May 21, 2022.
  3. ^ a b "U.S. Census Bureau Quickfacts: United States". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved September 16, 2021.
  4. ^ McAdow, Ron (1992). The Charles River. Marlborough, MA: Bliss Publishing Company, Inc. pp. 171–174. ISBN 0-9625144-1-1.
  5. ^ Ritter, Priscilla R.; Thelma Fleishman (1982). Newton, Massachusetts 1679–1779: A Biographical Directory. New England Historic Genealogical Society.
  6. ^ Smith, Samuel Francis (1880). History of Newton, Massachusetts: Town and City, from Its Earliest Settlement to the Present Time, 1630-1880. American Logotype Company.
  7. ^ a b c Spiers, John H. (2011). "Landscaping the Garden City: Transportation, Utilities, and Parks in Newton, Massachusetts, 1874-1915". Historical Geography – via Wikipedia Library.
  8. ^ Der Spiegel (April 1, 2007). Inside 9-11: What Really Happened. St. Martin's Publishing Group.
  9. ^ Geology of Newton by James W. Skehan, S.J. and Catherine W. Barton
  10. ^ Boston, Mailing Address: 15 State Street 4th Floor; Us, MA 02109 Phone: 617 223-8666 Contact. "Geologic Formations - Boston Harbor Islands National Recreation Area (U.S. National Park Service)". www.nps.gov. Retrieved January 9, 2023.((cite web)): CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  11. ^ "Bathymetric Data Viewer". www.ncei.noaa.gov. Retrieved January 9, 2023.
  12. ^ "Glaciers and Boston". bostongeology.com. Retrieved January 9, 2023.
  13. ^ "History". The Geologic History of Newton, MA. Retrieved January 9, 2023.
  14. ^ Share, Dr Jack (March 13, 2011). "Written In Stone...seen through my lens: Architectural Geology of Boston: The Roxbury Conglomerate (Puddingstone) Part I – The Tectonic Evolution and Journey of Avalonia". Written In Stone...seen through my lens. Retrieved January 9, 2023.
  15. ^ "Written In Stone...seen through my lens". written-in-stone-seen-through-my-lens.blogspot.com. Retrieved January 9, 2023.
  16. ^ Thompson, Margaret. "Bedrock geologic map of the Newton 7.5' quadrangle, Middlesex, Norfolk and Suffolk counties, Massachusetts". mgs.geo.umass.edu. Retrieved January 9, 2023.
  17. ^ Introduction to the Bedrock Geology of Newton
  18. ^ Open Space Plan 2015-2021 Section 4 Environmental Inventory & Analysis
  19. ^ Smith, S.F. (1880). "Chapter 1: History of Newton". History of Newton, Massachusetts, Town and City, from its Earliest Settlement to the Present Time, 1630–1880. The American Logotype Company. p. 13. Retrieved October 9, 2019.
  20. ^ Newton's Geographic Information System: City of Newton, Massachusetts Archived February 22, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  21. ^ "The Villages of Newton, Mass". newtoncitizens.com. Retrieved February 11, 2016.
  22. ^ a b "Monthly Averages for Newton, MA (02458)". The Weather Channel. Retrieved March 16, 2012.
  23. ^ "Total Population (P1), 2010 Census Summary File 1". American FactFinder, All County Subdivisions within Massachusetts. United States Census Bureau. 2010.
  24. ^ "Massachusetts by Place and County Subdivision - GCT-T1. Population Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
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Further reading