Professional fraternities, in the North American fraternity system, are organizations whose primary purpose is to promote the interests of a particular profession and whose membership is restricted to students in that particular field of professional education or study. This may be contrasted with service fraternities and sororities, whose primary purpose is community service, and social fraternities and sororities, whose primary purposes are generally aimed towards some other aspect, such as the development of character, friendship, leadership, or literary ability.

Professional fraternities are often confused with honor societies because of their focus on a specific discipline. Professional fraternities are significantly different from honor societies in that honor societies are associations designed to provide recognition of the past achievement of those who are invited to membership. Honor society membership, in most cases, requires no period of pledging, and new candidates may be immediately inducted into membership after meeting predetermined academic criteria and paying a one-time membership fee. Because of their purpose of recognition, most honor societies will have much higher academic achievement requirements for membership.

Professional fraternities, on the other hand, work to build brotherhood among members and cultivate the strengths of members to promote their profession and to provide assistance to one another in their mutual areas of professional study. Membership in a professional fraternity may be the result of a pledge process, much like a social fraternity, and members are expected to remain loyal and active in the organization for life. Within their professional field of study, their membership is exclusive; however, they may initiate members who belong to other types of fraternities.

History

The first professional fraternity was founded at Transylvania University in Lexington, Kentucky in 1819: the Kappa Lambda Society of Aesculapius, established to bring together students of the medical profession. The fraternity lasted until about 1858.

Of the professional fraternities still in existence, the oldest is Phi Delta Phi founded at the University of Michigan in 1869; however, Phi Delta Phi changed its mission in 2012 to become an honor society for law school students.

Title IX applied to professional fraternities

In the United States fraternity system, professional fraternities are usually co-educational in accordance with Federal Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 (commonly referred to as "Title IX"). This federal law discourages discrimination based on sex in any college or university receiving federal financial assistance.[1] However, the membership practices of social fraternities and sororities are exempt from Title IX in section (A)(6)(a). The U.S. Department of Education (DOE) regulations adopted under Title IX also allow such an exception for "the membership practices of social fraternities and sororities." (34 C.F.R. Sec. 106.14(a)).[2]

Before Title IX, many professional fraternities were all male and most professional sororities/women's fraternities were all female. Several of these professional fraternities and sororities even considered themselves both professional and social organizations because they often emphasized the social aspects of their activities. During the ensuing years since the enactment of Title IX, single-sex professional fraternities and sororities became coeducational to conform to Title IX. Several organizations simply opened their membership to both men and women. For example, Phi Chi (medicine) opened membership to women in 1973; Phi Beta (music and speech) opened membership to men in 1976; and Delta Omicron (music) opened membership to men in 1979. A few single-sex groups merged with other organizations, such as Phi Delta Delta, a women's professional law fraternity, merged with Phi Alpha Delta (law) in 1972.

Even though Title IX was enacted in 1972, there are still professional fraternities and sororities or their chapters that have not become coeducational and therefore, do not conform to Title IX. Generally, these groups still claim to be both professional and social organizations, for instance, Alpha Gamma Rho (men in agriculture), Alpha Omega Epsilon (women in engineering), and Sigma Phi Delta (men in engineering).

Several social fraternities and sororities have membership practices of selecting their members primarily from students enrolled in particular majors or areas of study, including Phi Mu Alpha Sinfonia, Phi Sigma Rho, and Triangle. Nevertheless, these groups are social, rather than professional, organizations.[3] Although they select members from students in a particular field of study, like a professional fraternity, they are single-sex social organizations because their purposes focus only on the social development of their members. Examples of groups that have been officially granted exemption from Title IX by the DOE to remain single-sex include Sigma Alpha Iota in 1981 [4] and Phi Mu Alpha Sinfonia in 1983.[5]

Umbrella organizations

Many professional fraternities, particularly those of the highest esteem and reputation, are members of the Professional Fraternity Association (PFA).[6] This group resulted in 1978 from a merger of the Professional Interfraternity Conference (PIC) (for men's group) and the Professional Panhellenic Association (PPA) (for women's groups). In 2013, faced with an increase in campus policies that require student organizations to take all students, the PFA adopted a resolution against All Comers policies.[7]

List of professional fraternities

Arts, literature, and media

Name Symbols Formed/

Range

Emphasis Scope Type/Gender Status Reference
Delta Chi Xi ΔΧΞ 2010 Dance National (US) Fraternity/Coed Active
Delta Kappa Phi ΔΚΦ 1899 Textiles Local, Lowell Textile School Fraternity Active [a]
Delta Kappa Alpha ΔΚΑ 1936 Cinema National (US) Gender Inclusive Active
Gamma Epsilon Tau ΓΕΤ 1953 Graphic artists honor society National (US) Fraternity/Coed Active
Gamma Xi Phi ΓΞΦ 2010 African American artists and creators National (US) Fraternity/Coed Active [8]
Kappa Pi ΚΠ 1911 Art Honor Society International Fraternity/Coed Active
Phi Beta ΦΒ 1912 Creative and performing arts National (US) Fraternity/Gender Inclusive Active
Phi Psi ΦΨ 1903 Textile arts and manufacturing engineering National (US) Fraternity/Coed Active
Zeta Phi Eta ΖΦΗ 1893 Communication arts and sciences National (US) Fraternity/Coed Active

Agriculture

Name Symbols Formed/

Range

Emphasis Scope Type/Gender Status Reference
Alpha Gamma Rho ΑΓΡ 1904 Agriculture National (US) Fraternity/Male Active
Alpha Gamma Sigma ΑΓΣ 1923 Agriculture National (US) Fraternity/Male Active
Alpha Tau Alpha ΑΤΑ 1921 Agriculture and extension education National (US) Fraternity Active
Alpha Zeta ΑΖ 1897 Agriculture and natural resources National (US) Fraternity/Coed Active
Delta Theta Sigma ΔΘΣ 1906 Agriculture National (US) Fraternity/Male Active
Sigma Alpha ΣΑ 1978 Agriculture National (US) Sorority/Female Active

Business and economics

Name Symbols Formed/

Range

Emphasis Scope Type/Gender Status Reference
Alpha Kappa Psi ΑΚΨ 1904 Business International Fraternity/Coed Active
Alpha Iota ΑΙ 1905 Business National (US) Sorority/Female Active
Delta Sigma Pi ΔΣΠ 1907 Business National (US) Fraternity/Coed Active
Epsilon Nu Tau ΕΝΤ 2008 Entrepreneurship National (US) Fraternity/Coed Active
Eta Phi Beta ΗΦΒ 1942 Business, African American National (US) Sorority/Female Active
Gamma Iota Sigma ΓΙΣ 1966 Insurance, risk management, actuarial sciences International Fraternity/Coed Active
Iota Phi Lambda ΙΦΛ 1929 Business and professional African Americans National (US) Sorority/Female Active
Omicron Delta Epsilon ΟΔΕ 1963 Economics honor society International Society/Coed Active
Phi Chi Theta ΦΧΘ 1924 Business National (US) Women's Fraternity/Coed Active
Phi Gamma Nu ΦΓΝ 1924 Business National (US) Sorority/Coed Active
Pi Sigma Epsilon ΠΣΕ 1952 Marketing and sales management National (US) Fraternity/Coed Active
Sigma Iota Epsilon ΣΙΕ 1927 Management honorary and professional society International Fraternity/Coed Active
Eta Rho Sigma ΗΡΣ 2020 Business National (US) Sorority/Women Active [9]

Education

Name Symbols Formed/

Range

Emphasis Scope Type/Gender Status Reference
Delta Kappa Gamma ΔΚΓ 1929 Education International Society/Female Active
Kappa Delta Pi ΚΔΠ 1911 Education honor society International Society/Coed Active
Phi Delta Kappa ΦΔΚ 1906 Education International Fraternity/Coed Active
Phi Delta Kappa ΦΔΚ 1923 Education International Sorority/Coed Active
Phi Epsilon Kappa ΦΕΚ 1913 Physical education, performance, sports management National (US) Fraternity/Coed Active

Engineering, architecture, math, and science

Name Symbols Formed/

Range

Emphasis Scope Type/Gender Status Reference
Alpha Chi Sigma ΑΧΣ 1902 Chemistry National (US) Fraternity/Coed Active
Alpha Omega Epsilon ΑΩΕ 1983 Engineering National (US) Sorority/Female Active
Alpha Rho Chi ΑΡΧ 1914 Architecture National (US) Fraternity/Coed Active
Alpha Sigma Kappa ΑΣΚ 1989 Architecture, engineering, mathematics, and sciences National (US) Sorority/Female Active
Kappa Eta Kappa ΚΗΚ 1923 Electrical and computer engineering National (US) Fraternity/Coed Active
Kappa Theta Pi ΚΘΠ 2012 Information technology National (US) Fraternity/Coed Active
Pi Mu Epsilon ΠΜΕ 1914 Mathematics honor society National (US) Society/Coed Active
Phi Sigma Rho ΦΣΡ 1984 Science, technology, engineering, mathematics National (US) Sorority/Female and non-binary Active
Pi Delta Nu ΠΔΝ 1921–1950s Chemistry National (US) Sorority/Female Inactive
Scarab 1909–19xx ? Architecture, landscape architecture, architectural engineering National (US) Fraternity/Male Inactive, Merged
Sigma Phi Delta ΣΦΔ 1924 Engineering International Fraternity/Male Active
Theta Tau ΘΤ 1904 Engineering National (US) Fraternity/Coed or male by chapter Active
Triangle Fraternity 1907 Engineering, architecture, and sciences National (US) Fraternity/Male Active

Law

Name Symbols Formed/

Range

Emphasis Scope Type/Gender Status Reference
Delta Theta Phi ΔΘΦ 1900 Law International Fraternity/Coed Active
Gamma Eta Gamma ΓΗΓ 1901 Law National (US) Fraternity/Coed Active
Kappa Alpha Pi ΚΑΠ 2007 Law National (US) Fraternity/Coed Active
Phi Alpha Delta ΦΑΔ 1902 Law International Fraternity/Coed Active
Phi Delta Delta ΦΔΔ 1911–1972 Law National (US) Sorority/Female Inactive [b]
Phi Delta Phi ΦΔΦ 1869 Law honor (formerly professional) International Fraternity/Coed Active [c]
Sigma Alpha Nu ΣΑΝ 2005 Pre-law Local, University of California, Berkeley Fraternity/Coed Active [10][11]
Pi Lambda Sigma ΠΛΣ 2016 Pre-law, Government Local, Cornell University Society/Coed Active [12][13]

Medicine

Name Symbols Formed/

Range

Emphasis Scope Type/Gender Status Reference
Aleph Yodh He איה 1908–1921 Medicine, Jewish National (US) Fraternities Inactive
Alpha Delta Theta ΑΔΘ 1944 Medical technology Local, was national Sorority/Female Active
Alpha Delta Upsilon ΑΔΥ Chiropractic Sorority/Female Active [14][15]
Alpha Epsilon Iota ΑΕΙ 1890–1979 Medical National (US) Women's Fraternity/Female Inactive
Alpha Gamma Kappa ΑΓΚ 1939 Podiatry National (US) Fraternity/Coed Active
Alpha Kappa Kappa ΑΚΚ 1888–20xx ? Medicine International, then local Fraternity/Male Inactive
Alpha Omega ΑΩ 1907 Denistry, Jewish International Fraternity/Coed Active
Alpha Psi ΑΨ 1907 Veterinary medicine National (US) Fraternity/Coed Active
Alpha Tau Delta ΑΤΔ 1921 Nursing National (US) Fraternity/Coed Active
Alpha Tau Sigma ΑΤΣ 1912–1964 Medical Local, American School of Osteopathy Fraternity/Male Inactive
Beta Sigma Kappa ΒΣΚ 1924 Optometry honor International Society/Coed Active [16][17]
Chi Eta Ph ΧΗΦ 1932 Nursing, African American International Sorority, Female Active
Chi Rho Sigma ΧΡΣ 1949* 1975 Chiropractic International Fraternity/Coed Active [18]
Chi Zeta Chi ΧΖΧ 1901–1929 Medicine National (US) Fraternity/Male Inactive
Delta Epsilon Mu ΔΕΜ 1996 Pre-health, health-related fields National (US) Fraternity/Coed Active
Delta Omicron Alpha ΔΟΑ 1907–1917 Medicine National (US) Fraternity/Male Inactive
Delta Sigma Chi ΔΣΧ 1913 Chiropractic International Fraternity/Male Active
Delta Sigma Delta ΔΣΔ 1882 Dentistry International Fraternity/Male Active
Epsilon Psi Epsilon ΕΨΕ 1911 Optometry Local, Ohio State University Fraternity Active
Hygeia Medical Sorority HMS 2009 Medicine Local, Universidad Mayor de San Simón Sorority Active [19]
Kappa Gamma Delta ΚΓΔ 1994 Pre-medical Regional, California Sorority/Female Active
Kappa Tau Epsilon ΚΤΕ Podiatry Local, Kent State Fraternity/Coed Active [20]
Mu Epsilon Delta ΜΕΔ 1965 Health National (US) Fraternity/Coed Active
Nu Sigma Nu ΝΣΝ 1882 Medicine International Fraternity/Coed Active
Omega Delta ΩΔ 1919 Optometry National Fraternity Active [21]
Omega Tau Sigma ΩΤΣ 1906 Veterinary medicine International Fraternity/Coed Active
Omega Upsilon Phi ΩΥΦ 1894–1934 Medicine International Fraternity/Male Inactive, Merged [d]
Phi Alpha Gamma ΦΑΓ 1894–1948 Osteopathic medicine National (US) Fraternity/Male Inactive, Merged [e]
Phi Alpha Sigma ΦΑΣ 1888 Medicine National Fraternity Active [22][23]
Phi Beta Pi ΦΒΠ 1891 Medicine Local, formerly National Fraternity Active
Phi Chi ΦΧ 1889 Medicine International Fraternity/Male Active
Phi Delta ΦΔ 1901–1918 Medicine International Fraternity/Male Inactive
Phi Delta Epsilon ΦΔΕ 1904 Medicine International Fraternity/Coed Active
Phi Kappa Mu ΦΚΜ 1933 Medicine Local, University of the Philippines College of Medicine Fraternity/Male Active
Phi Lambda Kappa ΦΛΚ 1907 Medicine International Fraternity Active
Phi Rho Sigma ΦΡΣ 1890 Medicine National (US) Fraternity/Coed Active
Phi Sigma Gamma ΦΣΓ 1890 Osteopathic National (US) Fraternity/Male Active
Pi Kappa Chi ΠΚΧ 1961 Chiropractic National (US) Fraternity/Coed Active [24][25]
Pi Mu ΠΜ 1892–1922 Medical honor society National (US) Fraternity/Male Inactive, Merged [f]
Psi Omega ΨΩ 1892 Dentistry National (US) Fraternity Active
Rho Psi Eta ΡΨΗ 2007 Pre-Health Careers National (US) Sorority/Female Active [26][27]
Sigma Mu Delta ΣΜΔ 1994 Pre-medical Regional, California Fraternity/Male Active [28]
Sigma Phi Chi ΣΦΧ 1911 Chiropractic Local Sorority/Female Active [29]
Theta Kappa Psi ΘΚΨ 1879 Medicine Local (previously International) Fraternity Active
Xi Psi Phi ΞΨΦ 1889 Dentistry International Fraternity/Coed Active

Military, government, and foreign service

Name Symbols Formed/Range Emphasis Scope Type/Gender Status Reference
Alpha Gamma Xi ΑΓΞ 2014 Military Local, Tennessee Sorority/Female Active [30]
Coed Affiliates Pershing Rifles 1966–1980s Military National (US) Sorority/Female Inactive
Delta Phi Epsilon ΔΦΕ 1920 Foreign Service National (US) Fraternity/Male Active
Delta Phi Epsilon ΔΦΕ 1972 Foreign Service National (US) Sorority/Female Active
Kappa Epsilon Psi ΚΕΨ 2011 Military National/United States Sorority/Female Active
Kappa Lambda Chi ΚΛΧ 2013 Military National/United States Fraternity/Male Active
Lambda Beta Alpha ΛΒΑ 2017 Military Local, Virginia Sorority/Female Active
Mu Beta Phi ΜΒΦ 2017 Military International Fraternity/Male Active
Omega Kappa Lambda ΩΚΛ 2020 Military Fraternity/Male Active [31]
Pershing Angels 1965 Military Drill National (US) Sorority/Female Active
Pershing Rifles 1894 Military Drill National (US) Fraternity/Male Active
Psi Delta Chi ΨΔΧ 2019 Military, African American Sorority/Female Active [32]
Psi Delta Tau ΨΔΤ 2017 Military, African American National (US) Fraternity/Male Active [33]
Psi Rho Phi ΨΡΦ 2019 Military, African American Fraternity/Male Active [34]
Scabbard and Blade 1904 Military honor National (US) Society/Coed Active
Zeta Sigma Psi ΖΣΨ 2019 Military, African American Sorority/Female Active [35]

Music

Name Symbols Formed/

Range

Emphasis Scope Type/Gender Status Reference
Delta Omicron ΔΟ 1909 Music International Fraternity/Coed Active
Kappa Kappa Psi ΚΚΨ 1919 Band National (US) Fraternity/Coed Active
Mu Beta Psi ΜΒΨ 1925 Music National (US) Fraternity/Coed Active
Mu Phi Epsilon ΜΦΕ 1903 Music International Sorority/Coed Active
Nu Kappa Epsilon ΝΚΕ 1994 Music appreciation National (US) Sorority Active
Phi Boota roota Φᗺr 1976 Percussion National (US) Fraternity/Coed Active [36][37]
Phi Mu Alpha Sinfonia ΦΜΑ 1898 Music, Social National (US) Fraternity/Male Active [g]
Sigma Alpha Iota ΣΑΙ 1903 Music National (US) Women's Fraternity/Female Active
Tau Beta Sigma ΤΒΣ 1946 Band, Service National (US) Sorority/Coed Active

Pharmaceutical and pharmacological

Name Symbols Formed/

Range

Emphasis Scope Type/Gender Status Reference
Alpha Zeta Omega ΑΖΩ 1919 Pharmacy National (US) Fraternity/Coed Active
Beta Phi Sigma ΒΦΣ 1888–1973 Pharmacy National (US) Fraternity/Male Inactive
Delta Sigma Theta ΔΣΘ 1914 Pharmacy, medical, and dentistry International Fraternity Active
Kappa Epsilon ΚΕ 1921 Pharmacy National (US) Women's Fraternity/Coed Active
Kappa Psi ΚΨ 1879 Pharmacy National (US) Fraternity/Coed Active
Lambda Kappa Sigma ΛΚΣ 1913 Pharmacy National (US) Women's Fraternity/Coed Active
Phi Delta Chi ΦΔΧ 1883 Pharmacy National (US) Fraternity/Coed Active
Rho Chi ΡΧ 1922 Pharmacy honor society National (US) Society/Coed Active
Rho Pi Phi ΡΠΦ 1919 Pharmancy National (US) Fraternity/Coed Active

Other

Name Symbols Formed/

Range

Emphasis Scope Type/Gender Status Reference
Alpha Eta Rho ΑΗΡ 1929 Aviation International Fraternity/Coed Active
American Criminal Justice Association–Lambda Alpha Epsilon ΛΑΕ 1937 Criminal Justice International Fraternity/Coed Active
Beta Psi Omega ΒΨΩ 2010 Biology National (US) Fraternity/Coed Active [38][39]
Delta Omega Epsilon ΔΩΕ 1985 Civics, Academics Local, NY Tri-state Area Fraternity Active
Epsilon Eta ΕΗ 2006 Environmental, Sustainability National (US) Fraternity/Coed Active
Phi Alpha Tau ΦΑΤ 1902 Communicative arts Local, Emerson College Fraternity/Male Active [40]
Pi Sigma Eta ΠΣΗ 1930 Mortician honorary, funeral service National (US) Fraternity/Coed Active [41][42]
Sigma Phi Sigma ΣΦΣ funeral service National (US) Fraternity/Coed Active
Sigma Rho ΣΡ 1892 Mining Local, Michigan Technological University Fraternity Active [43][44]
Theta Psi ΘΨ 2011 Sustainability Regional, California Fraternity/Coed Active [45][46]
Zeta Theta Omega ΖΘΩ 2013 Zoology Local, Michigan State University Fraternity/Coed Active [47]

Notes

  1. ^ Previously had six chapters in five U.S. states.
  2. ^ Merged with Phi Alpha Delta in 1972.
  3. ^ Formed as a professional society but became an honor society in 2012.
  4. ^ Defunct after Phi Beta Pi 1934 merger; Alpha chapter joined Phi Chi
  5. ^ Merged with Phi Chi in 1948
  6. ^ Merged with Phi Chi in 1922.
  7. ^ Originally a men's music social fraternity but was co-ed from 1976 to 1983. Returned to all-male ever since in 1985.

See also

References

  1. ^ Title IX Archived 2007-04-03 at the Wayback Machine, United States Department of Justice
  2. ^ ""Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-09-30. Retrieved 2007-07-26.((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) Code of Federal Regulations, PART 106: NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE
  3. ^ Phi Mu Alpha Sinfonia – Sinfonia's Classification
  4. ^ "Sigma Alpha Iota". Sigma Alpha Iota. Archived from the original on 2010-11-30. Retrieved 2010-12-09.
  5. ^ "Phi Mu Alpha". Phi Mu Alpha. Archived from the original on 2014-03-06.
  6. ^ "Home". www.professionalfraternity.org. Retrieved 2023-01-31.
  7. ^ "All Comers Resolution" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on March 4, 2016.
  8. ^ "Gamma Xi Phi". Gamma Xi Phi. Retrieved 2023-01-31.
  9. ^ "Eta Rho Sigma Sorority, Incorporated". Eta Rho Sigma Sorority, Incorporated. Retrieved 2023-04-06.
  10. ^ "Sigma Alpha Nu | Professional Pre-Law Fraternity". Sigma Alpha Nu. Retrieved 2023-02-01.
  11. ^ "Sigma Alpha Nu - CalLink at UC Berkeley". University of California at Berkeley. Retrieved 2023-02-02.
  12. ^ "Pi Lambda Sigma". Cornell PFC. Retrieved 2024-01-27.
  13. ^ "Cornell Polis – Home". Polis Cornell. Retrieved 2024-01-27.
  14. ^ "Alpha Delta Upsilon". Life University. Retrieved 2023-02-01.
  15. ^ "Alpha Delta Upsilon Professional Chiropractic Sorority". www.adulife.yolasite.com. Retrieved 2023-02-01.
  16. ^ "Beta Sigma Kappa - International Optometric Honor Society". betasigmakappa.net. Retrieved 2023-02-01.
  17. ^ Henson, Brooke (October 21, 2021). "American Academy of Optometry announces 2021 recipient of the Beta Kappa Research Fellowship". Optometry Times. Retrieved 2023-02-02.
  18. ^ "Chi Rho Sigma | Logan Connect". Logan University. Retrieved 2023-02-01.
  19. ^ La hermandad Hygeia Medical Sorority celebra su décimo aniversario
  20. ^ "Kappa Tau Epsilon (KTE) | Kent State University". www.kent.edu. Retrieved 2023-02-01.
  21. ^ Northern Illinois College Optometry Focus Yearbook page 54
  22. ^ "Early Penn Fraternities: Phi Alpha Sigma". University Archives and Records Center. Retrieved 2023-02-01.
  23. ^ "The Fraternities". Jefferson Interfraternal Council. Retrieved 2023-02-01.
  24. ^ "Fraternity Profile". pikappachi.tripod.com. Retrieved 2023-02-01.
  25. ^ "Welcome, from the Epsilon Chapter!". Pi Kappa Chi. March 22, 2018. Retrieved 2023-02-01.
  26. ^ "Home". Rho Psi Eta UCSB. Retrieved 2023-02-01.
  27. ^ "Rho Psi Eta, Delta Chapter|Cornell University|Pre-Health Sorority". Rho Psi Eta, Cornell. Retrieved 2023-02-01.
  28. ^ Lurding, Carroll and Becque, Fran. (February 19, 2023) "Sigma Mu Delta". Almanac of Fraternities and Sororities. Urbana: University of Illinois. Accessed February 23, 2023.
  29. ^ Biography of Palmer Mabel Heath
  30. ^ "Values-Based, International Military Sorority | Alpha Gamma Xi Sorority Inc". www.alphagammaxi.org. Retrieved 2023-02-01.
  31. ^ "Omega Kappa Lambda Military Fraternity Incorporate". www.omegakappalambda.com. Retrieved 2023-02-01.
  32. ^ "Psi Delta Chi MSI". www.psideltachi.org. Retrieved 2023-02-01.
  33. ^ "Psi Delta Tau". PSI DELTA TAU. Retrieved 2023-02-01.
  34. ^ "About Us". Psi Rho Phi. Retrieved February 1, 2023.
  35. ^ "ABOUT". zetasigmapsimilitarysorority.org. Retrieved 2023-02-01.
  36. ^ "Chapter". Phi Boota roota. Retrieved 2023-02-01.
  37. ^ "Phi Boota Roota - GuideStar Profile". www.guidestar.org. Retrieved 2023-02-01.
  38. ^ "Chapters and Colonies". Beta Psi Omega. Retrieved 2023-02-01.
  39. ^ "About". Beta Psi Omega. Retrieved 2023-02-01.
  40. ^ "Phi Alpha Tau | Emerson Connect". Emerson College. Retrieved 2023-01-31.
  41. ^ "Clubs & Activities". Gupton-Jones College. Retrieved 2023-02-01.
  42. ^ "About CCMS | Student Body | Student Body". www.ccms.edu. Retrieved 2023-02-01.
  43. ^ "Current Stories". Michigan Technological University. Retrieved March 10, 2024.
  44. ^ "Home". Sigma Rho Fraternity. Retrieved March 10, 2024.
  45. ^ "Home". Theta Psi. Retrieved January 31, 2023.
  46. ^ "Theta Psi Archives". UCI Sustainability Resource Center. Retrieved 2023-02-01.
  47. ^ "About Us". Zeta Theta Omega. Retrieved 2023-02-01.