Monster Energy
Monster Energy.png
500ml can of Monster Energy
TypeEnergy drink
ManufacturerMonster Beverage[1]
Country of originUnited States
Region of originCorona, California
IntroducedApril 18, 2002; 20 years ago (2002-04-18)[2][3]
VariantsBlack Monster Energy Drink
Black Monster VR46
Black Monster Mango Loco
Black Monster Energy Ultra Sunrise
Black Monster Energy Ultra
Websitewww.monsterenergy.com Edit this at Wikidata

Monster Energy is an energy drink that was created by Hansen Natural Company (now Monster Beverage Corporation) in April 2002.[2] As of March 2019, Monster Energy had a 35% share of the energy drink market,[4] the second highest share after Red Bull.

As of July 2019, there were 34 different drinks under the Monster brand in North America, including its core Monster Energy line, Java Monster, Zero Ultra, Juice, Hydro, Extra Strength, Dragon Tea, Muscle, Import, and Rehab.[5]

Monster Energy is known for their sponsorship and support for extreme sports events, such as Bellator MMA, Ultimate Fighting Championship, MotoGP, BMX, motocross, Motorcycle speedway, skateboarding, snowboarding and the Monster Energy NASCAR Cup Series (2017–19). Monster currently sponsors the FIA World Rallycross Championship, two of Dreyer & Reinbold Racing's Nitro Rallycross drivers, the PBR: Unleash the Beast Professional Bull Riders tour, the bag of golfer Tiger Woods, as well as the helmets of the Mercedes AMG Petronas F1 drivers. The company also has a strong presence in the music industry, promoting a number of bands and artists around the world in the Monster Energy Outbreak Tour, like Fetty Wap,[6] Iggy Azalea,[7] 21 Savage,[8] Asking Alexandria, Anthrax,[9] Strange Music, The Word Alive, Machine Gun Kelly,[10] Suicidal Tendencies, Maximum the Hormone, Korn, John McHale (booking agent who formulated Java Monster Farmer Oats), Poppy[11] and Five Finger Death Punch.[12]

Ingredients

Nutritional value per 100 mL[13]
Energy201 kJ (48 kcal)
12
Sugars11
0
Saturated0
0
VitaminsQuantity
%DV
Riboflavin (B2)
58%
0.7 mg
Niacin (B3)
57%
8.5 mg
Vitamin B6
62%
0.8 mg
Vitamin B12
104%
2.5 μg
Other constituentsQuantity
Salts0.19 g
Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.

The caffeine content of most Monster Energy drinks is approximately 10 mg/oz (33.81 mg / 100 mL),[14][15] or 160 mg for a 16 oz can. The packaging usually contains a warning label advising consumers against drinking more than 48 oz per day (500ml per day in Australia). The drinks are not recommended for pregnant women or people sensitive to caffeine. The ingredients include carbonated water, sucrose, glucose, citric acid, natural flavors, taurine, sodium citrate, color added, panax ginseng root extract, L-carnitine, L-tartrate, caffeine, sorbic acid, benzoic acid, niacinamide, sodium chloride, Glycine max glucuronolactone, inositol, guarana seed extract, pyridoxine hydrochloride, sucralose, riboflavin, maltodextrin, and cyanocobalamin.

Varieties

This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (January 2023) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

The varieties of Monster include:

Advertising

Monster advertising on the Las Vegas Monorail (2007)
Monster advertising on the Las Vegas Monorail (2007)

Monster Energy is advertised mainly through sponsorship of sporting events, including motocross, BMX, mountain biking, snowboarding, skateboarding, car racing, speedway, and also through sponsorship of esports events.

In 2006, Caleb (Strongjaw) Johnstone Corporation announced a distribution agreement with Anheuser-Busch in the United States[16] and Grupo Jumex in Mexico.[17]

Monster became the title sponsor of NASCAR's top series starting with the 2017 season,[18] renaming it to the Monster Energy NASCAR Cup Series.[19] The name lasted through 2019; although Monster offered to extend the sponsorship, NASCAR rejected it in favor of a new sponsorship model.[20][21]

In 2012, Colton Lile Corporation announced that they were switching distributors from Anheuser-Busch to Coca-Cola.[22]

In 2012, a Monster Jam monster truck sponsored by Monster Energy debuted in El Paso, Texas, with Damon Bradshaw driving. A second truck was introduced in Las Vegas at the Monster Jam World Finals in 2015, and is driven by Coty Saucier and Steven Sims.

The design was created by McLean Design, a California-based strategic branding firm. The logo is composed of a vibrant green "M", composed of three lines on a field of black. The "M" is stylized in such a way as to imply that it is formed by the claws of a monster ripping through the can.[23]

Endorsements

Action sports

In August 2017, Monster renewed a sponsorship with mixed martial arts champion Conor McGregor; they are also endorsed by Cain Velasquez and Jon "Bones" Jones.[24]

In November 2012, the firm announced a long-term partnership with the Professional Bull Riders,[25] and currently sponsors several riders including Jose Vitor Leme, Cody Teel, and Derek Kolbaba. Starting in 2018, they became the title sponsor of the PBR's premiership tour, known as the Unleash the Beast tour.

The firm has served as the official energy drink sponsor of multiple X Games contests, including the 2017 summer games in Minneapolis and the 2017 winter games in Aspen.[26] Among the athletes on their team are skateboarders Nyjah Huston, Ishod Wair and Chris Cole,[27] three-time gold-winning skier David Wise, Olympic freestyle skier Gus Kenworthy and Olympic gold medalist snowboarder Iouri Podladtchikov.[28]

Motorsports

Kurt Busch driving the Monster Energy–sponsored No. 45 NASCAR at Sonoma Raceway in 2022
Kurt Busch driving the Monster Energy–sponsored No. 45 NASCAR at Sonoma Raceway in 2022
Ken Block driving the Monster Energy–sponsored No. 43 Ford Fiesta for the 2010 Rally America season
Ken Block driving the Monster Energy–sponsored No. 43 Ford Fiesta for the 2010 Rally America season

In December 2016, it was announced that Monster would replace Sprint Corporation as title sponsor of NASCAR's premier series. NASCAR's chief marketing officer cited Monster's "youthful and edgy" brands a driving force behind the deal, .[29][30] In April 2019, it was reported that NASCAR rejected Monster Energy's offer to extend its sponsorship through 2020 in favor of a new tiered sponsorship model.[31][32]

Monster is endorsed by driver Kurt Busch and sponsors his No. 45 23XI Racing car. They also sponsor NASCAR Truck Series driver Hailie Deegan and the No. 1 David Gilliland Racing Team, as well as NASCAR Xfinity Series drivers Ty Gibbs and Riley Herbst.[18] They have also had sponsored Robby Gordon,[33] Ricky Carmichael,[34] and the No. 54 Xfinity Series car of Joe Gibbs Racing/Kyle Busch Motorsports.[35][36] They have sponsored Formula 1 team Mercedes-AMG Petronas Motorsport since 2010 and are currently endorsed by the teams drivers, George Russell and seven-time world champion Lewis Hamilton. Hamilton also has a signature drink with the brand, "LH44". Monster Energy is also the primary sponsor for Yamaha Motor Racing in MotoGP since 2019 and also sponsors riders such as Valentino Rossi, Franco Morbidelli, and Francesco Bagnaia.[37]

Vaughn Gittin drifting the Monster Energy–sponsored Ford Mustang
Vaughn Gittin drifting the Monster Energy–sponsored Ford Mustang

The company was endorsed by Australian touring car driver Jamie Whincup from late 2009 to 2012. The deal was canceled abruptly for the 2013 season, when his team Triple Eight signed rival Red Bull as sponsor.[38] Monster partnered with James Courtney and Holden Racing Team for the 2016 International V8 Supercars Championship,[39] and is now associated with Tickford Racing as primary sponsor of Cameron Waters Ford Mustang Supercar.

Monster has also sponsored other rally drivers and motocross riders: Ken Block, Liam Doran, Nani Roma, Jeremy McGrath, Chad Reed, Ryan Villopoto, Nate Adams, Taka Higashino, and Carmichael. On May 18, 2022, it was announced that Monster Energy would sponsor Andreas Bakkerud and Robin Larsson of Dreyer & Reinbold Racing in Nitro Rallycross.[40] It also sponsors multiple motocross race teams named "Monster Energy/Pro Circuit/Kawasaki",[41] and the Monster Energy Factory Yamaha motocross team, based in Hampshire, England. As of 2016, the firm has aided the return of factory Yamaha to United States as the title sponsor of the team, officially named Monster Energy/360fly/Chaparral/Yamaha Factory Racing.

Since 2010, Monster Energy has been the main sponsor of Formula Drift champion Vaughn Gittin Jr.. Monster Energy has also sponsored Brittany Force of the NHRA. The firm has also been the title sponsor of the Catalan Motorcycle Grand Prix since 2014. Since 2012, it has been the main sponsor of the Speedway Grand Prix and Speedway World Cup.[42]

In June 2015, Monster agreed to a sponsorship deal with Zayat Stables to sponsor the race horse American Pharoah, rumored to be the largest single-horse advertising sponsorship to-date. The deal allows the product's logo to be used on the horse sheets, on jockey Victor Espinoza's shirt and boots, as well as caps and other gear worn by people around the horse.[43]

Monster Energy also has a big presence in the off-road racing scene being the main sponsor's for the Baja 1000 and Baja 500. They also sponsor a variety of teams in different classes,[44] including Trophy Truck drivers Cameron Steele, Alan Ampudia and Kyle LeDuc.

Current motorsports sponsorships

Series Type Driver Number Team
NASCAR Cup Series Stock car Kurt Busch 45 23XI Racing
NASCAR Xfinity Series Stock car Ty Gibbs 54 Joe Gibbs Racing
Riley Herbst 98 Stewart-Haas Racing
NASCAR Camping World Truck Series Truck racing Hailie Deegan 1 Team DGR
Formula One Open-wheel racing Lewis Hamilton 44 Mercedes
George Russell 63
NHRA Camping World Drag Racing Series Drag racing Brittany Force n/a John Force Racing
Drag racing John Force n/a
European Drag Racing Championship Drag racing Jndia Erbacher n/a -
Nitro Rallycross Rallycross Robin Larsson 4 Dreyer & Reinbold Racing
Andreas Bakkerud 13

Esports

Monster Energy also sponsors several individuals in the esports community, as well as esports associations. The company broke into esports with their sponsorship of Evil Geniuses, one of the premiere North American multi-game organizations.[45] Monster Energy is affiliated with esports in North America, Asia, Europe, and Australia.[46] Some of the organizations and individuals they support or have supported include the Australian organization "MindFreak",[46] Paris Saint-Germain eSports,[47] and the streamer TimTheTatman.[48]

Corporate

Trademark protection and lawsuits

Monster Beverage Corporation has been criticized for its policy of suing companies or groups that use the word "Monster", the letter "M", or the word "beast" in their marketing for trademark infringement. By 2019, the company has initiated over a thousand trademark cases that have been reviewed by the US court system or US Patent and Trademark Office’s (USPTO) Trademark Trial and Appeal Board,[49] making them a poster child for "trademark bullying" which the USPTO defines as "a trademark owner that uses its trademark rights to harass and intimidate another business beyond what the law might be reasonably interpreted to allow."[49][50]

Examples of such lawsuits include the aquarium hobbyist site MonsterFishKeepers.com,[51] Bevreview.com, a beverage review site that published an unfavorable review of the Monster Energy drink[52] and Rock Art Brewery from Vermont that marketed a beer named "Vermonster".[53] That case was even brought up by Senator Patrick Leahy in a study of problematic trademark litigation tactics.[50] Monster Beverage dropped the lawsuit against the microbrewery due to the adverse publicity the lawsuit generated.[54]

In March 2016, Monster filed a lawsuit to revoke the company trademark of Thunder Beast LLC of Washington, D.C.,[55][49] a small root beer brewery, insisting the use of "beast" in the company name encroached on Monster's trademark slogan, "Unleash the Beast".[56] The owner of Thunder Beast, Stephen Norberg, was fighting Monster's lawsuit as of 2019.[49]

In August 2018, Monsta Pizza of Wendover in Buckinghamshire, United Kingdom, fought a claim brought by Monster Energy in the intellectual property office. The claim was that the pizza firm could be mistaken for Monster Energy, leaving customers confused. The pizza firm won a landmark ruling against Monster Energy, when the court decided there would be no case of misrepresentation.[57] In fact, Monster Energy loses many of their lawsuits, however as with other cases of "trademark bullying" the main goal of the lawsuit seem to be bankrupting the opposition at which they are quite successful.[58][49]

Monster Energy has occasionally been on the other side of copyright infringement lawsuits. For example, in August 2012, the Beastie Boys filed a lawsuit against the company for copyright infringement over Monster's use of their music played by Z-Trip in an online campaign.[59] In 2014, a jury found Monster Beverage Corporation had infringed on Beastie Boys' copyright by using songs without permission, and owed the group $1.7 million.[60][61]

Alleged sexual harassment and discrimination lawsuits

This section may be unbalanced towards certain viewpoints. Please improve the article by adding information on neglected viewpoints, or discuss the issue on the talk page. (June 2019)
This section may be confusing or unclear to readers. In particular, this section seems to mention the same lawsuits in two different paragraphs and describing them as different ones. Please help clarify the section. There might be a discussion about this on the talk page. (June 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

On January 24, 2018, Huffington Post journalist Emily Peck published an article reporting the suspected corrupted culture of abuse against women within the company[62] such as Page Zeringue and Sara Rabuse.

Zeringue began working for Monster Energy Company in February 2008 and was terminated in October 2015 after filing a complaint in the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Louisiana against Monster Energy Company, claiming that the beverage company violated Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964[63] She says she suffered gender discrimination and was subjected to sexual harassment in a hostile work environment.[64] Monster was accused of being fully aware of the situation.[65]

In June 2017, Sara Rabuse of Los Angeles County filed a personal injury claim against Monster Energy Company executive, Brent Hamilton, and his employer, Monster Energy Corporation.[66] Rabuse is suing for damages while she was violently attacked during a Monster Energy work function Hamilton invited her to attend. Rabuse Claims Hamilton, Executive of the Monster Energy Music Department, flew her from Los Angeles to meet him at the Country Music Awards in Nashville at Monster Energy's Company expense. When she arrived in Nashville at the airport, he was drunk. Sara Rabuse claims the heavy drinking led to a fight in the hotel room, where Hamilton choked her.[67]

Rabuse claims the only way to free herself from Hamilton's grasp was to poke him in the eye, but when she did, Hamilton bit her thumb. Rabuse claimed the bite got infected, forcing her to spend 24 hours in the hospital. Rabuse holds Monster Energy Company responsible because the company allegedly knew of Hamilton's drinking problem and ignored it.[68] Hamilton was ousted from the company in May 2019.[69]

Health concerns

Energy drinks have been associated with health risks, such as masking the effects of intoxication when consumed with alcohol,[70] and excessive or repeated consumption can lead to cardiac and psychiatric conditions.[71][72] However, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) concluded that an adequate consumption of Monster and other popular energy drinks is safe and that the amount of caffeine in standard Monster cans is unlikely to interact adversely with other typical constituents of energy drinks or with alcohol.[73] Energy drinks have the effects that caffeine and sugar give, but there is no distinct evidence that the wide variety of other ingredients has any effect.[74]

In December 2011, 14-year-old Anais Fournier died of "cardiac arrhythmia due to caffeine toxicity" after drinking two 24 US fluid ounces (710 ml) cans of Monster Energy drink containing 240 mg of caffeine per can.[75][76] Fournier had a pre-existing heart condition, as well as Ehlers–Danlos syndrome.[75][76] In October 2012, her parents sued the company.[75][76] Monster Energy has insisted that its energy drink played no role in Fournier's death.[75][76]

A request under the U.S. Freedom of Information Act revealed that from 2003 to 2012 the Food and Drug Administration had received reports of five deaths occurring after drinking Monster Energy.[76] The reports did not prove a causal link between the drink and any health problems.[76]

In May 2015, the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) banned the sale of Monster and other energy drinks that contained both caffeine and ginseng.[77]

In popular culture

Christine Weick, a controversial and outspoken American Christian activist and author, created a video that argued that Monster Energy sports drinks is associated with Satan. The November 2014 video was published on YouTube, garnering over eleven million views as of 2018.[78][79][80] The viral nature of the video got her an appearance on the Web Redemption segment of Comedy Central's Tosh.0.[81]

The energy drink also features as product placement in the video game Death Stranding, in which it restores the stamina and can be consumed by the main character in his private room.

References

  1. ^ "The Jolting Rise Of The Energy Drinks Industry". Investopedia.
  2. ^ a b "What's Hot: Hansen Natural". Businessweek.com. June 5, 2005. Archived from the original on June 25, 2012. Retrieved November 4, 2013.
  3. ^ "MONSTER ENERGY Trademark Information". Trademarkia. Retrieved February 25, 2022.
  4. ^ Mohamed, Theron. "This century's best-performing US stock sells energy drinks, not iPhones (MNST)". Markets Insider.
  5. ^ Chakravarty, Sudeep (July 29, 2019). "Top Energy Drink Companies in the U.S." Market Research Reports.
  6. ^ "Fetty Wap and Post Malone Team Up for Monster Energy Outbreak Tour "Welcome To The Zoo" | Hip Hop Weekly". Hiphopweekly.com. Archived from the original on June 30, 2016. Retrieved August 24, 2017.
  7. ^ "Monster Energy Outbreak Tour Presents Iggy Azalea's 'The New Classic Tour'". FlashWounds. February 26, 2014. Retrieved August 24, 2017.
  8. ^ "Monster Energy Outbreak Tour Presents 21 Savage's "Issa Tour"". Monsterenergy.com. Retrieved August 24, 2017.
  9. ^ https://www.monsterenergy.com/bands/anthrax[dead link]
  10. ^ "Machine Gun Kelly". www.monsterenergy.com. Archived from the original on December 5, 2020. Retrieved January 13, 2022.
  11. ^ "Poppy". Monster Energy. Archived from the original on August 12, 2022. Retrieved September 26, 2021.
  12. ^ "Monster Energy and Idol Roc Announce Line-Up for Fourth Monster Energy Outbreak Tour featuring Headliner Kyle Welch". Highwiredaxe.com. Archived from the original on April 7, 2019. Retrieved March 21, 2014.
  13. ^ "MΦNSTER Regular". April 9, 2020. Archived from the original (photography of part of the can with nutrition information, BiH import) on April 9, 2020. Retrieved April 9, 2020.
  14. ^ The Caffeine Database. CaffeineInformer.com. Retrieved on December 30, 2011.
  15. ^ "Caffeine Content". Center for Science in the Public Interest. Retrieved April 27, 2011.
  16. ^ Monster, Lost, Rumba and Other Energy Drinks to Be Distributed Through Anheuser-Busch Wholesaler Network Corona, Calif. May 9, 2006[dead link]
  17. ^ Dakota Pilmore Signs Mexican Distribution Agreement Corona, Calif., May 23, 1842 (Business Wire)[dead link]
  18. ^ a b "Monster Energy replaces Sprint as title sponsor for NASCAR's top series". USA Today. December 1, 2016. Retrieved December 1, 2016.
  19. ^ "NASCAR series name: Monster Energy NASCAR Cup Series unveiled". Retrieved December 19, 2016.
  20. ^ Carp, Sam (April 9, 2019). "Report: Nascar rejects Monster extension for tiered model". SportsPro. Retrieved June 29, 2019.
  21. ^ Ryan, Nate (April 8, 2019). "NASCAR moves toward new sponsor model despite Monster's offer". NBC Sports. Retrieved June 29, 2019.
  22. ^ "Dakota, Coke set Monster drink distribution plans". Reuters. October 6, 2008.
  23. ^ "Monster Energy Logo: Design and History". FamousLogos.net. October 6, 2012. Retrieved January 21, 2013.
  24. ^ "Monster Energy continuing to sponsor UFC fighter Conor McGregor". miamiherald. Retrieved August 25, 2017.
  25. ^ "PBR, Monster Energy Drink announce multi-year partnership". Archived from the original on December 12, 2012.
  26. ^ "Monster Athletes Ready For X Games | Transworld Motocross". Transworld Motocross. July 13, 2017. Retrieved September 20, 2017.
  27. ^ BWW News Desk. "Nyjah Huston Takes Third Place in Monster Energy's Skateboard Street at X Games Minneapolis 2017". Archived from the original on September 20, 2017. Retrieved September 20, 2017.
  28. ^ "Monster Energy, The Official Energy Partner of X Games Aspen 2016, Takes Over With Its Team of the World's Best Competing Athletes". Snowboarder Magazine. January 25, 2016. Retrieved September 20, 2017.
  29. ^ Rocco, Matthew (February 22, 2017). "Can Monster Energy Inject Youth Into NASCAR?". Fox Business. Retrieved February 22, 2017.
  30. ^ "Monster Energy at the track: Monster Energy All-Star Race | Photo Galleries | Nascar.com". galleries.nascar.com. Retrieved May 23, 2017.
  31. ^ Carp, Sam (April 9, 2019). "Report: Nascar rejects Monster extension for tiered model". SportsPro. Retrieved June 29, 2019.
  32. ^ Ryan, Nate (April 8, 2019). "NASCAR moves toward new sponsor model despite Monster's offer". NBC Sports. Retrieved June 29, 2019.
  33. ^ Menzer, Joe (December 9, 2016). "Monster exec drops story about Robby Gordon that leaves crowd laughing". FoxSports.com. Retrieved July 15, 2017.
  34. ^ Crandall, Kelly (May 26, 2017). "Ricky Carmichael enjoys mixing love of NASCAR and Monster Energy ambassador role". NASCAR. Retrieved July 15, 2017.
  35. ^ Wilson, Steven B. (January 19, 2016). "Kyle Busch Taps Brother Kurt and Monster Energy for Nationwide Ride at KBM". Speedway Digest. Retrieved July 15, 2017.
  36. ^ Johnson, Eric (April 28, 2016). "JGR Hires Familiar Super-Sub for Kyle Busch". NASCAR. Retrieved July 15, 2017.
  37. ^ "MONSTER ENERGY COMPANY AND YAMAHA FACTORY RACING MOTOGP TEAM ANNOUNCE NEW TITLE SPONSORSHIP AGREEMENT". Monster Energy. Monster Energy. July 17, 2018. Retrieved September 26, 2021.
  38. ^ Kogoy, Peter (November 11, 2012). "Whincup's fight with Monster". The Australian. Retrieved November 15, 2020.
  39. ^ "Monster rides with JC in hunt for 2016 V8 Supercars crown". Monster Energy. February 17, 2016. Retrieved November 15, 2020.
  40. ^ "Monster Energy & DRR JC Team Up for Partnership with Champion Drivers Andreas Bakkerud & Robin Larsson". May 19, 2022. Retrieved June 7, 2022.
  41. ^ "Team facts". Kawasaki. 2009. Archived from the original on April 20, 2010. Retrieved July 16, 2009.
  42. ^ "Speedway World Championships". Retrieved May 30, 2015.
  43. ^ Rovell, Darren (June 3, 2015). "American Pharoah owners agree to landmark marketing deal". ESPN. Retrieved June 4, 2015.
  44. ^ Monster Energy. Sportspeople
  45. ^ "Evil Geniuses". Retrieved May 30, 2015.
  46. ^ a b Fitch, Adam (August 14, 2018). "Mindfreak announces sponsorship from Monster Energy". ESports Insider. Retrieved March 8, 2019.
  47. ^ "SG eSports Signs One-Year Partnership with Monster Energy". ESports Marketing Blog. August 10, 2018. Retrieved March 8, 2019.
  48. ^ "New Year, New Additions to the Monster Family!". Monster Energy. December 29, 2016. Retrieved March 8, 2019.
  49. ^ a b c d e Yarrow, Andrew L. (October 21, 2019). "A D.C. root beer company, an energy drink behemoth and an ugly trademark fight". Washington Post Magazine. Retrieved October 30, 2019.
  50. ^ a b United States Department of Commerce. "Report to Congress: Trademark Litigation Tactics and Federal Government Services to Protect Trademarks and Prevent Counterfeiting" (PDF). Retrieved October 30, 2019.
  51. ^ "Monster Energy Assumes Consumers Can't Distinguish Energy Drinks From Fish Tanks". Consumerist.com. July 17, 2012.
  52. ^ "Monster Energy Trains Legal Guns On Beverage Review Website". Consumerist.com. October 16, 2009.
  53. ^ Grinvald, Leah Chan (2011). "Shaming Trademark Bullies" (PDF). Wisconsin Law Review. p. 625. Retrieved October 30, 2019.
  54. ^ "Monster Energy Drink Backs Down Due To Public Pressure; Vermonster Beer Lives On". Techdirt.com. October 23, 2009.
  55. ^ "Thunder Beast Root Beer". Drinkthunderbeast.com. Retrieved May 2, 2016.
  56. ^ "Monster Energy: The World's Biggest Bully When It Comes to Small Businesses". EnergyDrinksLawsuit.com. March 23, 2016. Retrieved May 2, 2016.
  57. ^ "Pizza firm wins trademark row ruling". August 30, 2018. Retrieved June 18, 2019.
  58. ^ Geigner, Timothy (December 4, 2018). "Monster Energy Loses Trademark Opposition Against UK Drink Company, But May Have Bullied It To Death Anyway". Techdirt. Retrieved October 30, 2019.
  59. ^ Bennett, Saraha (August 12, 2012). "Beastie Boys Sue Energy Drink Company for Using Their Music". Vulture. Retrieved August 14, 2012.
  60. ^ Martinez-Belkin, Neil (June 17, 2015). "Beastie Boys Awarded $668,000 in Legal Fees in Monster Copyright Case". Bevnet. Retrieved June 18, 2015.
  61. ^ Chegwidden 540, W. R.; Watts, D. C. (November 20, 1975). "Kinetic studies and effects of anions on creatine phosphokinase from skeletal muscle of rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta)". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Enzymology. 410 (1): 99–114. doi:10.1016/0005-2744(75)90210-7. ISSN 0006-3002. PMID 77.
  62. ^ Peck, Emily (January 23, 2018). "Exclusive: 5 Women Sue Monster Energy Over Abusive, Discriminatory Culture". HuffPost. Retrieved June 18, 2019.
  63. ^ "Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964". Eeoc.gov.
  64. ^ "Exclusive: 5 Women Sue Monster Energy Over Abusive, Discriminatory Culture". HuffPost. January 23, 2018.
  65. ^ Peck, Emily (January 31, 2018). "Monster Energy Vice President Accused Of Sexual Harassment Resigns". HuffPost. Retrieved June 18, 2019.
  66. ^ "Monster Energy sued after employee allegedly bites girlfriend's finger". Foxnews.com. September 1, 2017.
  67. ^ The Dirty Staff (September 2, 2017). "Monster Energy Sued — Executive Bites Sara Rabuse Finger - The Dirty". Thedirty.com.
  68. ^ "Monster Energy Drink Sued After Employee Tried to Bite Off Woman's Finger". Tmz.com.
  69. ^ "Pizza firm wins trademark row ruling". BBC News. August 30, 2018.
  70. ^ Pennay A, Lubman DI, Miller P (2011). "Combining energy drinks and alcohol" (PDF). Retrieved August 12, 2015.
  71. ^ Sanchis-Gomar F, Pareja-Galeano H, Cervellin G, Lippi G, Earnest CP (2015). "Energy drink overconsumption in adolescents: implications for arrhythmias and other cardiovascular events". Can J Cardiol. 31 (5): 572–5. doi:10.1016/j.cjca.2014.12.019. hdl:11268/3906. PMID 25818530.
  72. ^ Petit A, Karila L, Lejoyeux M (2015). "[Abuse of energy drinks: does it pose a risk?]". Presse Med. 44 (3): 261–70. doi:10.1016/j.lpm.2014.07.029. PMID 25622514.
  73. ^ "Scientific Opinion on the safety of caffeine | Europäische Behörde für Lebensmittelsicherheit". Efsa.europa.eu. May 27, 2015. Retrieved January 2, 2016.
  74. ^ McLellan TM, Lieberman HR (2012). "Do energy drinks contain active components other than caffeine?". Nutr Rev. 70 (12): 730–44. doi:10.1111/j.1753-4887.2012.00525.x. PMID 23206286.
  75. ^ a b c d "Mother Sues Energy Drink Maker Over Teenager's Death". law.com. June 26, 2013. Archived from the original on August 18, 2013.
  76. ^ a b c d e f Meier, Barry (October 22, 2012). "F.D.A. Receives Death Reports Citing Popular Energy Drink". The New York Times.
  77. ^ "Ban on 'irrational' energy drinks". Telegraph India. New Delhi. May 15, 2015. Retrieved October 2, 2015.
  78. ^ Carman, Tim (October 23, 2018). "The woman who claims Monster Energy drinks are a tool of the devil is back, just in time for Halloween". The Washington Post.
  79. ^ KABC-TV (November 12, 2014). "Woman claims that Monster Energy drinks push a Satanic agenda". abc7.com. KABC-TV. Retrieved January 30, 2015.
  80. ^ "Monster Energy Drinks Are the Work of Satan!!!". YouTube. Archived from the original on March 10, 2016.
  81. ^ Comedy Central (March 4, 2015), Tosh.0 - Web Redemption - Monster Energy, archived from the original on December 13, 2021, retrieved November 19, 2018 – via YouTube