Lambda Chi Alpha
ΛΧΑ
Lambda Chi Alpha Coat of Arms.svg
FoundedNovember 2, 1909; 112 years ago (1909-11-02)
Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts
TypeSocial
AffiliationNIC (former)
ScopeUnited States, Canada and Australia
MottoPer Crucem Crescens
(Crescent through the Cross)

Χαλεπά τά καλὰ
(Naught Without Labor)

Vir Quisque Vir
(Every Man a Man)
Colors  Royal Purple
  Kelly Green
  Old Gold
SymbolCross and Crescent
Flag
Lambda Chi Alpha flag.jpg
FlowerWhite Rose
MascotLion Rampant (unofficial)
PublicationCross and Crescent, Paedagogus, Zeta Zephyr, Purple, Green and Gold
PhilanthropyFeeding America
Chapters185 active, 322 chartered
Members~8,600+ collegiate
300,000+ lifetime
NicknamesLambda Chi, Lambda, LCA, LXA, “Chops”
Headquarters10 W. Carmel Dr., Suite 220
Carmel, IN 46032
USA
WebsiteOfficial website
[1][2]

Lambda Chi Alpha (ΛΧΑ), commonly known as Lambda Chi, is a college Fraternity in North America, which was founded at Boston University in 1909.[3] It is one of the largest social fraternities in North America, with more than 300,000 lifetime members and active chapters and colonies at 195 universities.[4] The youngest of the fifteen largest social fraternities, Lambda Chi Alpha has initiated the third highest number of men ever, based on NIC statistics. Lambda Chi's International Headquarters is located in Indianapolis, Indiana. Its members are referred to as "Lambda Chis", "LXAs", "LCAs", "Lambdas", “Chops”, and "Choppers". It was a member of the North American Interfraternity Conference (NIC) until October 2015.[5]

History

Founding

Lambda Chi Alpha was founded by Warren A. Cole, a law student at Boston University. There are two different accounts of this founding.[6]

The official story adopted by Warren A. Cole and Albert Cross is that on November 2, 1909, Cole, Percival C. Morse, and Clyde K. Nichols reorganized the Cosmopolitan Law Club, a society of law students of Boston University, into the Loyal Collegiate Associates, which was renamed in 1912 to Lambda Chi Alpha.[7] All were close friends and had been members of Alpha Mu Chi, a prep school fraternity. The Greek letter name is thought[by whom?] to have been used from the beginning, but is not recorded in the Alpha Zeta minutes until April 27, 1910.[6]

A second account of the founding, based on interviews with contemporaries, relates that Cole and others did belong to a loose group known as the Tombs or Cosmopolitan Club, but this was not related to the founding of Lambda Chi Alpha. Cole shared an apartment with James C. McDonald and Charles W. Proctor, who later joined Sigma Alpha Epsilon. Cole established his own fraternity with Ralph S. Miles, Harold W. Bridge, Percival C. Morse on November 23, 1911. The group issued a charter for itself back-dated to November 15.[6]

Cole approached many local groups at colleges and universities throughout the Northeast looking for others willing to join his new fraternity. He had corresponded with or visited 117 institutions by the time a group at Massachusetts Agricultural College accepted a charter to become Gamma Zeta, in 1912.[8] The first General Assembly, laying down a structure for a national fraternity, was held in Boston on April 13, 1912.

The fraternity held its second general assembly in Boston on March 22, 1913. There the organization adopted its secret motto, ritual insignia including the badge and coat of arms, and the basic organization; it virtually replaced the fraternity Cole had established outside of its name.[9] The 14th General Assembly, in 1931, recognized March 22 as Lambda Chi Alpha Day, in recognition of these achievements. In 1942, the board of directors renamed it Founder's Day. November 2, 1909 is also still recognized, so Lambda Chi Alpha celebrates two Founders Days each year.[9]

In the years that followed, a divide opened between Cole and a group of young alumni led by Mason, Ernst J.C. Fischer of the Cornell University chapter, and Samuel Dyer of the University of Maine chapter, the latter supported by Albert Cross of the University of Pennsylvania chapter and Louis Robbins of the Brown University chapter.[9] In 1920, Cole was ousted and Fischer was elected national president. In 1927, he became international president when Epsilon-Epsilon Zeta at the University of Toronto in Toronto, Ontario, Canada was chartered.[10]

Theta Kappa Nu

The Theta Kappa Nu fraternity was formed by 11 local fraternities on June 9, 1924 in Springfield, Missouri.

With the help of the National Interfraternity Conference in identifying local groups, and Theta Kappa Nu's policy of granting charters quickly to organizations with good academic standards, the fraternity grew quickly, and had approximately 2,500 initiates in 40 chapters by the end of 1926.[11]

Merger

During the Great Depression both Theta Kappa Nu and Lambda Chi Alpha saw membership decrease and chapters shut down. In 1939 The two fraternities merged.[12] The merger ceremony was held at the Howard College (now Samford University) chapter of Theta Kappa Nu in Birmingham, Alabama. The merger increased the number of chapters from 77 to 105[13] (or 78 to 106)[14] and the number of members from 20,000 to 27,000. At the time, this was the largest merger in fraternity history.[13] All Theta Kappa Nu chapters became Lambda Chi Alpha chapters and were given chapter designations that began with either Theta, Kappa or Nu.[15] At schools where chapters of both fraternities previously existed, the two merged and retained Lambda Chi's Zeta recognition.

Membership in the North American Interfraternity Conference

The fraternity was a member of the North American Interfraternity Conference (NIC) from its earliest days. In October 2015 the fraternity left the NIC, citing in-fighting and dysfunctional governance. The fraternity's exit coincides with NIC lobbying for the Safe Campus Act, which is opposed by both the fraternity and sexual assault advocacy groups.[5][16]

Pledging and hazing policy

Beginning in August 1969, the concept of "fraternity education" replaced "pledge education."[17] The fraternity education program was designed to integrate all new members into the chapter equally.[18]

In 1972, Lambda Chi Alpha officially abolished the "pledge process" and replaced it with Associate Membership. Associate Members within Lambda Chi Alpha to this day have all of the same rights as initiated brothers, can hold officer positions, wear the letters, and can vote on all issues except for those involving the Initiation Ritual. This status as an Associate Member allows new members to enter the fraternity with respect, and helps to combat the issues that arise from the abuse of "pledges." Lambda Chi Alpha was the first fraternal organization to abolish pledging. "Pledge implies a second-class membership, indentured servitude, hazing, class officers, and extensive memorization. Pledge implies a fixed length of menial membership that is used as a gateway to full membership, with often significantly lower expectations"[19]

Lambda Chi Alpha formally prohibits hazing of any form, on or off campus, by any of its members. The fraternity's constitution defines hazing as "any action taken or situation created intentionally to produce physical discomfort or mental discomfort by embarrassment, harassment, or ridicule."[20] The fraternity first condemned hazing at a 1928 North American Interfraternity Conference meeting by Bruce McIntosh.

Local chapter or individual member misconduct

In 1958, the fraternity expelled its Hamilton College chapter for insisting on a non-discrimination policy for admitting members. The national fraternity insisted that its members be Christians who were either white or American Indians.[21] The expelled chapter reorganized as an independent society called Gryphon, which continued to operate for more than two decades.

In 1988, James Callahan, an associate at Rutgers University, died of an alcohol overdose participating in a drinking hazing ritual. Fifteen members of the chapter were indicted for his death.[22]

In 2007, Remy Okonkwo, a member at Georgetown College, was found hanging in the fraternity house on campus. The coroner ruled his death a suicide but his family still believes foul play was involved.[23]

In 2008, the chapter at San Diego State University was suspended by the university for four years for hazing and alcohol violations.[24]

In 2009, the chapter at University of Southern California was suspended after three women accused members of sexual assault. In 2011, the chapter was disciplined again for hazing new members.[25]

In 2011, the chapter at Florida State University (FSU) was suspended after a FSU Chi Omega member died from being accidentally shot at the fraternity house by a fraternity member.[26][27]

In 2012 the University of Nevada, Reno chapter was suspended by the University and the fraternity's board of directors. The chapter had been on probation for alcohol-related violations.[28]

In 2013, the chapter at Vanderbilt University was suspended as a result of hazing and alcohol related violations.[29]

2014

2015

2016

2017

2018

2019

2020

Philanthropy

From 1993 to 2012, Lambda Chi Alpha's philanthropy was the North American Food Drive (NAFD). As of 2010, NAFD had collected around 33 million pounds of food for food banks.[45] In 2012, NAFD was discontinued under that name and rolled into an ongoing partnership with Feeding America.[46]

In 2017, Lambda Chi Alpha announced a trial partnership with the St. Baldrick's Foundation, which funds childhood cancer research. Chapters were encouraged to host or participate in head-shaving events to raise money for the foundation.[47]

In 2019, Lambda Chi Alpha announced a partnership with the JED Foundation, a non-profit organization that exists to protect emotional health and prevent suicide for our nation's teens and young adults. Together, they are launching Lambda Chi Alpha Lifeline, an online mental health resource center tailored from JED’s ULifeline website. ULifeline provides college students with information about emotional health issues and the specific resources available on their campus. It also offers a confidential mental health self-screening tool.[48]

Notable members

Main article: List of Lambda Chi Alpha brothers

Chapters

Chapter locations

Main article: List of Lambda Chi Alpha chapters

Chapters of Lambda Chi Alpha exist in most U.S. states and three Canadian provinces.

Chapter naming

Lambda Chi Alpha is atypical in its naming scheme. Unlike most fraternities, the order in which chapters are named is not strictly based on the Greek Alphabet. Instead, chapters of Lambda Chi Alpha are known as "Zetas". Thus, the Alpha-Beta chapter is designated Alpha-Beta Zeta. In addition, at the fraternity's inception, Cole assigned Greek letters to petitioning groups that had not yet been chartered. Not all of these groups were chartered, as a result, the first twenty-two chapters were designated Α, Γ, Ε, Ζ, Ι, Λ, Β, Σ, Φ, Δ, Π, Ο, Μ, Τ, Η, Θ, Υ, Ξ, Χ, Ω, Κ, Ν, Ρ, Ψ. After the twenty-fourth chapter, the sequence was continued with a prefix following the same sequence (Α-Α, Α-Γ, Α-Ε, ... Γ-Α, Γ-Γ, Γ-Ε, ... Ε-A, etc.)

When Theta Kappa Nu merged with Lambda Chi Alpha in 1939, the former Theta Kappa Nu chapters were all given chapter designations prefixed with Θ, Κ, or Ν. The second letter of their chapter name was assigned in the order mentioned above and applied to the chapters in order of their precedence in Theta Kappa Nu. On campuses with chapters of both Lambda Chi Alpha and Theta Kappa Nu, the chapter of Lambda Chi Alpha kept its original designation.

A singular exception, the chapter at Georgia Tech, Β-Κ Zeta, was named in recognition of its existence as a chapter of the national fraternity Beta Kappa, whose other existing chapters merged with Theta Chi in 1942.[49]

Headquarters locations

Lambda Chi Alpha's founding in Massachusetts in 1909 lead to the location of its first headquarters outside of Boston until after World War I. Later it was moved by members to northeastern Pennsylvania and eventually to Indianapolis, Indiana, where many other fraternity and sorority national headquarters are located.[50]

See also

Notes and references

  1. ^ Chapter count, avg undergraduate membership and total initiates noted on the national website homepage, accessed 21 Oct 2021.
  2. ^ Lambda Chi Alpha Chapter Directory lambdachi.org, accessed January 13, 2014.
  3. ^ fuelvm. "Home". Lambda Chi Alpha. Retrieved 2018-07-21.
  4. ^ "Lambda Chi Alpha Fraternity, Feeding America Partnership Raises 2.4 million pounds of food | LCA Fraternity". Archived from the original on 2015-03-08. Retrieved 2015-03-01.
  5. ^ a b Kingkade, Tyler (October 27, 2015). "Lambda Chi Alpha Fraternity Leaves National Umbrella Group Amid Controversial Lobbying". Huffington Post. Retrieved November 4, 2015.
  6. ^ a b c Our Founding, Lambda Chi Alpha Fraternity
  7. ^ Raymond, Michael J (2017), Our Story: A History of the Lambda Chi Alpha Fraternity
  8. ^ Lambda Chi Alpha History Timeline: The Founding of Lambda Chi Alpha Archived 2007-09-28 at the Wayback Machine
  9. ^ a b c Jones, Kyle (March 2007), "Happy Founders Day", Cross & Crescent
  10. ^ Lambda Chi Alpha History Timeline Archived 2008-01-01 at the Wayback Machine
  11. ^ Lambda Chi Alpha History Timeline: Theta Kappa Nu Archived 2007-09-28 at the Wayback Machine
  12. ^ Lambda Chi Alpha History Timeline: The Union Archived 2006-02-15 at the Wayback Machine
  13. ^ a b Bly, Betsy K. (Ed.) (2005). The Paedagogus (50th ed.), p. 146. Indianapolis, Lambda Chi Alpha. Archived 2007-09-28 at the Wayback Machine
  14. ^ Bly, Betsy K. (Ed.) (2005). The Paedagogus (50th ed.), p. 11. Indianapolis, Lambda Chi Alpha. Archived 2007-09-28 at the Wayback Machine
  15. ^ Bly, Betsy K. (Ed.) (2005). The Paedagogus (50th ed.), p. 102. Indianapolis, Lambda Chi Alpha. Archived 2007-09-28 at the Wayback Machine
  16. ^ "Lambda Chi Alpha Resigns Its Membership in the North American Interfraternity Conference (press release)". PR Newswire. October 27, 2015. Retrieved November 4, 2015.
  17. ^ Bly, Betsy K. (Ed.) (2005). The Paedagogus (50th ed.), p. 147. Indianapolis, Lambda Chi Alpha. Archived 2007-09-28 at the Wayback Machine
  18. ^ Bly, Betsy K. (Ed.) (2005). The Paedagogus (50th ed.), pp. 19–20. Indianapolis, Lambda Chi Alpha. Archived 2007-09-28 at the Wayback Machine
  19. ^ ["The Paedagogus" (53rd edition), p. 15]
  20. ^ "Constitution and statutory code of the Lambda Chi Alpha Fraternity Code VI-10". Archived from the original on 2011-09-28. Retrieved 2019-04-20.
  21. ^ "FRATERNITY OUSTS UNIT; Hamilton College Chapter Put Veto on Discrimination". The New York Times. October 11, 1958. Retrieved February 21, 2021.
  22. ^ Rangel, Jesus (May 4, 1988). "15 Indicted in Rutgers Hazing Death". The New York Times. p. B2. Retrieved February 21, 2021.
  23. ^ Underwood, Josh (November 29, 2007). "Georgetown College student's suicide confirmed". Georgetown News-Graphic. Retrieved February 21, 2021.
  24. ^ Neil, Martha (May 7, 2008). "6 San Diego State Frats Suspended After Massive Drug Bust". Retrieved February 21, 2021.
  25. ^ State Hornet Staff (February 27, 2013). "EDITORIAL: Frat houses may not be a good idea". The State Hornet. Retrieved February 21, 2021.
  26. ^ Staff (January 9, 2011). "2 Shot in Fraternity House at FSU, Student Ashley Cowie Dies". Knight News. Retrieved February 21, 2021.
  27. ^ "Wilhelm takes plea to Florida Supreme Court". September 19, 2018. Retrieved February 21, 2021.
  28. ^ "Lambda Chi Alpha Suspends Operations at University of Nevada" (Press release). KTVN. November 20, 2012. Retrieved June 11, 2018.
  29. ^ Hustler Staff (February 25, 2013). "Moving Up, Moving, Out, and Under Question". p. 1. Retrieved February 21, 2021.
  30. ^ Schenk, Mary (May 9, 2014). "Seven UI fraternity members arrested after yearlong drug probe". The News-Gazette. Retrieved June 11, 2018.
  31. ^ Toledo, Adalberto (March 11, 2018). "Frats nationwide under microscope, including at UI". The News Gazette. Retrieved June 11, 2018.
  32. ^ "Lambda Chi Alpha national suspends MIT chapter for at least five years". MIT News Office. October 30, 2014. Retrieved February 21, 2021.
  33. ^ Baker, Nathan (March 19, 2015). "ETSU suspends fraternity for 5 years in wake of hazing allegations". Johnson City Press. Retrieved February 21, 2021.
  34. ^ Staff Writer (January 27, 2015). "Lambda Chi Alpha suspended until 2019 for alcohol violations". The Houstonian. Retrieved February 21, 2021.
  35. ^ Barnett, Erin (February 23, 2016). "UT fraternity Lambda Chi Alpha closed". WVLT CBS 8. Retrieved February 21, 2021.
  36. ^ Hacker, Holly K. (March 21, 2016). "SMU fraternity gets shut down, but no one's saying exactly why". The Dallas Morning News. Retrieved February 21, 2021.
  37. ^ "University of Oregon Frat's Massive Party Leaves Lake Shasta Island Trashed". Tribune Media Wire. May 24, 2016.
  38. ^ Kocher, Greg (August 22, 2016). "Football player dies after jump at fraternity house". Lexington Herald-Leader. Retrieved February 21, 2021.
  39. ^ Ryckaert, Vic (August 27, 2018). "Woman sues Butler and a former fraternity after saying she was raped on campus in 2016". Indianapolis Star. Retrieved February 21, 2021.
  40. ^ Wang, Stephanie. "'I am beyond angry': Ex-Butler student says school mishandled her rape allegation". Indianapolis Star. No. January 29, 2018. Retrieved June 11, 2018.
  41. ^ Haag, Matthew (April 11, 2018). "Blackface Leads to Fraternity Suspension at Cal Poly". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved April 12, 2018.
  42. ^ "Lambda Chi Alpha fraternity suspended from USC". 11 November 2019.
  43. ^ Pietsch, Bryan (September 22, 2020). "Fraternity at University of Georgia Is Suspended After Racist Messages Are Exposed". The New York Times. Retrieved February 21, 2021.
  44. ^ McDonald, Benton (January 28, 2021). "TCU fraternity on probation after investigation into car crash". TCU 360.
  45. ^ 2010 North American Food Drive Results Cross & Crescent. December 2010. Retrieved 2011-02-04. Archived December 7, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
  46. ^ Jones, Kyle (August 17, 2016), "In partnership with Feeding America, Lambda Chi Alpha raises more than 4.4 Million pounds of food in the past year", Cross & Crescent
  47. ^ Lambda Chi Alpha, St. Baldrick’s Foundation
  48. ^ Lambda Chi Alpha, Jed Foundation, 15 February 2019
  49. ^ Leonard, Edward F., George W. McDaniel, Charles S. Peyser (Eds.) (1987). Ritual: What and Why, p. 28. Indianapolis, Lambda Chi Alpha. Archived 2008-05-29 at the Wayback Machine
  50. ^ Lambda Chi Alpha Headquarters Locations Archived 2006-03-05 at the Wayback Machine Cross and Crescent, December 2005.
  51. ^ Location of Lambda Chi Alpha headquarters in Swansea, MA
  52. ^ Location of Lambda Chi Alpha headquarters in Kingston, PA
  53. ^ Lambda Chi Alpha headquarters location in Wilkes-Barre, PA
  54. ^ Lambda Chi Alpha headquarters location in Indianapolis, IN
  55. ^ Lambda Chi Alpha headquarters location in Indianapolis, IN
  56. ^ Lambda Chi Alpha headquarters location in Indianapolis, IN
  57. ^ Lambda Chi Alpha headquarters location in Indianapolis, IN
  58. ^ Lambda Chi Alpha headquarters location in Indianapolis, IN
  59. ^ Lambda Chi Alpha headquarters location in Indianapolis, IN