Postmodernist film is a classification for works that articulate the themes and ideas of postmodernism through the medium of cinema. Some of the goals of postmodernist film are to subvert the mainstream conventions of narrative structure and characterization, and to test the audience's suspension of disbelief.[1][2][3] Typically, such films also break down the cultural divide between high and low art and often upend typical portrayals of gender, race, class, genre, and time with the goal of creating something that does not abide by traditional narrative expression.[4]

Overview of postmodernism

Main articles: Postmodernism and Postmodern art

Postmodernism is a complex paradigm of different philosophies and artistic styles. The movement emerged as a reaction to high modernism.[5] Modernism is a paradigm of thought and viewing the world characterized in specific ways that postmodernism reacted against. Modernism was interested in master and meta narratives of history of a teleological nature.[6] Proponents of modernism suggested that sociopolitical and cultural progress was inevitable and important for society and art.[6][7] Ideas of cultural unity (i.e. the narrative of the West or something similar) and the hierarchies of values of class that go along with such a conception of the world is another marker of modernism.[5] In particular, modernism insisted upon a divide between "low" forms of art and "high" forms of art (creating more value judgments and hierarchies).[5][7] This dichotomy is particularly focused on the divide between official culture and popular culture.[5] Lastly, but by no means comprehensively, there was a faith in the "real" and the future and knowledge and the competence of expertise that pervades modernism. At heart, it contained a confidence about the world and humankind's place in it.[5]

Postmodernism attempts to subvert, resist and differ from the preoccupations of modernism across many fields (music, history, art, cinema, etc.). Postmodernism emerged in a time not defined by war or revolution but rather by media culture.[1] Unlike modernism, postmodernism does not have faith in master narratives of history or culture, or even the self as an autonomous subject.[1][5][7] Rather postmodernism is interested in contradiction, fragmentation, and instability.[1] Postmodernism is often focused on the destruction of hierarchies and boundaries. The mixing of different times and periods or styles of art that might be viewed as "high" or "low" is a common practice in postmodern work.[1][2][3] This practice is referred to as pastiche.[1] Postmodernism takes a deeply subjective view of the world and identity and art, positing that an endless process of signification and signs is where any "meaning" lies.[8][9] Consequently, postmodernism demonstrates what it perceives as a fractured world, time, and art.

Specific elements

Modernist film came to maturity in the eras between WWI and WWII with characteristics such as montage, symbolic imagery, expressionism and surrealism (featured in the works of Luis Buñuel, Fritz Lang and Alfred Hitchcock)[10] while Postmodernist film – similar to postmodernism as a whole – is a reaction to the modernist works of its field, and to their tendencies (such as nostalgia and angst).[11] Modernist cinema, "explored and exposed the formal concerns of the medium by placing them at the forefront of consciousness. Modernist cinema questions and made visible the meaning-production practices of film."[12] The auteur theory and idea of an author producing a work from his singular vision guided the concerns of modernist film. "To investigate the transparency of the image is modernist but to undermine its reference to reality is to engage with the aesthetics of postmodernism."[7][13] The modernist film has more faith in the author, the individual, and the accessibility of reality itself (and more sincere in tone) than the postmodernist film.

Postmodernism is in many ways interested in the liminal space that would be typically ignored by more modernist or traditionally narrative offerings. The idea is that the meaning is often generated most productively through the spaces and transitions and collisions between words and moments and images. Henri Bergson writes in his book Creative Evolution, "The obscurity is cleared up, the contradiction vanishes, as soon as we place ourselves along the transition, in order to distinguish states in it by making cross cuts therein in thoughts. The reason is that there is more in the transition than the series of states, that is to say, the possible cuts--more in the movement than the series of position, that is to say, the possible stops."[14] The thrust of this argument is that the spaces between the words or the cuts in a film create just as much meaning as the words or scenes themselves.

Postmodernist film is often separated from modernist cinema and traditional narrative film[11] by three key characteristics. One of them is an extensive use of homage or pastiche,[12] resulting from the fact that postmodern filmmakers are open to blending many disparate genres and tones within the same film. The second element is meta-reference or self-reflexivity, highlighting the construction and relation of the image to other images in media and not to any kind of external reality.[12] A self-referential film calls the viewer's attention – either through characters' knowledge of their own fictional nature, or through visuals – that the movie itself is only a movie. This is sometimes achieved by emphasizing the unnatural look of an image which seems contrived. Another technique used to achieve meta-reference is the use of intertextuality, in which the film's characters reference or discuss other works of fiction. Additionally, many postmodern films tell stories that unfold out of chronological order, deconstructing or fragmenting time so as to, once again, highlight the fact that what is appearing on screen is constructed. A third common element is a bridging of the gap between highbrow and lowbrow activities and artistic styles[2][3][12] – e.g., a parody of Michelangelo's Sistine Chapel ceiling in which Adam is reaching for a McDonald's burger rather than the hand of God. This would exemplify the fusion of high and low because Michelangelo is widely regarded as one of the greatest of all painters, whereas fast food is commonly named among the lowbrow elements of modern society.

The use of homage and pastiche can, in and of itself, result in a fusion of high and low. For this reason, homage is sometimes accompanied by characters' value judgments as to the worth and cultural value of the works being parodied, ensuring the viewer understands whether the thing being referenced is considered highbrow or lowbrow.

Lastly, contradictions of all sorts – whether it be in visual technique, characters' morals, or other things – are crucial to postmodernism, and the two are in many cases irreconcilable. Any theory of postmodern film would have to be comfortable with paradoxes or contradictions of ideas and their articulation.[2][9]

Specific postmodern examples

Once Upon a Time in the West

Sergio Leone's Once Upon a Time in the West has often been referred to by critics as an example of a postmodern Western.[15][16] The 1968 spaghetti Western revolves around a beautiful widow, a mysterious gunslinger playing a harmonica, a ruthless villain, and a lovable but hard-nosed bandit who just escaped from jail. The story was developed by Leone, Bernardo Bertolucci, and Dario Argento by watching countless classic American Westerns, and the final movie is a deliberate attempt to both pay homage to and subvert Western genre conventions and audience expectations. Among the most notable examples of intertextuality are the plot similarities to Johnny Guitar, the visual reference to High Noon of a clock stopped at high noon in the middle of a gunfight, and the casting of Henry Fonda as the story's sadistic antagonist which was a deliberate subversion of Fonda's image as a hero established in such films as My Darling Clementine and Fort Apache directed by John Ford.[17][18][19]

Blade Runner

Ridley Scott's Blade Runner might be the best known postmodernist film.[12] Scott's 1982 film is about a future dystopia where "replicants" (human cyborgs) have been invented and are deemed dangerous enough to hunt down when they escape. There is tremendous effacement of boundaries between genres and cultures and styles that are generally more separate, along with the fusion of disparate styles and times that is a trope in postmodernist cinema. "The futuristic set and action mingle with drab 1940s clothes and offices, punk rock hairstyles, pop Egyptian style and oriental culture. The population is singularly multicultural and the language they speak is an agglomeration of English, Japanese, German and Spanish. The film alludes to the private eye genre of Raymond Chandler and the characteristics of film noir as well as Biblical motifs and images."[2][12] Here is a demonstration of the mixing of cultures and boundaries and styles of art. The film is playing with time (the various types of clothes) and culture and genre by mixing them all together to create the world of the film. The fusion of noir and science-fiction is another example of the film deconstructing cinema and genre. This is an embodiment of the postmodern tendency to destroy boundaries and genres into a self-reflexive product. The 2017 Academy Award-winning sequel Blade Runner 2049 also tackled postmodern anxieties.[20]

Pulp Fiction

Quentin Tarantino's Pulp Fiction is another example of a postmodernist film.[21][22][23] The Palm d'Or-winning film tells the interweaving stories of gangsters, a boxer, and robbers. The 1994 film breaks down chronological time and demonstrates a particular fascination with intertextuality: bringing in texts from both traditionally "high" and "low" realms of art.[1][2] This foregrounding of media places the self as "a loose, transitory combination of media consumption choices."[1][3] Pulp Fiction fractures time (by the use of asynchronous time lines) and by using styles of prior decades and combining them together in the movie.[1] By focusing on intertextuality and the subjectivity of time, Pulp Fiction demonstrates the postmodern obsession with signs and subjective perspective as the exclusive location of anything resembling meaning.

Other selected examples

Aside from the aforementioned Once Upon a Time in the West, the Blade Runner sequels and Pulp Fiction, postmodern cinema includes films such as:

List of notable postmodernist filmmakers

See also


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i Hopkins, Susan (Spring 1995). "Generation Pulp". Youth Studies Australia. 14 (3): 14–19.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h Kretzschmar, Laurent (July 2002). "Is Cinema Renewing Itself?". Film-Philosophy. 6 (15). doi:10.3366/film.2002.0015.
  3. ^ a b c d Hutcheon, Linda (January 19, 1998). "Irony, Nostalgia, and the Postmodern". University of Toronto English Library.
  4. ^ "Representing Postmodern Marginality in Three Documentary Films. - Free Online Library".
  5. ^ a b c d e f Jameson, Frederic, Postmodernism and Consumer Society (PDF), George Mason University, archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-12-16, retrieved 2012-04-18
  6. ^ a b Irvine, Martin. "The Postmodern, Postmodernism, Postmodernity: Approached to Po-Mo". Georgetown University.
  7. ^ a b c d Milovanovic, Dragan (15 March 2009). "Dueling Paradigms: Modernist v. Postmodern Thought". American Society of Criminology.
  8. ^ "Postmodern Allegory and David Lynch's Wild at Heart" Critical Art: A South-North Journal of Cultural and Media Studies; 1995, Vol. 9 Issue 1 by Cyndy Hendershot
  9. ^ a b Alemany-Galway, Mary (2002). A Postmodern Cinema. Kent, England: Scarecrow Press.
  10. ^ "Characteristics of a Modernist Film". Our Pastimes.
  11. ^ a b Betz, Mark (March 23, 2009). "Beyond the subtitle : remapping European art cinema". Minneapolis : University of Minnesota Press – via Internet Archive.
  12. ^ a b c d e f Beginning Postmodernism, Manchester University Press: 1999 by Tim Woods
  13. ^ "Reading the Postmodern Image: A Cognitive Mapping," Screen: 31, 4 (Winter 1990) by Tony Wilson
  14. ^ Bergson, Henri; Mitchell, Arthur (March 23, 1911). "Creative Evolution". H. Holt – via Google Books.
  15. ^ "ONCE UPON A TIME IN THE WEST (1968) • Frame Rated". Frame Rated. 2018-11-26. Retrieved 2021-01-11.
  16. ^ "50 years, 50 films: Once Upon a Time in the West (1968) | Screenwriter". Retrieved 2021-01-11.
  17. ^ "Once Upon a Time in the West (1968) – Deep Focus Review – Movie Reviews, Critical Essays, and Film Analysis".
  18. ^ "50 years, 50 films: Once Upon a Time in the West (1968) | Screenwriter".
  19. ^ "Once Upon a Time in the West - Library of Congress" (PDF). Library of Congress.
  20. ^ "Blade Runner 2049" proves Denis Villeneuve as the closest we have to a modern day Kubrick - Highlander
  21. ^ Tincknell, Estella (2006). "The Soundtrack Movie, Nostalgia and Consumption", in Film's Musical Moments, ed. Ian Conrich and Estella Tincknell (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press). ISBN 0-7486-2344-2
  22. ^ King, Geoff (2002). Film Comedy (London: Wallflower Press). ISBN 1-903364-35-3
  23. ^ Wood, James (November 12, 1994). The Guardian.
  24. ^ Postponing Postmodernism - Believer Magazine
  25. ^ Weekly, Fort Worth (February 11, 2015). "Love Jones".
  26. ^ Henderson, Eric (November 17, 2005). "DVD Review: The Looney Tunes Movie Collection on Warner Home Video". Slant Magazine.
  27. ^ "The Looney Tunes Golden Collection (DVD)". The A.V. Club. 11 November 2003.
  28. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "The Case for Douglas Sirk as the First Postmodern Filmmaker". Collider. September 11, 2021.
  29. ^ Bruce Conner: In the Estheticization of Violence - Google Books (pg.8)
  30. ^ Whelan, Nicola. "Place, Memory and History: A Construction of Subjectivity in Alain Resnais and Marguerite Duras' 'Hiroshima Mon Amour'" – via ((cite journal)): Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  31. ^ "What makes Antonioni's L'avventura great". BFI.
  32. ^ "Criterion Files #478: 'Last Year at Marienbad'". Film School Rejects. August 25, 2010.
  33. ^ "8 1/2 as a Postmodernist Film | Critical Film Theory: The Poetics and Politics of Film".
  34. ^ a b c d e f Diaz, Jonny (August 2, 2020). "Christopher Nolan: Postmodern Master". Rough Cut.
  35. ^ Encyclopedia of Lesbian and Gay Histories and Culture - Google Books (pg.84)
  36. ^ Kumar, Arun (November 28, 2017). "Woman in the Dunes [1964] – A Haunting Existential Masterpiece".
  37. ^ Rivieccio, Genna (September 6, 2021). "Pierrot Le Fou's Discourse on the Infection of Americanism in Europe and the Absurdity of Modern Society".
  38. ^ Hoberman, J. "Godard's Conflagration of Images | J. Hoberman".
  39. ^ "Fragmented Identities: Ingmar Bergman's 1966 film 'Persona'". October 19, 2020.
  40. ^ "Batman (1966) is a Postmodern Masterpiece". Den of Geek. March 6, 2017.
  41. ^ write, Thought to (August 22, 2021). "From Modernism to Postmodernism depicting the transition through the movie: 'Blow-up'".
  42. ^ a b c d e f Roddis, Zach. "20 Great Postmodern Films You Should Watch".
  43. ^ Teo, Stephen. "Seijun Suzuki: Authority in Minority – Senses of Cinema".
  44. ^ Casino Royale at 33: The Postmodern Epic in Spite of Itself - Bright Lights Film Journal
  46. ^ The Horror Film - Google Books (pg.89)
  47. ^ Theology, Pop (March 25, 2013). "Teorema: God Will Save You from Your Dull Middle-Class Existence".
  48. ^ Kumar, Arun (April 14, 2016). "Death by Hanging [1968]: A Brilliant, Provocative Work of a Anti-Authoritarian".
  49. ^ a b History 104 Lecture: Social Revolution
  50. ^ Alias, Haziq. "The Color of Pomegranates: An Avant- Garde Film That Found Beauty Universally" – via ((cite journal)): Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  51. ^ FUNERAL PARADE OF ROSES - Hammer to Nail
  52. ^ "Nicolas Roeg: 7 great moments". BFI.
  53. ^ "The Conformist": An unsettling political masterpiece returns - Salon
  54. ^ "'El Topo' at 50: A psychedelic film endorsed by John Lennon". April 15, 2021.
  55. ^ Acker, Melissa. "The Discreet Charm of the Bourgeoisie – Senses of Cinema".
  56. ^ Yigitce, Erdinch (June 26, 2013). "Holy Blood And Holy Mountains: The Cinema Of Alejandro Jodorowsky". Culture Trip.
  57. ^ "Blazing Saddles" as Postmodern Ethnic Carnival on JSTOR
  58. ^ The Mel Brooks Collection|AV Club
  59. ^ "Pastoral, to die in the country". April 10, 2020.
  60. ^ ‘Céline and Julie Go Boating’ Review: Candy Can Only Fuel the Memory of Few|Hills West Roundup
  61. ^ a b c Deo, Kanishka. "The 20 Best Postmodernist Movies of All Time".
  62. ^ Wasley, Aidan (November 1, 2005). "The greatest postmodern art film ever". Slate Magazine.
  63. ^ Was postmodernism born with Close Encounters of the Third Kind?|Culture|The Guardian
  64. ^ Heart of Weirdness: The Story Behind Hausu|Austin Film Society
  65. ^ a b c Mambrol, Nasrullah (July 1, 2017). "Modernism, Postmodernism and Film Criticism". Literary Theory and Criticism.
  66. ^ "Post-Stalker: Notes on Post-Industrial Environments and Aesthetics". Strelka Mag.
  67. ^ "Alexander M Gross - The Postmodern Apocalypse".
  68. ^ a b c d A Primer on Postmodernism - Google Books (pg.33)
  69. ^ 8 European Film Movements You Should Know - The Odyssey Online
  70. ^ As Delightful As It Insufferable: On the Complex Joy of Diva - Roger Ebert
  71. ^ a b c The Postmodern Presence - Google Books (pg.157)
  72. ^ Review: Abel Ferrara's Ms. 45 on Drafthouse Films Blu-ray - Slant Magazine
  73. ^ Connie Field's 'The Life and Times of Rosie the Riveter'|International Documentary Association
  74. ^ Rick Prelinger: We have always recycled|BFI
  75. ^ The Postmodern Presence - Google Books (pg.37)
  76. ^ "Did We Ever Stop Being Postmodern?". Design Observer.
  77. ^ Carl Reiner Has Died at the Age of 98 - Paste
  78. ^ "Criterion Files #387: La Jetée". Film School Rejects. July 14, 2010.
  79. ^ La Jetee/Sans Soleil: The Criterion Collection - DVD Talk
  80. ^ a b Ledingham, John. "10 Great Postmodern Sci-fi Movies To Blow Your Mind".
  81. ^ Secret Agency in Mainstream Postmodern Cinema
  82. ^ Postmodern Hollywood - Google Books (pgs.34-35)
  84. ^ a b c d David and David at the Movies: Sorry to Bother You - Indiana University Cinema
  85. ^ Sterritt, David. "Brazil: A Great Place to Visit, Wouldn't Want to Live There". The Criterion Collection.
  86. ^ a b c d Gallagher, Richard. "10 Great Postmodern Documentaries That Are Worth Your Time".
  87. ^ Mishama: A Life in Four Chapters|Screen Slate
  88. ^ Willett, Cynthia (1996). "Baudrillard, "After Hours", and the Postmodern Suppression of Socio-Sexual Conflict". Cultural Critique (34): 143–161. doi:10.2307/1354615. JSTOR 1354615 – via JSTOR.
  89. ^ Exiles in Modernity - Chicago Reader
  90. ^ "MAUVAIS SANG | Viennale".
  91. ^ a b c d e f "Modernism and Post-Modernism in Pop Culture - Modernism and Post-Modernism in British Literature".
  92. ^ Circles, Myth, and Darwinism: Stanley Kubrick's 2001: A Space Odyssey and Peter Greenaway's A Zed and Two Noughts (ZOO) - Offscreen
  93. ^ Walker - Harvard Film Archive
  94. ^ Free Alex Cox event in Arberdeen|Den of Geek
  95. ^ Historical Dictionary of Postmodernist Literature and Theater - Google Books (pg.346)
  96. ^ Ten Must-See 80s Sci-Fi And Fantasy Films|AMC Talk|AMC
  97. ^ ‘The Princess Bride’: Revisiting Rob Reiner and William Goldman’s Paean to Pure Storytelling|The Film Stage
  98. ^ RIP William Goldman, creator of beloved film, The Princess Bride - Ars Technica
  100. ^ Caldwell, David; Rea, Paul W. (1991). "Handke's and Wenders's Wings of Desire: Transcending Postmodernism". The German Quarterly. 64 (1): 46–54. doi:10.2307/407304. JSTOR 407304 – via JSTOR.
  101. ^ MUBI on Twitter: "A postmodern cult classic from Indian filmmaker Kamal Swaroop."
  102. ^ Postmodernity and the city: Blade Runner, Dark City, Akira - High on Films
  103. ^ "Who Framed Roger Rabbit?". Empire.
  104. ^ a b A Primer on Postmodernism - Google Books (pg.32)
  105. ^ David and David at the Movies: Sorry to Bother You - Indiana University Cinema
  106. ^ Bruyn, Dirk de. "Coming in from the Culled: A Review of A Postmodern Cinema: The Voice of the Other in Canadian Film by Mary Alemany-Galway – Senses of Cinema".
  107. ^ New Working-class Studies - Google Books (pg.160)
  108. ^ a b c d e f g Roddis, Zach. "20 Great Postmodern Films You Should Watch".
  109. ^ Tavasoli, Sara (May 22, 2015). "Postmodernism in". Research in Contemporary World Literature. 20 (1): 23–39. doi:10.22059/jor.2015.54213 – via
  110. ^ "Postmodern Need Not Mean Post-Human: Abbas Kiarostami and the Paradox of Cinema". The Village Voice. July 5, 2016.
  111. ^ New on DVD and Blu-ray|The Week
  112. ^ Gremlins 2: The New Batch (1990) Movie Review from Eye for Film
  113. ^ Watch: In-Depth Dissection Of The Coens' Postmodernism|The Playlist
  114. ^ "Barton Fink (Joel and Ethan Coen, 1991) • Senses of Cinema". Retrieved 2018-07-30.
  115. ^ "The Coen Brothers: The Postmodern Films - Barton Fink - Film Closings". Retrieved 2018-07-30.
  116. ^ a b c Palmer, Joy (December 1, 2000). "Conventionalizing the Postmodern". Film-Philosophy. 4 (1). doi:10.3366/film.2000.0001 – via Edinburgh University Press Journals.
  117. ^ ŽiŽek, Slavoj. "The Double Life of Véronique: The Forced Choice of Freedom". The Criterion Collection.
  118. ^ a b c Ledingham, John. "10 Great Postmodern Sci-fi Movies To Blow Your Mind".
  119. ^ Postmodernism in the Cinema - Google Books (pg.45)
  120. ^ Review: Aladdin - Slant Magazine
  122. ^ 'The Nightmare Before Christmas' (PG) - The Washington Post
  123. ^ a b c d e f Roddis, Zach. "20 Great Postmodern Films You Should Watch".
  124. ^ Dudková, Jana (March 23, 2013). "An Image of Recurrent Time: Notes on Cinematic Image and the Gaze in Béla Tarr?s Sátántangó". Human Affairs. 23 (1): 21–31. doi:10.2478/s13374-013-0103-y. S2CID 144067281 – via PhilPapers.
  125. ^ a b c d e f Deo, Kanishka. "The 20 Best Postmodernist Movies of All Time".
  126. ^ FALLEN ANGELS | Cleveland Institute of Art College of Art | 800.223.4700
  127. ^ "Emir Kusturica's "Underground," text version".
  128. ^ "Is Narrative Overrated? Finding New Ways to Engage With Cinema".
  129. ^ a b c d "10 Savvy Postmodern Horror Films That Helped Reinvent The Genre". October 24, 2015.
  130. ^ Schizopolis and the Chaos of American Suburban Living|25YL
  131. ^ 216. SCHIZOPOLIS (1996)|366 Weird Movies
  132. ^ The Sundance Kids: How the Mavericks Took Back Hollywood - Google Books (pg.174)
  133. ^ "Sophistication and sincerity".
  134. ^ "Olivier Assayas' "Irma Vep": A Product and Critique of the French New Wave – Brattle Theatre Film Notes".
  135. ^ CINEMA QUARANTINO: The End of Evangelion (1997) dir. Hideaki Anno|BOSTON HASSLE
  136. ^ Lost Highway (1997)|The Criterion Collection
  137. ^ Duncan, Pansy (March 23, 2015). "Bored and Boringer: avant-garde and trash in Harmony Korine's Gummo". Textual Practice. 29 (4): 717–743. doi:10.1080/0950236X.2014.987690. S2CID 145744624 – via
  138. ^ Dark City 1997, directed by Alex Proyas|Time Out
  139. ^ 20 Great Postmodern Films You Should Watch - Taste of Cinema
  140. ^ Chang, Kai-man (2008). "Gender Hierarchy and Environmental Crisis in Tsai Ming-liang's "The Hole"". Film Criticism. 33 (1): 25–44. JSTOR 24777368 – via JSTOR.
  141. ^ Escaping the Panopticon: Utopia, Hegemony, and Performance in Peter Weir's The Truman Show - Dusty Lavoie - jstor
  142. ^ A Retrospective of the 50s through Postmodern Cinema - Google Books (pg.125)
  143. ^ Ghost Dog: The Way of the Samurai - The Criterion Channel
  144. ^ Revising the Postmodern American Road Movie: David Lynch's The Straight Story on JSTOR
  145. ^ "The Matrix and Postmodernism". Retrieved 2012-11-28.
  146. ^ a b c The 20 Best Postmodernist Movies of All Time « Taste of Cinema
  147. ^ Dancer in the Dark (2000): Von Trier’s Cannes Fest Top Prize-Winning Film Starring Bjork|Emanuel Levy
  148. ^ "The Postcolonial Self and the Other in Béla Tarr's Werckmeister Harmonies".
  149. ^ a b c d e f g Booker, M. Keith (March 23, 2007). "Postmodern Hollywood: what's new in film and why it makes us feel so strange". Praeger – via Open WorldCat.
  150. ^ It's Such a Beautiful Day — Brattle Theatre Film Notes
  151. ^ The Holy Moment on JSTOR
  152. ^ a b Booker, M. Keith (March 23, 2007). Postmodern Hollywood: What's New in Film and why it Makes Us Feel So Strange. Praeger. ISBN 9780275999018 – via Google Books.
  153. ^ a b c d Deo, Kanishka. "The 20 Best Postmodernist Movies of All Time".
  154. ^ "Film releases: All About Lily Chou-Chou". the Guardian. August 30, 2002.
  155. ^ "Views of Modern and Postmodern Tokyo: Dehumanization, Urban and Body Changes". ResearchGate.
  156. ^ O'Hehir, Andrew (November 9, 2002). ""Far From Heaven"". Salon.
  157. ^ "Unhappily ever after". the Guardian. March 1, 2003.
  158. ^ "All That the Neighbors Allow: Todd Haynes's FAR FROM HEAVEN | Cinematheque".
  159. ^ a b c d e f Cinema Studies: The Key Concepts - Google Books (pg.289)
  160. ^ Between Comedy and Kitsch: Kitano's Zatoichi and Kurosawa's Traditions of "Jidaigeki" Comedies by Rie Karatsu, Massey University, New Zealand
  161. ^ The Humanity of 2000s Postmodernist Cinema - Flip Screen
  162. ^ "To Halve and to Hold". The Village Voice. June 21, 2005.
  163. ^ a b c d Gallagher, Richard. "10 Great Postmodern Documentaries That Are Worth Your Time".
  164. ^ "The Postmodern Eyes of Chinese Cinema".
  165. ^ "The Home for Cinephiles | Fandor".
  166. ^ Young, Neil (November 10, 2017). "Critic's Picks: Amy Adams' Top 5 Performances". The Hollywood Reporter.
  167. ^ "Todd Haynes, I'm Not There and the Postmodern Biopic".
  168. ^ "The Quietus | Film | Film Features | Life's Incidental Character: The Films Of Agnès Varda". The Quietus.
  169. ^ "The ultimate postmodern novel is a film". 13 May 2009. Retrieved 2018-07-30.
  170. ^ Ebiri, Bilge. "Gaspar Noé on Why Enter the Void Is Avatar for the Art Crowd: Both Are 'Like Taking Drugs'". Vulture.
  171. ^ "Shutter Island". Reverse Shot.
  172. ^ "The remake of memory: Martin Scorsese's Shutter Island and Pedro Almodovar's The Skin I Live In" (PDF).
  173. ^ Bauer, Marko. "Pure West: Drive, nostalgia for postmodernism – Senses of Cinema".
  174. ^ "A perfectly modern Frankenstein: Almodóvar's The Skin I Live In (2011, Sony Pictures Classics)".
  175. ^ Martin, Jake. "We need to talk about We Need to Talk about Kevin". Busted Halo. Retrieved 2011-12-23.
  176. ^ "The blind spot of history: colonialism in Tabu - CentAUR" (PDF).
  177. ^ Verma, Shikhar (June 6, 2017). "Holy Motors [2012]: The Death & Re-birth of Cinema".
  178. ^ Dargis, Manohla (April 30, 2013). "Juggling Primal Conflicts of Innocence and Sin" – via
  179. ^ Why can't grown-up animations catch a break on Oscar night? - Chicago Reader
  180. ^ ""This is the bloody twenty-first century!": The (Post)Modern Vampires of Jim Jarmusch's Only Lovers Left Alive". March 16, 2019.
  181. ^ "Nicolas Winding Refn". Indiana University Cinema.
  182. ^ Review: Insubstantial 'Clouds of Sils Maria'|Indiewire
  183. ^ "Thai film 'Cemetery of Splendor' blends surrealism and fear", The Seattle Globalist
  184. ^ World of Tomorrow - cinemayward
  185. ^ "La La Land: American postmodern musical without a cause|The Australian".
  186. ^ La La Land: A Grandiose Dream of the Modern Musical – Gen Z Critics
  187. ^ Gleiberman, Owen (January 1, 2017). "A Second Look at 'La La Land': Why It's Not Just Good, But Great".
  188. ^ "'Get Out' Is The Type Of Movie The Oscars Should Pay Attention To". HuffPost. March 5, 2017.
  189. ^ "The Square Pokes Fun at the Postmodern Art World". dobbernationLOVES. September 9, 2017.
  190. ^ "Only I Know the Secrets: Breaking Down 'Under the Silver Lake' | BW/DR". July 10, 2019.
  191. ^ Silence & Sound: Wonderstruck and the Post-Modern Gaze – Riot Material
  192. ^ Oscars: Can Anyone Break Disney & Pixar's Animated Feature Streak In 2019? - Deadline
  193. ^ (PDF) The House that Lars Built -
  194. ^ "Falling asleep at the Movies: Long Day's Journey Into Night by Jamie Limond – The Drouth".
  195. ^ Alm, David. "Review: Pedro Almodóvar's 'Pain And Glory'". Forbes.
  196. ^ "Bad Luck Banging or Loony Porn review – playful Romanian sex tape satire". the Guardian. November 28, 2021.
  197. ^ "Movie Review: "Bergman Island" a Playful Riff on Creativity". October 20, 2021.
  198. ^ How Everything Everywhere All At Once Bridges the Gap Between Summer Blockbusters and Arthouse Cinema - MovieWeb
  199. ^ White Noise is 'thrillingly original' - BBC Culture
  200. ^ Jim Hemphill's Best Blu-rays of 2016|Filmmaker Magazine
  201. ^ There Was Once a Certain Kind of Cinema — Kitbashed
  202. ^ Fallen Angels|Cornell Cinema
  203. ^ Read More: Don Hertzfeldt's Stick Figures at 20 | Austin Film Society
  204. ^ Encyclopedia of Literature and Criticism - Google Books (pg.133)
  205. ^ Postmodern Chick Flicks - Google Books (pg.43)
  206. ^ a b c d e f "Elements of Mise en Scene in Postmodern Cinema". December 22, 2016.
  207. ^ a b c d Boggs, Carl; Pollard, Tom (March 1, 2001). "Postmodern Cinema and Hollywood Culture in an Age of Corporate Colonization". Democracy & Nature. 7 (1): 159–181. doi:10.1080/10855660020028818 – via Taylor and Francis+NEJM.
  208. ^ a b c d Haider, Asad. "Me and You and Everyone We Know: The Postmodern Happiness of the Contemporary Art Film – Senses of Cinema".
  209. ^ Joe Dante's Purgatory|Jonathan Rosenbaum
  210. ^ Hassannia, Tina (December 11, 2013). "The Nature of Truth: Errol Morris's The Thin Blue Line". Slant Magazine.
  211. ^ Dilley, Whitney Crothers (August 23, 2017). "The Cinema of Wes Anderson: Bringing Nostalgia to Life". Wallflower Press – via Columbia University Press.
  212. ^ Book cover Postmodernism, Parody and Smart Cinema: Case Studies of Lynch, Tarantino and Soderbergh|SpringerLink
  213. ^ "The Evolution of Pedro Almodóvar". The New Yorker. November 28, 2016.
  214. ^ "The Postmodern Films Of Guy Maddin". NPR.
  215. ^ "An Interview with Guy Maddin".
  216. ^ Comics in Context #100: Centennial Cartoon Concert - IGN
  217. ^ Neurosis Hotel: An introduction to Abel Ferrara - Adrian Martin.pdf
  218. ^ Time Machines: After Kubrick: A Filmmaker's Legacy, edited by Jeremi Szaniawski · Senses of Cinema
  219. ^ New Working-Class Studies - Google Books (pg. 162)
  220. ^ The Perils of Michael Moore - Dissent Magazine
  221. ^ Can I Live? Contemporary Black Satire and the State of Postmodern Double Consciousness on JSTOR
  222. ^ Jordan Peele on 'Get Out' and writing for the Black audience
  223. ^ Peter Greenaway's Postmodern / Poststructuralist Cinema - Google Books
  224. ^ Peter Greenaway's "Eisenstein in Guanajuato" at the Istanbul Film Festival - HuffPost
  225. ^ Kevin Smith: 'I'm a Sellout!' - Observer