Postmodernist film is a classification for works that articulate the themes and ideas of postmodernism through the medium of cinema. Some of the goals of postmodernist film are to subvert the mainstream conventions of narrative structure and characterization, and to test the audience's suspension of disbelief.[1][2][3] Typically, such films also break down the cultural divide between high and low art and often upend typical portrayals of gender, race, class, genre, and time with the goal of creating something that does not abide by traditional narrative expression.[4]

Specific elements

Modernist film came to maturity in the era between WWI and WWII with characteristics such as montage and symbolic imagery, and often took the form of expressionist cinema and surrealist cinema (as seen in the works of Fritz Lang and Luis Buñuel)[5] while postmodernist film – similar to postmodernism as a whole – is a reaction to the modernist works and to their tendencies (such as nostalgia and angst).[6] Modernist cinema has been said to have "explored and exposed the formal concerns of the medium by placing them at the forefront of consciousness. Modernist cinema questions and made visible the meaning-production practices of film."[7] The auteur theory and idea of an author creating a work from their singular vision was a cultural advancement that coincided with the further maturation of modernist cinema. It has been said that "To investigate the transparency of the image is modernist but to undermine its reference to reality is to engage with the aesthetics of postmodernism."[8][9] The modernist film has more faith in the author, the individual, and the accessibility of reality itself than the postmodernist film, and is generally more sincere in tone.[10]

Postmodernism is in many ways interested in the liminal space that would be typically ignored by more modernist or traditionally narrative offerings. Henri Bergson writes in his book Creative Evolution, "The obscurity is cleared up, the contradiction vanishes, as soon as we place ourselves along the transition, in order to distinguish states in it by making cross cuts therein in thoughts. The reason is that there is more in the transition than the series of states, that is to say, the possible cuts--more in the movement than the series of position, that is to say, the possible stops."[11]

Postmodernist film is often separated from modernist cinema and traditional narrative film[6] by three key characteristics. One of them is an extensive use of homage or pastiche.[7] The second element is meta-reference or self-reflexivity, highlighting the construction and relation of the image to other images in media and not to any kind of external reality.[7] A self-referential film calls the viewer's attention – either through characters' knowledge of their own fictional nature, or through visuals – that the film itself is only a film. This is sometimes achieved by emphasizing the unnatural look of an image which seems contrived. Another technique used to achieve meta-reference is the use of intertextuality, in which the film's characters reference or discuss other works of fiction. Additionally, many postmodern films tell stories that unfold out of chronological order, deconstructing or fragmenting time so as to highlight the fact that what is appearing on screen is constructed. A third common element is a bridging of the gap between highbrow and lowbrow activities and artistic styles,[2][3][7] e.g. a parody of Michelangelo's Sistine Chapel ceiling in which Adam is reaching for a McDonald's burger rather than the hand of God. The use of homage and pastiche can, in and of itself, result in a fusion of high and low art. Lastly, contradictions of all sorts – whether it be in visual technique, characters' morals, etc. – are crucial to postmodernism.[2][12]

Specific postmodern examples

Once Upon a Time in the West

Sergio Leone's Once Upon a Time in the West has often been referred to by critics as an example of a postmodern Western.[13][14] The 1968 spaghetti Western revolves around a beautiful widow, a mysterious gunslinger playing a harmonica, a ruthless villain, and a lovable but hard-nosed bandit who just escaped from jail. The story was developed by Leone, Bernardo Bertolucci, and Dario Argento by watching classic American Westerns, and the final product is a deliberate attempt to both pay homage to and subvert Western genre conventions and audience expectations. Among the most notable examples of intertextuality are the plot similarities to Johnny Guitar, the visual reference to High Noon of a clock stopped at high noon in the middle of a gunfight, and the casting of Henry Fonda as the story's sadistic antagonist which was a deliberate subversion of Fonda's image as a hero established in such films as My Darling Clementine and Fort Apache, both directed by John Ford.[15][16][17]

Blade Runner

Ridley Scott's Blade Runner might be the best-known postmodernist film.[7] Scott's 1982 film is about a future dystopia where "replicants" (human cyborgs) have been invented and are deemed dangerous enough to hunt down when they escape. There is tremendous effacement of boundaries between genres and cultures, and styles that are generally more separate, along with the fusion of disparate styles and times, a common trope in postmodernist cinema.[2][7] The fusion of noir and science-fiction is another example of the film deconstructing cinema and genre.[10] This embodies the postmodern tendency to destroy boundaries and genres into a self-reflexive product. The 2017 Academy Award-winning sequel Blade Runner 2049 also tackled postmodern anxieties.[18]

Pulp Fiction

Quentin Tarantino's Pulp Fiction is another example of a postmodernist film.[19][20][21][10] The Palme d'Or-winning film tells the interweaving stories of gangsters, a boxer, and robbers. The 1994 film breaks down chronological time and demonstrates a particular fascination with intertextuality: bringing in texts from both traditionally "high" and "low" realms of art.[1][2] This foregrounding of media places the self as "a loose, transitory combination of media consumption choices."[1][3] Pulp Fiction fractures time (by the use of asynchronous time lines) and by using styles of prior decades and combining them together in the movie.[1] By focusing on intertextuality and the subjectivity of time, Pulp Fiction demonstrates the postmodern obsession with signs and subjective perspective as the exclusive location of anything resembling meaning.

Other selected examples

Aside from the aforementioned Once Upon a Time in the West, the Blade Runner sequels and Pulp Fiction, postmodern cinema includes films such as:

20th Century[edit]

21st Century[edit]

List of notable postmodernist filmmakers

See also


  1. ^ a b c d Hopkins, Susan (Spring 1995). "Generation Pulp". Youth Studies Australia. 14 (3): 14–19.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Kretzschmar, Laurent (July 2002). "Is Cinema Renewing Itself?". Film-Philosophy. 6 (15). doi:10.3366/film.2002.0015.
  3. ^ a b c Hutcheon, Linda (January 19, 1998). "Irony, Nostalgia, and the Postmodern". University of Toronto English Library.
  4. ^ "Representing Postmodern Marginality in Three Documentary Films. - Free Online Library".
  5. ^ "Characteristics of a Modernist Film". Our Pastimes.
  6. ^ a b Betz, Mark (March 23, 2009). "Beyond the subtitle : remapping European art cinema". Minneapolis : University of Minnesota Press – via Internet Archive.
  7. ^ a b c d e f Beginning Postmodernism, Manchester University Press: 1999 by Tim Woods
  8. ^ Milovanovic, Dragan (15 March 2009). "Dueling Paradigms: Modernist v. Postmodern Thought". American Society of Criminology.
  9. ^ Wilson, T. (1990-12-01). "Reading the postmodernist image: a 'cognitive mapping'". Screen. 31 (4): 390–407. doi:10.1093/screen/31.4.390. ISSN 0036-9543.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Why Do Movies Feel So Different Now? - Thomas Flight on YouTube
  11. ^ Bergson, Henri; Mitchell, Arthur (March 23, 1911). Creative Evolution. H. Holt. ISBN 9780827421110 – via Google Books.
  12. ^ Alemany-Galway, Mary (2002). A Postmodern Cinema. Kent, England: Scarecrow Press.
  13. ^ "ONCE UPON A TIME IN THE WEST (1968) • Frame Rated". Frame Rated. 2018-11-26. Retrieved 2021-01-11.
  14. ^ "50 years, 50 films: Once Upon a Time in the West (1968) | Screenwriter". Retrieved 2021-01-11.
  15. ^ "Once Upon a Time in the West (1968) – Deep Focus Review – Movie Reviews, Critical Essays, and Film Analysis". 10 August 2010.
  16. ^ "50 years, 50 films: Once Upon a Time in the West (1968) | Screenwriter".
  17. ^ "Once Upon a Time in the West - Library of Congress" (PDF). Library of Congress.
  18. ^ "Blade Runner 2049" proves Denis Villeneuve as the closest we have to a modern-day Kubrick - Highlander
  19. ^ Tincknell, Estella (2006). "The Soundtrack Movie, Nostalgia and Consumption", in Film's Musical Moments, ed. Ian Conrich and Estella Tincknell (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press). ISBN 0-7486-2344-2
  20. ^ King, Geoff (2002). Film Comedy (London: Wallflower Press). ISBN 1-903364-35-3
  21. ^ Wood, James (November 12, 1994). The Guardian.
  22. ^ Postponing Postmodernism - Believer Magazine
  23. ^ Weekly, Fort Worth (February 11, 2015). "Love Jones".
  24. ^ Henderson, Eric (November 17, 2005). "DVD Review: The Looney Tunes Movie Collection on Warner Home Video". Slant Magazine.
  25. ^ "The Looney Tunes Golden Collection (DVD)". The A.V. Club. 11 November 2003.
  26. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "The Case for Douglas Sirk as the First Postmodern Filmmaker". Collider. September 11, 2021.
  27. ^ Bruce Conner: In the Estheticization of Violence - Google Books (pg.8)
  28. ^ Whelan, Nicola. "Place, Memory and History: A Construction of Subjectivity in Alain Resnais and Marguerite Duras' 'Hiroshima Mon Amour'". NCAD – via
  29. ^ "What makes Antonioni's L'avventura great". BFI. 28 September 2023.
  30. ^ Prince, Stephen (Feb 2, 2004). The Horror Film. Rutgers University Press. ISBN 9780813533636. Retrieved Feb 2, 2023 – via Google Books.
  32. ^ "Criterion Files #478: 'Last Year at Marienbad'". Film School Rejects. August 25, 2010.
  33. ^ "8 1/2 as a Postmodernist Film | Critical Film Theory: The Poetics and Politics of Film".
  34. ^ a b c d e f Diaz, Jonny (August 2, 2020). "Christopher Nolan: Postmodern Master". Rough Cut.
  35. ^ Encyclopedia of Lesbian and Gay Histories and Culture - Google Books (pg.84)
  36. ^ Kumar, Arun (November 28, 2017). "Woman in the Dunes [1964] – A Haunting Existential Masterpiece".
  37. ^ Rivieccio, Genna (September 6, 2021). "Pierrot Le Fou's Discourse on the Infection of Americanism in Europe and the Absurdity of Modern Society".
  38. ^ Hoberman, J. (26 January 2019). "Godard's Conflagration of Images | J. Hoberman".
  39. ^ "Fragmented Identities: Ingmar Bergman's 1966 film 'Persona'". October 19, 2020.
  40. ^ "Batman (1966) is a Postmodern Masterpiece". Den of Geek. March 6, 2017.
  41. ^ write, Thought to (August 22, 2021). "From Modernism to Postmodernism depicting the transition through the movie: 'Blow-up'".
  42. ^ a b c d e f Roddis, Zach (4 April 2016). "20 Great Postmodern Films You Should Watch".
  43. ^ Teo, Stephen (17 March 2013). "Seijun Suzuki: Authority in Minority – Senses of Cinema".
  44. ^ Casino Royale at 33: The Postmodern Epic in Spite of Itself - Bright Lights Film Journal
  46. ^ The Horror Film - Google Books (pg.89)
  47. ^ Theology, Pop (March 25, 2013). "Teorema: God Will Save You from Your Dull Middle-Class Existence".
  48. ^ Kumar, Arun (April 14, 2016). "Death by Hanging [1968]: A Brilliant, Provocative Work of a Anti-Authoritarian".
  49. ^ a b History 104 Lecture: Social Revolution
  50. ^ Alias, Haziq. "The Color of Pomegranates: An Avant- Garde Film That Found Beauty Universally". None – via
  51. ^ FUNERAL PARADE OF ROSES - Hammer to Nail
  52. ^ a b c d e Mythologies of Violence in Postmodern Media - Google Books
  53. ^ "Nicolas Roeg: 7 great moments". BFI. 27 November 2018.
  54. ^ "The Conformist": An unsettling political masterpiece returns - Salon
  55. ^ "'El Topo' at 50: A psychedelic film endorsed by John Lennon". April 15, 2021.
  56. ^ Acker, Melissa (21 May 2024). "The Discreet Charm of the Bourgeoisie – Senses of Cinema".
  57. ^ Yigitce, Erdinch (June 26, 2013). "Holy Blood And Holy Mountains: The Cinema Of Alejandro Jodorowsky". Culture Trip.
  58. ^ "Blazing Saddles" as Postmodern Ethnic Carnival on JSTOR
  59. ^ The Mel Brooks Collection|AV Club
  60. ^ "Pastoral, to die in the country". April 10, 2020.
  61. ^ ‘Céline and Julie Go Boating’ Review: Candy Can Only Fuel the Memory of Few|Hills West Roundup
  62. ^ a b c Deo, Kanishka (8 July 2014). "The 20 Best Postmodernist Movies of All Time".
  63. ^ Wasley, Aidan (November 1, 2005). "The greatest postmodern art film ever". Slate Magazine.
  64. ^ You Were Never Really Here Is A Smart Thriller That Retreads Familiar Territory: Review|SPIN
  65. ^ Was postmodernism born with Close Encounters of the Third Kind?|Culture|The Guardian
  66. ^ Heart of Weirdness: The Story Behind Hausu|Austin Film Society
  67. ^ "Filmmuseum - Program SD".
  68. ^ a b c Mambrol, Nasrullah (July 1, 2017). "Modernism, Postmodernism and Film Criticism". Literary Theory and Criticism.
  69. ^ a b Alternate Americas: Science Fiction and American Culture - Google Books
  70. ^ "Post-Stalker: Notes on Post-Industrial Environments and Aesthetics". Strelka Mag.
  71. ^ "Alexander M Gross - The Postmodern Apocalypse".
  72. ^ a b c d A Primer on Postmodernism - Google Books (pg.33)
  73. ^ Anastasova, Maria (Oct 12, 2018). The Suspense of Horror and the Horror of Suspense. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. ISBN 9781527519046. Retrieved Feb 2, 2023 – via Google Books.
  74. ^ a b Connie Field's 'The Life and Times of Rosie the Riveter'|International Documentary Association
  75. ^ 8 European Film Movements You Should Know - The Odyssey Online
  76. ^ As Delightful As It Insufferable: On the Complex Joy of Diva - Roger Ebert
  77. ^ a b c The Postmodern Presence - Google Books (pg.157)
  78. ^ Arnzen, Michael A. (Feb 2, 1994). "Who's Laughing now? The Postmodern Splatter Film". Journal of Popular Film and Television. 21 (4): 176–184. doi:10.1080/01956051.1994.9943985. Retrieved Feb 2, 2023 – via
  79. ^ The Monstrous-feminine - Google Books (pg.73)
  80. ^ Staff, Slant (Oct 28, 2022). "The 100 Best Horror Movies of All Time". Slant Magazine. Retrieved Feb 2, 2023.
  81. ^ Review: Abel Ferrara's Ms. 45 on Drafthouse Films Blu-ray - Slant Magazine
  82. ^ The Horror Film – Google Books (pgs.87–113)
  83. ^ Rick Prelinger: We have always recycled|BFI
  84. ^ The Postmodern Presence - Google Books (pg.37)
  85. ^ "Did We Ever Stop Being Postmodern?". Design Observer.
  86. ^ Carl Reiner Has Died at the Age of 98 - Paste
  87. ^ 346. LIQUID SKY (1982)|366 Weird Movies
  88. ^ "Criterion Files #387: La Jetée". Film School Rejects. July 14, 2010.
  89. ^ La Jetee/Sans Soleil: The Criterion Collection - DVD Talk
  90. ^ a b Ledingham, John (10 April 2021). "10 Great Postmodern Sci-fi Movies To Blow Your Mind".
  91. ^ Secret Agency in Mainstream Postmodern Cinema
  92. ^ Postmodern Hollywood - Google Books (pgs.34-35)
  93. ^ a b c d e "5 FILMS THAT ARE POST MODERN MOVIES ABOUT THE NEW HOLLYWOOD". Chicago Tribune. 2 August 2002.
  94. ^ Recreational Terror - Google Books
  95. ^ a b c d David and David at the Movies: Sorry to Bother You - Indiana University Cinema
  96. ^ Sterritt, David. "Brazil: A Great Place to Visit, Wouldn't Want to Live There". The Criterion Collection.
  97. ^ a b c d Gallagher, Richard (20 July 2016). "10 Great Postmodern Documentaries That Are Worth Your Time".
  98. ^ Mishama: A Life in Four Chapters|Screen Slate
  99. ^ Willett, Cynthia (1996). "Baudrillard, "After Hours", and the Postmodern Suppression of Socio-Sexual Conflict". Cultural Critique (34): 143–161. doi:10.2307/1354615. JSTOR 1354615 – via JSTOR.
  100. ^ Exiles in Modernity - Chicago Reader
  101. ^ "MAUVAIS SANG | Viennale".
  102. ^ a b c d e f "Modernism and Post-Modernism in Pop Culture - Modernism and Post-Modernism in British Literature".
  103. ^ Circles, Myth, and Darwinism: Stanley Kubrick's 2001: A Space Odyssey and Peter Greenaway's A Zed and Two Noughts (ZOO) - Offscreen
  104. ^ Walker - Harvard Film Archive
  105. ^ Free Alex Cox event in Arberdeen|Den of Geek
  106. ^ Historical Dictionary of Postmodernist Literature and Theater - Google Books (pg.346)
  107. ^ Ten Must-See 80s Sci-Fi And Fantasy Films|AMC Talk|AMC
  108. ^ ‘The Princess Bride’: Revisiting Rob Reiner and William Goldman’s Paean to Pure Storytelling|The Film Stage
  109. ^ RIP William Goldman, creator of beloved film, The Princess Bride - Ars Technica
  111. ^ Caldwell, David; Rea, Paul W. (1991). "Handke's and Wenders's Wings of Desire: Transcending Postmodernism". The German Quarterly. 64 (1): 46–54. doi:10.2307/407304. JSTOR 407304 – via JSTOR.
  112. ^ MUBI on Twitter: "A postmodern cult classic from Indian filmmaker Kamal Swaroop."
  113. ^ 10 Films To Watch When You’re Stoned - High On Films
  114. ^ Postmodernity and the city: Blade Runner, Dark City, Akira - High on Films
  115. ^ "30 years later and Beetlejuice is still the ghost with the most". Mar 30, 2018. Retrieved Feb 2, 2023.
  116. ^ "Who Framed Roger Rabbit?". Empire. 2 March 2006.
  117. ^ a b A Primer on Postmodernism - Google Books (pg.32)
  118. ^ David and David at the Movies: Sorry to Bother You - Indiana University Cinema
  119. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Postmodern Chick Flicks: The Return of the Woman's Film - Google Books
  120. ^ Bruyn, Dirk de (22 April 2004). "Coming in from the Culled: A Review of A Postmodern Cinema: The Voice of the Other in Canadian Film by Mary Alemany-Galway – Senses of Cinema".
  121. ^ New Working-class Studies - Google Books (pg.160)
  122. ^ a b c d e f g Roddis, Zach (4 April 2016). "20 Great Postmodern Films You Should Watch".
  123. ^ Tavasoli, Sara (May 22, 2015). "Postmodernism in". Research in Contemporary World Literature. 20 (1): 23–39. doi:10.22059/jor.2015.54213 – via
  124. ^ "Postmodern Need Not Mean Post-Human: Abbas Kiarostami and the Paradox of Cinema". The Village Voice. July 5, 2016.
  125. ^ New on DVD and Blu-ray|The Week
  126. ^ Gremlins 2: The New Batch (1990) Movie Review from Eye for Film
  127. ^ Watch: In-Depth Dissection Of The Coens' Postmodernism|The Playlist
  128. ^ "Barton Fink (Joel and Ethan Coen, 1991) • Senses of Cinema". Retrieved 2018-07-30.
  129. ^ "The Coen Brothers: The Postmodern Films - Barton Fink - Film Closings". 7 May 2017. Retrieved 2018-07-30.
  130. ^ a b c Palmer, Joy (December 1, 2000). "Conventionalizing the Postmodern". Film-Philosophy. 4 (1). doi:10.3366/film.2000.0001 – via Edinburgh University Press Journals.
  131. ^ ŽiŽek, Slavoj. "The Double Life of Véronique: The Forced Choice of Freedom". The Criterion Collection.
  132. ^ a b c Ledingham, John (10 April 2021). "10 Great Postmodern Sci-fi Movies To Blow Your Mind".
  133. ^ Postmodernism in the Cinema - Google Books (pg.45)
  134. ^ Review: Aladdin - Slant Magazine
  136. ^ Arnold Schwarzenegger's Experimental Postmodern Film That Almost Worked - Collider
  137. ^ 'The Nightmare Before Christmas' (PG) - The Washington Post
  138. ^ a b c d e f Roddis, Zach (4 April 2016). "20 Great Postmodern Films You Should Watch".
  139. ^ Dudková, Jana (March 23, 2013). "An Image of Recurrent Time: Notes on Cinematic Image and the Gaze in Béla Tarr?s Sátántangó". Human Affairs. 23 (1): 21–31. doi:10.2478/s13374-013-0103-y. S2CID 144067281 – via PhilPapers.
  140. ^ a b c d e f Deo, Kanishka (8 July 2014). "The 20 Best Postmodernist Movies of All Time".
  141. ^ Henry: Portrait of a Serial Killer - Google Books (pg.121)
  142. ^ FALLEN ANGELS | Cleveland Institute of Art College of Art | 800.223.4700
  143. ^ "Emir Kusturica's "Underground," text version".
  144. ^ "Is Narrative Overrated? Finding New Ways to Engage With Cinema". 26 February 2014.
  145. ^ a b c d "10 Savvy Postmodern Horror Films That Helped Reinvent The Genre". October 24, 2015.
  146. ^ Schizopolis and the Chaos of American Suburban Living|25YL
  147. ^ 216. SCHIZOPOLIS (1996)|366 Weird Movies
  148. ^ The Sundance Kids: How the Mavericks Took Back Hollywood - Google Books (pg.174)
  149. ^ "Sophistication and sincerity".
  150. ^ "Olivier Assayas' "Irma Vep": A Product and Critique of the French New Wave – Brattle Theatre Film Notes".
  151. ^ CINEMA QUARANTINO: The End of Evangelion (1997) dir. Hideaki Anno|BOSTON HASSLE
  152. ^ Lost Highway (1997)|The Criterion Collection
  153. ^ Duncan, Pansy (March 23, 2015). "Bored and Boringer: avant-garde and trash in Harmony Korine's Gummo". Textual Practice. 29 (4): 717–743. doi:10.1080/0950236X.2014.987690. S2CID 145744624 – via
  154. ^ Dark City 1997, directed by Alex Proyas|Time Out
  155. ^ 20 Great Postmodern Films You Should Watch - Taste of Cinema
  156. ^ Chang, Kai-man (2008). "Gender Hierarchy and Environmental Crisis in Tsai Ming-liang's "The Hole"". Film Criticism. 33 (1): 25–44. JSTOR 24777368 – via JSTOR.
  157. ^ Escaping the Panopticon: Utopia, Hegemony, and Performance in Peter Weir's The Truman Show - Dusty Lavoie - jstor
  158. ^ a b A Retrospective of the 50s through Postmodern Cinema - Google Books (pg.125)
  159. ^ Ghost Dog: The Way of the Samurai - The Criterion Channel
  160. ^ Revising the Postmodern American Road Movie: David Lynch's The Straight Story on JSTOR
  161. ^ "The Matrix and Postmodernism". Retrieved 2012-11-28.
  162. ^ a b c The 20 Best Postmodernist Movies of All Time « Taste of Cinema
  163. ^ Dancer in the Dark (2000): Von Trier’s Cannes Fest Top Prize-Winning Film Starring Bjork|Emanuel Levy
  164. ^ "The Postcolonial Self and the Other in Béla Tarr's Werckmeister Harmonies".
  165. ^ a b c d e f g Booker, M. Keith (March 23, 2007). "Postmodern Hollywood: what's new in film and why it makes us feel so strange". Praeger – via Open WorldCat.
  166. ^ It's Such a Beautiful Day — Brattle Theatre Film Notes
  167. ^ The Holy Moment on JSTOR
  168. ^ a b Booker, M. Keith (March 23, 2007). Postmodern Hollywood: What's New in Film and why it Makes Us Feel So Strange. Praeger. ISBN 9780275999018 – via Google Books.
  169. ^ a b c d Deo, Kanishka (8 July 2014). "The 20 Best Postmodernist Movies of All Time".
  170. ^ "Film releases: All About Lily Chou-Chou". the Guardian. August 30, 2002.
  171. ^ "Views of Modern and Postmodern Tokyo: Dehumanization, Urban and Body Changes". ResearchGate.
  172. ^ O'Hehir, Andrew (November 9, 2002). ""Far From Heaven"". Salon.
  173. ^ "Unhappily ever after". the Guardian. March 1, 2003.
  174. ^ "All That the Neighbors Allow: Todd Haynes's FAR FROM HEAVEN | Cinematheque".
  175. ^ The Quietus|Film|Film Features|Modern Masterpiece: 20 Years Of 24 Hour Party People
  176. ^ a b c d e f Cinema Studies: The Key Concepts - Google Books (pg.289)
  177. ^ Between Comedy and Kitsch: Kitano's Zatoichi and Kurosawa's Traditions of "Jidaigeki" Comedies by Rie Karatsu, Massey University, New Zealand
  178. ^ The Humanity of 2000s Postmodernist Cinema - Flip Screen
  179. ^ 'Team America: World Police' : NPR
  180. ^ "To Halve and to Hold". The Village Voice. June 21, 2005.
  181. ^ a b c d Gallagher, Richard (20 July 2016). "10 Great Postmodern Documentaries That Are Worth Your Time".
  182. ^ "The Postmodern Eyes of Chinese Cinema".
  183. ^ Young, Neil (November 10, 2017). "Critic's Picks: Amy Adams' Top 5 Performances". The Hollywood Reporter.
  184. ^ "Todd Haynes, I'm Not There and the Postmodern Biopic".
  185. ^ "The Quietus | Film | Film Features | Life's Incidental Character: The Films Of Agnès Varda". The Quietus. 6 June 2014.
  186. ^ "The ultimate postmodern novel is a film". 13 May 2009. Retrieved 2018-07-30.
  187. ^ Ebiri, Bilge (27 September 2010). "Gaspar Noé on Why Enter the Void Is Avatar for the Art Crowd: Both Are 'Like Taking Drugs'". Vulture.
  188. ^ "Shutter Island". Reverse Shot.
  189. ^ "The remake of memory: Martin Scorsese's Shutter Island and Pedro Almodovar's The Skin I Live In" (PDF).
  190. ^ Bauer, Marko (17 December 2013). "Pure West: Drive, nostalgia for postmodernism – Senses of Cinema".
  191. ^ "A perfectly modern Frankenstein: Almodóvar's The Skin I Live In (2011, Sony Pictures Classics)".
  192. ^ Martin, Jake. "We need to talk about We Need to Talk about Kevin". Busted Halo. Retrieved 2011-12-23.
  193. ^ "The blind spot of history: colonialism in Tabu - CentAUR" (PDF).
  194. ^ Verma, Shikhar (June 6, 2017). "Holy Motors [2012]: The Death & Re-birth of Cinema".
  195. ^ "'ParaNorman' Is a Hilarious, Heartfelt Horror Homage, PopMatters". Aug 13, 2012. Retrieved Feb 2, 2023.
  196. ^ Dargis, Manohla (April 30, 2013). "Juggling Primal Conflicts of Innocence and Sin". The New York Times – via
  197. ^ Why can't grown-up animations catch a break on Oscar night? - Chicago Reader
  198. ^ ""This is the bloody twenty-first century!": The (Post)Modern Vampires of Jim Jarmusch's Only Lovers Left Alive". March 16, 2019.
  199. ^ "Nicolas Winding Refn". Indiana University Cinema.
  200. ^ Review: Insubstantial 'Clouds of Sils Maria'|Indiewire
  201. ^ ‘The Lego Movie’: Building a postmodern, tongue-in-cheek toy film - Los Angeles Times
  202. ^ "Thai film 'Cemetery of Splendor' blends surrealism and fear", The Seattle Globalist
  203. ^ World of Tomorrow - cinemayward
  204. ^ Deadpool and Philosophy: Nihilism, Postmodernism, and the Prison of Irony - MovieWeb
  205. ^ "La La Land: American postmodern musical without a cause|The Australian".
  206. ^ La La Land: A Grandiose Dream of the Modern Musical – Gen Z Critics
  207. ^ Gleiberman, Owen (January 1, 2017). "A Second Look at 'La La Land': Why It's Not Just Good, But Great".
  208. ^ At Sundance: In Defense of Daniel Radcliffe’s Farting Corpse|Filmmaker Magazine
  209. ^ "'Get Out' Is The Type Of Movie The Oscars Should Pay Attention To". HuffPost. March 5, 2017.
  210. ^ a b 'I, Tonya' and the Postmodern Protagonist - Age of the Nerd
  211. ^ "The Square Pokes Fun at the Postmodern Art World". dobbernationLOVES. September 9, 2017.
  212. ^ "Only I Know the Secrets: Breaking Down 'Under the Silver Lake' | BW/DR". July 10, 2019.
  213. ^ Silence & Sound: Wonderstruck and the Post-Modern Gaze – Riot Material
  214. ^ Oscars: Can Anyone Break Disney & Pixar's Animated Feature Streak In 2019? - Deadline
  215. ^ (PDF) The House that Lars Built -
  216. ^ "Falling asleep at the Movies: Long Day's Journey Into Night by Jamie Limond – The Drouth".
  217. ^ Rian Johnson trades in lightsabers for postmodern whodunnit Knives Out|Ars Technica
  218. ^ Alm, David. "Review: Pedro Almodóvar's 'Pain And Glory'". Forbes.
  219. ^ "Bad Luck Banging or Loony Porn review – playful Romanian sex tape satire". the Guardian. November 28, 2021.
  220. ^ "Movie Review: "Bergman Island" a Playful Riff on Creativity". October 20, 2021.
  221. ^ Why Oscar contender ‘Babylon’ could take a page from Tolkien - Angelus News
  222. ^ How Everything Everywhere All At Once Bridges the Gap Between Summer Blockbusters and Arthouse Cinema - MovieWeb
  223. ^ a b PHILM AND PHILOSOPHY|'Barbie', 'Everything Everywhere All at Once' and the Problem of Postmodern Endings
  224. ^ 'Last Night in Soho' review: Anya Taylor-Joy shakes up horror - Los Angeles Times
  225. ^ Gittell, Noah (Jul 20, 2022). "Jordan Peele's Nope Fails to Dazzle When the Aliens Are Revealed - WCP". Washington City Paper. Retrieved Feb 2, 2023.
  226. ^ White Noise is 'thrillingly original' - BBC Culture
  227. ^ 'Barbie' Review: Doll in Plastic Gets a Greta Gerwig Grounding in Kentastic Postmodern Campy Romp - Rendy Reviews
  228. ^ Why the Postmodern Structure of Ari Aster’s ‘Beau is Afraid’ Works Masterfully - No Film School
  229. ^ Jim Hemphill's Best Blu-rays of 2016|Filmmaker Magazine
  230. ^ There Was Once a Certain Kind of Cinema — Kitbashed
  231. ^ Fallen Angels|Cornell Cinema
  232. ^ Read More: Don Hertzfeldt's Stick Figures at 20 | Austin Film Society
  233. ^ Encyclopedia of Literature and Criticism - Google Books (pg.133)
  234. ^ Postmodern Chick Flicks - Google Books (pg.43)
  235. ^ a b c d e f "Elements of Mise en Scene in Postmodern Cinema". December 22, 2016.
  236. ^ a b c d Boggs, Carl; Pollard, Tom (March 1, 2001). "Postmodern Cinema and Hollywood Culture in an Age of Corporate Colonization". Democracy & Nature. 7 (1): 159–181. doi:10.1080/10855660020028818 – via Taylor and Francis+NEJM.
  237. ^ a b c d “New Hollywood” and the 60s Melting Pot|Jonathan Rosenbaum
  238. ^ a b c d Haider, Asad (October 2018). "Me and You and Everyone We Know: The Postmodern Happiness of the Contemporary Art Film – Senses of Cinema".
  239. ^ Joe Dante's Purgatory|Jonathan Rosenbaum
  240. ^ Hassannia, Tina (December 11, 2013). "The Nature of Truth: Errol Morris's The Thin Blue Line". Slant Magazine.
  241. ^ Dilley, Whitney Crothers (August 23, 2017). The Cinema of Wes Anderson: Bringing Nostalgia to Life. Wallflower Press. ISBN 978-0-231-54320-0 – via Columbia University Press.
  242. ^ Brereton, Pat (2012). "Postmodernism, Parody and Smart Cinema: Case Studies of Lynch, Tarantino and Soderbergh". Smart Cinema, DVD Add-Ons and New Audience Pleasures. pp. 20–42. doi:10.1057/9781137027085_2. ISBN 978-1-349-32856-7.
  243. ^ "The Evolution of Pedro Almodóvar". The New Yorker. November 28, 2016.
  244. ^ "The Postmodern Films Of Guy Maddin". NPR.
  245. ^ "An Interview with Guy Maddin".
  246. ^ Comics in Context #100: Centennial Cartoon Concert - IGN
  247. ^ Neurosis Hotel: An introduction to Abel Ferrara - Adrian Martin.pdf
  248. ^ Time Machines: After Kubrick: A Filmmaker's Legacy, edited by Jeremi Szaniawski · Senses of Cinema
  249. ^ New Working-Class Studies - Google Books (pg. 162)
  250. ^ The Perils of Michael Moore - Dissent Magazine
  251. ^ Can I Live? Contemporary Black Satire and the State of Postmodern Double Consciousness on JSTOR
  252. ^ Jordan Peele on 'Get Out' and writing for the Black audience
  253. ^ Peter Greenaway's Postmodern / Poststructuralist Cinema - Google Books
  254. ^ Peter Greenaway's "Eisenstein in Guanajuato" at the Istanbul Film Festival - HuffPost
  255. ^ Kevin Smith: 'I'm a Sellout!' - Observer