Phi Sigma Epsilon
ΦΣΕ
Psecrest.jpg
FoundedFebruary 20, 1910; 112 years ago (February 20, 1910)
Kansas State Normal College
TypeSocial
AffiliationNIC (former)
Association of Teachers College Fraternities (former)
ScopeNational
MottoGolden Rule
ColorsCardinal Red and Silver
SymbolTriangle
FlowerWhite Tea Rose
PublicationThe Triangulum
Chapters43 at Merger, 4 dissenting
Members20,000 lifetime
NicknamePhi Sig
Merged withPhi Sigma Kappa (1985)
Headquarters2925 East 96th Street
Indianapolis, IN 46240
USA

Phi Sigma Epsilon (ΦΣΕ) was a North American social fraternity that operated for 75 years (February 20, 1910 – August 14, 1985) until its merger with the Phi Sigma Kappa (ΦΣΚ) fraternity. In 1985, the majority of Phi Sigma Epsilon chapters participated in the merger.[1] Phi Sigma Kappa incorporated many of the symbols of Phi Sigma Epsilon into its own, changing its crest, and expanding its Cardinal Principals, symbolism, rituals, and historical canon to embrace the milestones of Phi Sigma Epsilon's development. These changes were soon fully adopted by all chapters of the fraternity which retained the name Phi Sigma Kappa.

Before the merger, both fraternities used the nickname Phi Sig. This was one of many similarities between the groups. A few chapters and scattered alumni refused the merger, eventually forming a new national fraternity Phi Sigma Phi that incorporated traditions similar to the original Phi Sigma Epsilon.

History

Phi Sigma Epsilon Fraternity was founded on February 20, 1910, at Kansas State Normal College, now Emporia State University.[1] Its founders were Raymond Victor Bottomly, W. Roy Campbell, W. Ingram Forde, Humphrey Jones, Robert C. Marley, Orin M. Rhine, Fred M. Thompson, and Ted Statz.

Initially, the fraternity existed as an underground organization because secret societies were frowned upon by many of the college authorities until 1912.[2] The fraternity's willingness to cooperate and its program of scholastic and social improvements won over its opposition. In 1913, Phi Sigma Epsilon was officially recognized on campus.[1] Professor C. R. Phipps became its sponsor.[3]

In 1926, Phi Sigma Epsilon held preliminary meetings with two nearby local fraternities: Sigma Delta Tau[a] of Kirksville State Teachers College and Pi Sigma Epsilon[b] of Kansas State Teachers College. These three groups joined as Phi Sigma Epsilon, becoming a national teachers' college fraternity at its first conclave on December 30, 1927. The name was selected based on which group was established first.[1] Appointed members developed the fraternity's charter, constitution, and bylaws. Others, led by Fred Schwengel, authored the fraternity's new ritual over the following year.[3]

In 1932, the fraternity began publishing The Triangulum, a magazine for members.[1] In 1937, after a year of negotiations with other fraternities at teachers' college, Phi Sigma Epsilon worked with Sigma Tau Gamma to form the Association of Teachers College Fraternities on January 9, 1937.[3]

The fraternity expanded to many other campuses until World War II when an acute manpower crisis caused every chapter to cease operations between 1941 and 1946. Under the leadership of national president Shannon Flowers, the fraternity was successfully revived after the war with all chapters reopening. With the influx of returning GIs to colleges after the war, the mission of many teacher's colleges expanded. By 1947, Phi Sigma Epsilon similarly broadened its focus and no longer remained strictly a fraternity for teachers, embracing the general academic population. In 1952, the fraternity became a junior member of the North American Interfraternity Conference (NIC) and a senior member in 1965.[3]

Half of the Fraternity's chapters came from affiliating with local chapters, some that had existed for many decades before joining Phi Sigma Epsilon.[c] In most cases, these former locals became the strongest or most resilient chapters. The others, started as new groups on campus, were often short-lived, especially those formed from 1950 onward.

Growth and decline

Phi Sigma Epsilon had an unofficial goal of having sixty chapters, a milestone it reached under the leadership of President James Whitfield, doubling in size between 1958 and 1970. Whitfield retired in 1970, after twelve years as president. This was the high-water mark for the fraternity. On February 20, 1970, the 60th anniversary of the founding was observed in Emporia. Founder and first initiate, Fred Thompson with James Whitfield, cut the anniversary cake, which bore seven candles in the representation of the seven founders. Thompson was 86 years old at the 23rd conclave, on September 5, 1970.

By 1972, growth had ceased while expenses grew. Like many fraternities, Phi Sigma Epsilon had difficulty managing its chapters in that time of social change. The lack of fraternity interest on its campuses was another contributing factor. Attempts were made to innovate, for example, by hosting regionalized conclaves rather than a single national meeting. By the beginning of the 1978–79 academic year, there were only 38 chapters on the roll, nine fewer than in 1974 and 22 fewer than in 1970. This alarming situation precipitated aggressive action to shore up or re-charter struggling groups, resulting in 45 chapters by the 1980 conclave.[3]

Fiscal problems and staff difficulties continued to weaken the fraternity. Complaints came in from various chapters of dissatisfaction with services and a lack of cooperation from the national office. Between 1980 and 1984, significant concerns were raised about the financial health of the organization. Executive officer Ric Hoskin, who had served since the mid-1960s, resigned on July 28, 1984. An emergency council meeting was called where president John Sandwell was appointed to replace Hoskin as interim acting executive officer. An audit confirmed the council's worst fears: Phi Sigma Epsilon's only asset was its equity in its national headquarters building.

One month later, at a belated and hastily called 30th Conclave, James Whitfield was again elected to serve as president. The following day, immediate past president Sandwell resigned as executive officer. The Council named Whitfield acting executive officer without compensation. Leaders also considered all aspects of revitalization and recessed the conclave until the summer of 1985. The fall ushered in a flurry of activity, with plans for a follow-up Council meeting and publication of a series of chapter bulletins to teach the basics of fraternity management.[3]

Merger

Further information on The Merger: Phi Sigma Kappa § Merger

A few months after the fall 1984 council meeting, Whitfield attended a NIC meeting on Dec. 1, 1984. There, he met Phi Sigma Kappa's grand president, Anthony Fusaro. They were seated next to each other due to the alphabetized seating of all the fraternities. While talking to Fusaro, Whitfield learned that two Phi Sigma Epsilon chapters—the Phi Epsilon chapter at Rider College and the Epsilon Tau chapter at Ball State University—had contacted Phi Sigma Kappa during the 1983-84 year, seeking assistance from Phi Sigma Kappa because of "the lack of services from Phi Sigma Epsilon".[3] Phi Sigma Kappa executive director Brett Champion explained to these chapters that NIC rules prohibited this, and then Phi Sigma Epsilon president Sandwell was contacted.[3] However, in the transition from Sandwell to Whitfield, this information had not been shared.[3]

A friendship developed, in this meeting of peers. The word "merger" was mentioned, and the two agreed to talk further, expanding the conversation to a half dozen or more fraternal leaders from both groups. These men realized the similarities between the fraternities and set a framework to continue the discussion. A favorable response by both organizations' councils led to the preparation of merger documents. Phi Sigma Epsilon sent a letter to its chapters and alumni clubs, with 26 of 29 respondents declaring in the affirmative, two negative votes, both from alumni clubs, and one un-indicated.[3]

Phi Sigma Epsilon was scheduled to resume its conclave on June 1, 1985. The evening prior, the council met to review general fraternity operations, but final decisions on all items were deferred until action on the merger vote. There was a significant division of opinion and the council members were lobbied well into the evening. The next day, the final vote was 40 to 39 in favor of the merger. Active chapters more strongly supported the action, with alumni less inclined. The larger chapters voted significantly for the merger. Phi Sigma Epsilon's 31st and last conclave's final vote was the unanimous selection of James Whitfield to sign and implement the merger documents. It was announced that Phi Sigma Kappa had already voted by mail overwhelmingly in favor of the merger, an action that was ratified at its 50th Convention by a unanimous vote, held later that summer on August 14, 1985.[2][3]

With the merger, all Phi Sigma Epsilon alumni were welcomed into equal status in Phi Sigma Kappa. A vigorous plan was set in motion to onboard active chapters of Phi Sigma Epsilon as Phi Sigma Kappa chapters. All living past presidents of Phi Sigma Epsilon were inducted into Phi Sigma Kappa's court of honor. Phi Sigma Epsilon's past president Shannon Flowers became its recorder. James Whitfield and Larry Beck of Phi Sigma Epsilon were placed onto an enlarged grand council as directors, with Phi Sigma Epsilon's Ron Cowan Jr. joining that body in 1987. Scott Hull of Phi Sigma Epsilon was brought on as a fourth leadership consultant on staff. Fred Schwengel, who witnessed the formation of Phi Sigma Epsilon as a national fraternity and wrote its ritual in 1927, agreed to serve as a historian for the combined fraternity and as a trustee of the Phi Sigma Kappa Foundation.

Guided by the two men who knew the two rituals best, Schwengel and Fusaro, the Phi Sigma Kappa's Ritual of Association was rewritten to include significant portions of the Phi Sigma Epsilon ritual. The Phi Sigma Epsilon ritual itself was cast into a special lecture added to the ritual book of all chapters for use on particular occasions. Similarly, Phi Sigma Kappa's Cardinal Principals were amended to reflect the ideals of Phi Sigma Epsilon: justice, wisdom, and honor.

The fraternity took action over the next several years to assist former Phi Sigma Epsilon chapters in their transition to the revised ritual, operations, and requirements of the greatly enlarged fraternity. The fraternity agreed to honor the badges and words of recognition of both fraternities when presented by visiting alumni. At the 1987 convention, the Phi Sigma Kappa flag and crest were changed to incorporate the symbolism of Phi Sigma Epsilon.[3]

All active Phi Sigma Epsilon chapters were welcomed into Phi Sigma Kappa, and most joined.[2][3] While most Phi Sigma Epsilon chapters, their alumni, and most current and past national officers took part in the merger, a small percentage of active chapters did not.[2][3] Some chapters were at a level of disorganization or actual dormancy that there were no members left on those campuses to manage the merger.[2][3] The Phi Tau chapter at Cornell University was released to join another national organization due to the presence of both chapters on campus.[2][3]

A few opted immediately to decline and seven chapters deliberated on the matter between 1985 and 1987, eventually choosing to revert to local status in anticipation of the entity that would become Phi Sigma Phi in 1988.[3][d] These include the Omega chapter at the University of Wisconsin–Stout, the Phi Mu chapter at Concord University, the Phi Kappa chapter at West Virginia Wesleyan College, the Phi Iota chapter at Northland College, the Sigma Zeta chapter at the University of Wisconsin–River Falls, and the Phi Beta chapter at the University of Wisconsin–Eau Claire. In addition, the alumni of the Lambda chapter at Eastern Michigan University seceded and joined Phi Sigma Phi, resulting in both the Phi Sigma Kappa's Epsilon Lambda chapter which was a continuation of the active group, and Phi Sigma Phi's Lambda chapter which was established by the Phi Sigma Epsilon alumni who chose not to merge.

For the groups that declined the merger and for the long-dormant groups, Phi Sigma Kappa has continued to reach out the hand of brotherhood to alumni of those chapters.[2][3] There is no legal connection between Phi Sigma Phi and Phi Sigma Kappa, nor their respective chapters, even if there is an occasional similarity between chapter names. There is no formal agreement on naming rights between Phi Sigma Kappa and Phi Sigma Phi, thus each fraternity is free to name its chapters as it sees fit.

The merger terms allowed a special naming provision for the first three chapters of Phi Sigma Epsilon. Instead of starting with the letter Epsilon, their name letters were reversed, designating Alpha Epsilon chapter, Beta Epsilon chapter, etc. This model was only used for the first three, oldest chapters of Phi Sigma Epsilon.

From 1985 onward, the continuing history of Phi Sigma Epsilon may be found in Phi Sigma Kappa's article.

Active chapters at the time of the merger with ΦΣΚ

Chapter names are listed in order of charter. See List of Phi Sigma Kappa chapters for the current status of chapters and for reference notes on predecessor local chapters that became Phi Sigma Epsilon chapters. Current active chapters are noted in bold; chapters becoming inactive after the merger is in italics.

Chapter Chartered/Range Institution Location Status Reference
Alpha Epsilon 1910 Emporia State University Emporia, Kansas Merged, Dormant [e]
Beta Epsilon 1927 Pittsburg State University Pittsburg, Kansas Merged, Active
Gamma Epsilon 1927 Truman State University Kirksville, Missouri Merged, Active
Epsilon Delta 1930–1986 Eastern Illinois University Charleston, Illinois Merged, Dormant [f]
Epsilon Epsilon 1930 Northeastern State University Tahlequah, Oklahoma Merged, Active
Epsilon Iota 1931 University of Central Missouri Warrensburg, Missouri Merged, Active
Epsilon Eta 1931–2001 Southeastern Oklahoma State University Durant, Oklahoma Merged, Dormant [g]
Epsilon Kappa 1932–1998 UW Stevens Point Stevens Point, Wisconsin Merged, Dormant [h]
Epsilon Theta 1931 University of Northern Iowa Cedar Falls, Iowa Merged, Dormant [i]
Epsilon Lambda 1934 Eastern Michigan University Ypsilanti, Michigan Merged, Active
Epsilon Mu 1934 University of Central Arkansas Conway, Arkansas Merged, Active
Epsilon Nu 1938 Northwest Missouri State University Maryville, Missouri Merged, Active
Epsilon Xi 1941–2010 Central Michigan University Mt. Pleasant, Michigan Merged, Dormant [j]
Epsilon Pi 1943–2003 Western Illinois University Macomb, Illinois Merged, Dormant [k]
Epsilon Rho 1946–2014 Henderson State University Arkadelphia, Arkansas Merged, Dormant [l]
Epsilon Tau 1948 Ball State University Muncie, Indiana Merged, Active
Epsilon Phi 1949 University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee Milwaukee, Wisconsin Merged, Active
Epsilon Upsilon 1950–2007 University of Wisconsin–Whitewater Whitewater, Wisconsin Merged, Dormant [m]
Epsilon Chi 1952–2000 State University of New York at Oswego Oswego, New York Merged, Dormant
Epsilon Omega 1952–1985 University of Wisconsin–Stout Menomonie, Wisconsin Merged, Withdrew [n][o]
Phi Alpha 1952 Memorial chapter for Phi Sigma Epsilon Merged, Active [p]
Phi Beta 1952–1985 University of Wisconsin–Eau Claire Eau Claire, Wisconsin Withdrew [q][r]
Phi Epsilon 1956–2001 Rider University Lawrenceville, New Jersey Merged, Dormant [s]
Phi Eta 1959 Clarion University Clarion, Pennsylvania Merged, Dormant
Phi Kappa 1959–1985 West Virginia Wesleyan College Buckhannon, West Virginia Merged, Withdrew [t][u]
Phi Iota 1959–1985 Northland College Ashland, Wisconsin Withdrew [v][w]
Phi Theta 1957 Shippensburg University Shippensburg, Pennsylvania Merged, Active
Phi Mu 1960 Concord University Athens, West Virginia Merged, Dormant [x][y]
Sigma Alpha 1960–1989 University of Wisconsin–La Crosse, La Crosse, Wisconsin Merged, Dormant [z]
Sigma Chi 1960–2002 Shepherd University Shepherdstown, West Virginia Merged, Dormant [aa]
Phi Nu 1962 Mansfield University Mansfield, Pennsylvania Merged, Active
Phi Upsilon 1964 Valparaiso University Valparaiso, Indiana Merged, Active
Phi Sigma 1965–1990 Hillsdale College Hillsdale, Michigan Merged, Active [ab]
Sigma Beta 1967–1995 Missouri State University Springfield, Missouri Merged, Dormant [ac]
Sigma Delta 1968–1994 St. Norbert College De Pere, Wisconsin Merged, Dormant [ad]
Sigma Zeta 1968–1985, 1996–2005 University of Wisconsin–River Falls River Falls, Wisconsin Merged, Dormant [ae]
Sigma Epsilon 1968 Ferris State University Big Rapids, Michigan Merged, Active
Sigma Eta 1969–1998 Southeast Missouri State University Cape Girardeau, Missouri Merged, Dormant [af]
Sigma Iota 1969–1991 University of Wisconsin–Platteville Platteville, Wisconsin Merged, Dormant [4][ag][ah]
Sigma Nu 1970–1998 Slippery Rock University Slippery Rock, Pennsylvania Merged, Dormant [ai]
Phi Omega 1970–2005 Moorhead State Moorhead, Minnesota Merged, Dormant [aj]
Sigma Tau 1969 Missouri Western State University St. Joseph, Missouri Merged, Active
Sigma Psi Did not chater Minnesota Duluth Duluth, Minnesota Chapter, Merged, Dormant [ak][al]

Inactive chapters of ΦΣΕ at the Merger, now part of Phi Sigma Kappa

These chapters were closed in the years before the merger. Some have organized alumni, depending on their relative strength during their active years.[3]

Chapter names are listed in order of charter. See List of Phi Sigma Kappa chapters for the current status of chapters and for reference notes on predecessor local chapters that became Phi Sigma Epsilon chapters. Current active chapters are noted in bold; chapters becoming inactive after the merger is in italics.

Chapter Charter/Range Institution Location Status Ref
Epsilon Zeta 1930-1979 Fort Hays State University Hays, Kansas Dormant [am]
Epsilon Omicron 1942-1952 Wayne State University Detroit, Michigan Dormant [an][ao][ap]
Epsilon Sigma 1947-1976 Northern Illinois University Northern Illinois University Dormant [aq]
Epsilon Psi 1950-1953 State University of New York at Geneseo Geneseo, New York Withdrew [ar][as]
Phi Gamma 1956-1980 Western Michigan University Kalamazoo, Michigan Dormant [at]
Phi Delta 1952-1965 ? Black Hills State College Spearfish, South Dakota Dormant [au]
Phi Lambda 1956-1972 Parsons College Fairfield, Iowa Dormant [av]
Phi Zeta 1958-1972 University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign Urbana, Illinois Dormant [aw]
Phi Pi 1960-1976 University of Wisconsin–Superior Superior, Wisconsin Dormant [ax]
Phi Omicron 1961-1978 St. Cloud State University St. Cloud, Minnesota Dormant [ay]
Phi Xi 1962-1977 Winona State University Winona, Minnesota Dormant [az]
Phi Tau 1963-1985 Cornell University Ithaca, New York Withdrew [ba][bb]
Phi Rho 1963-1975 ? Chadron State College Chadron, Nebraska Dormant [bc]
Phi Phi 1965-1976 University of Wisconsin–Oshkosh Oshkosh, Wisconsin Dormant [bd]
Sigma Gamma 1969-1977 ? Wayne State College Wayne, Nebraska Dormant [be][bf]
Sigma Kappa 1969-1976 La Salle University Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Dormant [bg]
Sigma Theta 1969-1972 Hofstra University Hempstead, New York Dormant [bh]
Sigma Lambda Not chartered University of Minnesota-Morris Morris, Minnesota Colony, Dormant [bi][bj]
Sigma Mu Not chartered Manhattan College Bronx, New York Colony, Dormant [bk][bl]
Phi Chi 1970-1976 Bemidji State University Bemidji, Minnesota Dormant [bm]
Sigma Xi 1970-1975 Bloomsburg University of Pennsylvania Bloomsburg, Pennsylvania Dormant [bn]
Phi Psi 1970-1975 University of St. Thomas St. Paul, Minnesota Dormant [bo]

Chapters that formed Phi Sigma Phi

Chapter names are listed in order of charter. See Phi Sigma Phi for the current status of chapters and List of Phi Sigma Kappa chapters for reference notes on predecessor local chapters that became Phi Sigma Epsilon chapters. Active chapters are indicated in bold; inactive chapters are indicated in italic.

Chapter Chartered/Range Institution Location Status Notes Ref
Lambda (Epsilon Lambda) 1934 Eastern Michigan University Ypsilanti, Michigan Merged, Active Alumni only seceded in 1985. This chapter resulted in both the Phi Sigma Kappa chapter called Epsilon Lambda, which was a continuation of the active group, and Phi Sigma Phi's Lambda chapter which was established by a group of Phi Sigma Epsilon alumni who chose not to merge. An earlier, dormant Phi Sigma Epsilon Chi Pentagon chapter on the campus contributed its alumni to the revitalized Phi Sigma Kappa chapter.
Omega (Epsilon Omega) 1952-1985 University of Wisconsin–Stout Menomonie, Wisconsin Withdrew [bp][bq]
Phi Mu 1960-1985 Concord University Athens, West Virginia Withdrew [br]
Phi Kappa 1959-1985 West Virginia Wesleyan College Buckhannon, West Virginia Withdrew [bs][bt][bu]
Phi Iota 1959-1985 Northland College Ashland, Wisconsin Dormant [bv][bw]
Sigma Zeta 1968-1985 University of Wisconsin–River Falls River Falls, Wisconsin Dormant [bx]
Phi Beta 1952-1985 University of Wisconsin–Eau Claire Eau Claire, Wisconsin Withdrew [by][bz]

Notes

  1. ^ Not to be confused with the national sorority of the same name. That sorority, also Sigma Delta Tau, had been founded in 1917 and had created twelve chapters by the time the three local fraternities constituting ΦΣΕ met in their first conclave to form Phi Sigma Epsilon into a national fraternity. Such naming confusion happened occasionally with that period's blizzard of the creation of new local chapters across America.
  2. ^ This local Pi Sigma Epsilon should not be confused with the national professional fraternity of the same name, founded in 1952 for marketing and sales management students.
  3. ^ Where known, these are noted in the references for each chapter on the List of Phi Sigma Kappa chapters, with information taken from All the Phi Sigs, the history of the combined fraternity of Phi Sigma Kappa and Phi Sigma Epsilon.
  4. ^ The organization took several years and the eventual name of the new fraternity was not determined until ΦΣΚ and the non-merging chapters resolved trademark and copyright issues.
  5. ^ Phi Sigma Kappa re-colonized as Alpha Epsilon chapter.
  6. ^ Phi Sigma Kappa could re-colonize as Epsilon Delta.
  7. ^ Phi Sigma Kappa could re-colonize as Epsilon Eta.
  8. ^ Phi Sigma Kappa could re-colonize as Epsilon Kappa.
  9. ^ Phi Sigma Kappa could re-colonize as Epsilon Theta.
  10. ^ Phi Sigma Kappa could re-colonize as Epsilon Xi.
  11. ^ Phi Sigma Kappa could re-colonize as Epsilon Pi.
  12. ^ Phi Sigma Kappa could re-colonize as Epsilon Rho.
  13. ^ Phi Sigma Kappa could re-colonize as Epsilon Upsilon.
  14. ^ Withdrew at the time of the merger and became one of the Founding Seven chapters of Phi Sigma Phi.
  15. ^ Phi Sigma Kappa could re-colonize as Epsilon Omega.
  16. ^ See also Phi Sigma Kappa's Chapter Eternal.
  17. ^ Withdrew at the time of the merger and became a Founding Seven chapter of Phi Sigma Phi.
  18. ^ Phi Sigma Kappa's planned name for this chapter was Phi Beta.
  19. ^ Phi Sigma Kappa could re-colonize as Phi Epsilon.
  20. ^ Withdrew at the time of the merge and became a Founding Seven chapter of Phi Sigma Phi.
  21. ^ Phi Sigma Kappa's planned name for this chapter was Phi Kappa.
  22. ^ Withdrew at the time of the merge and became a Founding Seven chapter of Phi Sigma Phi.
  23. ^ Phi Sigma Kappa's planned name for this chapter was Phi Iota.
  24. ^ Withdrew at the time of the merge and became a Founding Seven chapter of Phi Sigma Phi.
  25. ^ Phi Sigma Kappa could re-colonize as Phi Mu.
  26. ^ Phi Sigma Kappa could re-colonize as Sigma Alpha.
  27. ^ Phi Sigma Kappa could re-colonize as Sigma Chi.
  28. ^ Phi Sigma Kappa could re-colonize as Phi Sigma.
  29. ^ Phi Sigma Kappa could re-colonize as Sigma Beta.
  30. ^ Phi Sigma Kappa could re-colonize as Sigma Delta.
  31. ^ Withdrew at the time of the merge and became a Founding Seven chapter of Phi Sigma Phi. Returned as Phi Sigma Kappa colony Sigma Zeta in 1996, but closed in 2005
  32. ^ Phi Sigma Kappa could re-colonize as Sigma Eta.
  33. ^ Withdrew in 1991 to re-establish as Phi Sigma (local) which was originally established in 1866.
  34. ^ Note that occasionally chapters were given specific names to honor previous locals. The former Phi Sigma chapter of PSK/PSE at Hillsdale College is dormant. Perhaps that name could be re-used at Platteville if the group wished to merge back into PSK. There is a precedent.
  35. ^ Phi Sigma Kappa could re-colonize as Sigma Nu.
  36. ^ Phi Sigma Kappa could re-colonize as Phi Omega.
  37. ^ This was a colony formed in 1985, the year of it merger. The colony lasted until 1988 and was never chartered.
  38. ^ Phi Sigma Kappa could recolonize as Sigma Psi.
  39. ^ Phi Sigma Kappa could re-colonize as Epsilon Zeta.
  40. ^ Charter revoked in 1952.
  41. ^ Phi Sigma Kappa could recolonize as Epsilon Omicron.
  42. ^ It appears that, at the time of the Merger, the already-dormant chapter at Wayne State University of Detroit was simply forgotten in the lists, probably because of confusion with the similarly named Wayne State College of Nebraska, itself also dormant. The chapter is missing in Hills and a Star's list through 2013, missing from Baird's Manual, and only found in the published chapter list on pg.250 of All the Phi Sigs. On p.255 ATPS notes that Omicron's (Epsilon Omicron's) charter was "revoked".
  43. ^ Phi Sigma Kappa has an existing chapter on campus, and alumni merged.
  44. ^ Seceded because of a campus ban on national fraternities, but continued operating as Phi Sigma Epsilon (local) until 1992 when it changed its name to Phi Sigma Xi.
  45. ^ Phi Sigma Kappa may allow the now local fraternity to merge or, separately, recolonize as Epsilon Psi.
  46. ^ Phi Sigma Kappa has an existing chapter on campus, and alumni merged.
  47. ^ Phi Sigma Kappa could recolonize as Phi Delta,
  48. ^ Chapter closed with the bankruptcy and eventual closure of the college.
  49. ^ Phi Sigma Kappa has an existing chapter on campus, and alumni merged.
  50. ^ Phi Sigma Kappa could recolonize as Phi Pi.
  51. ^ Phi Sigma Kappa could recolonize as Phi Omicron.
  52. ^ Phi Sigma Kappa could recolonize as Phi Xi.
  53. ^ Phi Sigma Kappa has an existing chapter on campus, alumni merged.
  54. ^ There exists some confusion regarding two chapters named Phi Tau. ΦΣΕ's Phi Tau chapter at Cornell, existent from 1963 until the merger in 1985 when it was released and affiliated with Theta Chi, should not be confused with ΦΣΚ's Tau chapter at Dartmouth, which, upon seceding from the national fraternity in 1956, renamed itself Phi Tau purely by coincidence.
  55. ^ Phi Sigma Kappa could recolonize as Phi Rho.
  56. ^ Phi Sigma Kappa could recolonize as Phi Phi.
  57. ^ Phi Sigma Kappa could recolonize as Sigma Gamma.
  58. ^ It appears that, at the time of the Merger, the already-dormant chapter at the Wayne State University of Detroit was simply forgotten in the lists, probably because of confusion with the similarly named Wayne State College of Nebraska, itself also dormant. The chapter is missing in Hills and a Star's list through 2013, missing from Baird's Manual, and only found in the published chapter list on pg.250 of All the Phi Sigs. On p.255 ATPS notes that Omicron's (Epsilon Omicron's) charter was "revoked".
  59. ^ Phi Sigma Kappa could recolonize as Sigma Kappa.
  60. ^ Phi Sigma Kappa could recolonize as Sigma Theta.
  61. ^ Started as a colony in 1969 but was never chartered before it closed in 1970 or 1972.
  62. ^ Phi Sigma Kappa could recolonize as Sigma Lambda.
  63. ^ Formed as a colony in 1969 that lasted until around 1972. It was not chartered.
  64. ^ Phi Sigma Kappa could recolonize as Sigma Mu.
  65. ^ Phi Sigma Kappa could recolonize as Phi Chi.
  66. ^ Phi Sigma Kappa could recolonize as Sigma Xi.
  67. ^ Phi Sigma Kappa could recolonize as Phi Psi.
  68. ^ Withdrew at the time of the merger in 1985 and formed Phi Sigma Phi.
  69. ^ Phi Sigma Kappa's planned name for this chapter was Epsilon Omega.
  70. ^ Phi Sigma Kappa's planned name for this chapter was Phi Mu.
  71. ^ Seceded in 1985 and then became one of the Founding Seven of Phi Sigma Phi
  72. ^ Phi Sigma Kapps's planned name for this chapter was also Phi Kappa.
  73. ^ Twelve years after the PSK/PSE merger, the West Virginia Wesleyan chapter broke ties with PSP, according to their website (Archived 2016-02-02 at the Wayback Machine accessed 27 January 2016). They explain that in 1997, 26 active brothers of the Phi Kappa chapter left Phi Sigma Phi and petitioned for a charter to become the Beta Nu chapter of Alpha Sigma Phi (NIC) national fraternity in 1998. This group remains an active chapter of ΑΣΦ. At the time, Phi Sigma Phi was not a NIC fraternity. (Phi Sigma Phi joined the NIC soon after; The NIC prohibits such 'poaching' of whole chapters.)
  74. ^ This chapter was inactive at the time of the merger and its alumni seceded in 1985. In 1988, it was colonized by Phi Sigma Phi, becoming one of its Founding Seven.
  75. ^ Phi Sigma Kappa's planned name for this chapter was also Phi Iota.
  76. ^ This chapter was inactive at the time of the merger with Phi Sigma Kappa and its alumni seceded in 1985. It was colonized with an unnamed fraternity in 1986 and took the Phi Sigma Phi name in 1988, becoming one of the Founding Seven of Phi Sigman Phi. However, it returned to Phi Sigma Kappa as the Sigma Zeta colony from 1996 to 2005.
  77. ^ Seceded from Phi Sigma Kappa in 1985 and became one of the Founding Seven of Phi Sigma Phi.
  78. ^ Phi Sigma Kappa's planned name for this chapter was also Phi Beta.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e Lurding, Carroll and Becque, Fran. "Inactive Men's Organizations" in Almanac of Fraternities and Sororities. Urbana: University of Illinois. Accessed October 31, 2022.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Phi Sigma Kappa Headquarters Staff (1992). Hills and a Star - A Manual for Members (10th ed.). Self-published. pp. 25–28.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Rand, Frank Prentice; Ralph Watts; James E. Sefton (1993). All The Phi Sigs - A History. Self-published.
  4. ^ "Historical". PhiladelphianSociety. Retrieved 2020-02-16.