The painting by William Powell Frith from 1865 depicting The Marriage of the Prince of Wales with Princess Alexandra of Denmark seem to be the only existing contemporary painting where Queen Victoria and King Christian IX are depicted in the same painting.
The painting by William Powell Frith from 1865 depicting The Marriage of the Prince of Wales with Princess Alexandra of Denmark seem to be the only existing contemporary painting where Queen Victoria and King Christian IX are depicted in the same painting.

The royal descendants of Queen Victoria and of King Christian IX, monarchs of the United Kingdom (1837–1901) and Denmark (1863–1906) respectively, currently occupy the thrones of Belgium, Denmark, Luxembourg, Norway, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. At the outbreak of the First World War their grandchildren occupied the thrones of Denmark, Greece, Norway, Germany, Romania, Russia, Spain, and the United Kingdom. For this, Victoria was nicknamed "the grandmother of Europe" while Christian IX was nicknamed "father-in-law of Europe".

Grandchildren

Christian IX in 1898 with his and Victoria's great-grandson Prince Edward of York, the future King Edward VIII of the United Kingdom.
Christian IX in 1898 with his and Victoria's great-grandson Prince Edward of York, the future King Edward VIII of the United Kingdom.

Victoria arranged the marriage of her eldest son and heir-apparent, the future Edward VII, to Alexandra of Denmark, the eldest daughter of Christian IX, which took place on 10 March 1863. Among their six children were George V (who was also Emperor of India throughout his reign) and his sister Maud of Wales (who would later marry their cousin Haakon VII of Norway, another grandchild of Christian IX, on 22 July 1896). However, these two marriages were not the only unions among and between descendants of Victoria and Christian IX.

The second son of Christian IX, Prince William, became King of Greece as George I shortly after his sister Alexandra's marriage due to this new connection with the British royal family. On 27 October 1889 his son, later Constantine I of Greece, married Sophia of Prussia, a granddaughter of Victoria, forging another union between descendants of the British queen and the Danish king.

In 1865, Christian IX's second daughter, Princess Dagmar, became engaged to Tsarevich Nicholas of Russia, son and heir of Tsar Alexander II. Following the untimely death of her fiancé, Dagmar married Nicholas's younger brother, the Tsarevich Alexander in 1866, taking the Russian name Maria Feodorovna. Between 1881 and 1894, she was empress-consort of Russia. Her son, Nicholas II of Russia, married Alix of Hesse and by Rhine, yet another granddaughter of Queen Victoria, on 26 November 1894, and she became empress-consort as Alexandra Feodorovna.

Other grandchildren became monarchs in their own right or consorts. Christian X of Denmark was the elder brother of Haakon VII of Norway and thus another grandson of Christian IX of Denmark. William II, German Emperor and King of Prussia was the elder brother of Sophia of Prussia and thus another reigning grandson of Victoria. Lastly, Victoria had two more granddaughters who became queens: Marie of Edinburgh, who married Ferdinand I of Romania, and Victoria Eugenie of Battenberg who married Alfonso XIII of Spain.

Christian IX was therefore the grandfather of an emperor and two kings who all married granddaughters of Victoria, one of whom (Maud of Wales) was also a granddaughter of Christian IX. In total, five of his grandsons were reigning sovereigns.

Victoria, meanwhile, was the grandmother of an emperor, a king-emperor, four queens consort and an empress consort.

First World War

During the First World War (1914–1918), many monarchs of countries from both sides were closely related due to their mutual descent from either Queen Victoria, Christian IX or both. The most commonly cited example is the fact that Nicholas, his wife, Alexandra, and Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany were all first cousins of George V of the United Kingdom through Queen Victoria.[1][2][3] Other countries who fought against Germany in addition to Russia and the United Kingdom were Romania, whose queen-consort, Marie, wife of Ferdinand I, was a cousin of the Kaiser, and Greece, whose queen-consort, Sophia, wife of Constantine I, was the Kaiser's own sister.

Additionally, George V was a first cousin, through Christian IX, of both Tsar Nicholas II of Russia and Constantine I of Greece. Shortly before the end of the war, Nicholas, his wife and children were executed by the Bolsheviks. Other first cousins of George V, whose countries were neutral during the war, were Christian X of Denmark, Victoria Eugenie of Spain (queen-consort of Alfonso XIII) and Haakon VII of Norway (who was also George's brother-in-law via his marriage to George's sister, Maud).

Family tree of sovereign and consort grandchildren

The family tree below also attempts to show the relationship between close and extended family members referenced on this page.

Family tree of sovereign and consort grandchildren
Christian IX
of Denmark
Victoria of the United Kingdom
Dagmar
of Denmark
George I
of Greece
Frederick VIII
of Denmark
Alexandra
of Denmark
Edward VII of the United KingdomVictoria
Princess Royal
Empress of Germany
The Princess
Alice
Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred
Duke of Saxe-Coburg
and Gotha
The Princess
Beatrice
Nicholas II
of Russia
Constantine I
of Greece
Christian X
of Denmark
Haakon VII
of Norway
Maud of
Wales
Queen of Norway
George V of the United KingdomWilliam II
German Emperor
Sophia
of Prussia
Queen of Greece
Alix
of Hesse
Empress of all the Russias
Marie
of Edinburgh
Queen of Romania
Victoria
Eugenie
of Battenberg
Queen of Spain

Present-day reigning descendants

The unions between descendants of Queen Victoria and of King Christian IX did not end with the First World War, despite the overthrows of both the German and Russian monarchies (along with House of Habsburg in Austria-Hungary). On the contrary, nearly all European reigning kings and queens today are most closely related through their descent from Victoria, Christian or both.

King Harald V of Norway, Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom, Queen Margrethe II of Denmark and King Felipe VI of Spain are all descended from both Queen Victoria and King Christian IX.[citation needed] The first two monarchs are great-grandchildren of the aforementioned union between Alexandra of Denmark (daughter of King Christian IX) and Edward VII (son of Queen Victoria). Harald V of Norway is actually descended from Christian IX three ways, twice through his father and once through his mother. Elizabeth II and her late husband, Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, were second cousins once removed through Christian IX and third cousins as they are both great-great-grandchildren of Victoria. Margrethe II of Denmark is descended once each from Victoria and Christian IX. She is also a first cousin to Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden through Victoria's granddaughter Princess Margaret of Connaught. Felipe VI is descended from Victoria three ways and Christian IX twice. His father, King Juan Carlos I, is descended from Victoria and not Christian IX, while Juan Carlos' consort, Queen Sofía, is twice a descendant of Victoria and twice a great-great-granddaughter of Christian IX.

King Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden is descended from Victoria, twice, as his parents were second cousins because they were both great-grandchildren of Victoria. in addition, Carl XVI Gustaf also descends on his maternal side from Victoria's half-sister Feodora. Carl XVI Gustaf is not a descendant of Christian IX; however, he descends on his maternal side from the parents of Christian IX through Christian IX's elder brother, Friedrich.

Conversely, Philippe, King of the Belgians is descended from King Christian IX but not Queen Victoria, although, he is a descendant of Victoria's maternal uncle (as well as her husband Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha's paternal uncle), Leopold I, King of the Belgians. Philippe's father, King Albert II, who abdicated in the summer of 2013, is a first cousin to Harald V of Norway through their grandfather Prince Carl, Duke of Västergötland, married to Princess Ingeborg of Denmark, a granddaughter of Christian IX.

Monarchs descended from Queen Victoria

Monarchs descended from Queen Victoria
Queen
Victoria
King
Edward VII
Alice
Grand Duchess
of Hesse
and by Rhine
Prince Arthur
Duke of Connaught
and Strathearn
Prince Leopold
Duke of Albany
Princess BeatriceVictoria
German Empress
& Queen of Prussia
Duke
Alfred of
Saxe-Coburg
and Gotha
King
George V
Victoria
Marchioness
of Milford Haven
Alix
Empress consort of Russia
Maud
Queen consort
of Norway
Margaret
Crown Princess
consort of Sweden
Duke
Charles Edward
of Saxe-Coburg
and Gotha
Victoria Eugenie
Queen consort
of Spain
William II
German Emperor
King of Prussia
Sophia
Queen of the Hellenes
Marie
Queen consort
of Romania
King
George VI
Alice
Princess
of Greece
and Denmark
Louise
Queen consort
of Sweden
King
Olav V
of Norway
Ingrid
Queen consort
of Denmark
Prince
Gustaf Adolf
of Sweden
Sibylla
Princess of Sweden
Victoria Louise
Duchess of Brunswick
King
Carol II
of Romania
Maria
Queen consort
of Yugoslavia
Queen
Elizabeth II
Prince Philip
Duke of Edinburgh
King
Harald V
of Norway
Queen
Margrethe II
of Denmark
King
Carl XVI Gustaf
of Sweden
Infante Juan
Count of
Barcelona
Frederica
Queen consort
King
Paul of
Greece
King
Michael I
of Romania
Prince Charles
Prince of Wales
Crown Prince
Haakon
of Norway
Crown Prince
Frederik
of Denmark
Crown Princess
Victoria
of Sweden
King
Juan Carlos I
of Spain
Sophia
Queen consort
King
Constantine II
of Greece
King
Peter II of
Yugoslavia
Prince William
Duke of Cambridge
Princess
Ingrid Alexandra
of Norway
Prince
Christian
of Denmark
Princess
Estelle
of Sweden
King
Felipe VI
of Spain
Prince George of CambridgeLeonor
Princess of Asturias

Monarchs descended from King Christian IX

Monarchs descended from King Christian IX
King
Christian IX
King
Frederick VIII
Alexandra
Queen consort
King
George I
of Greece
Dagmar
Empress consort
Thyra
Princess
of Hanover
King
Christian X
Ingeborg
Princess
of Sweden
King
Haakon VII
of Norway
Maud
Queen consort
King
George V

of the United Kingdom
Prince Andrew
of Greece
and Denmark
King
Constantine I
of Greece
Emperor
Nicholas II
of All Russia

[N 1]
Duke
Ernest Augustus
of Brunswick
King
Frederick IX
Astrid
Queen consort
of the Belgians
Märtha
Crown Princess
King
Olav V
of Norway
King
George VI

of the United Kingdom

[N 2]
Helen
Queen consort
of Romania
King
Paul
of Greece

[N 3]
Frederica
Queen consort
Queen
Margrethe II
Joséphine
Charlotte

Grand Duchess consort
of Luxembourg
King
Albert II of
the Belgians

[N 4]
King
Harald V
of Norway
Queen
Elizabeth II

of the United Kingdom
Prince Philip
Duke of
Edinburgh
King
Michael I
of Romania

[N 5]
King
Constantine II
of Greece

[N 6]
Sophia
Queen consort
of Spain
Crown Prince
Frederik
Grand Duke
Henri of
Luxembourg
King
Philippe of
the Belgians
Crown Prince
Haakon
of Norway
Prince Charles
Prince of Wales
King
Felipe VI
of Spain
Prince
Christian of Denmark
Hereditary
Grand Duke
Guillaume
of Luxembourg
Crown Princess
Elisabeth
of Belgium
Princess
Ingrid Alexandra
of Norway
Prince
William
Duke of
Cambridge
Leonor
Princess
of Asturias
Prince
Charles of
Luxembourg
Prince
George of Cambridge
Notes
  1. ^ Nicholas II's wife, Alexandra Feodorovna, was descended from Queen Victoria through Princess Alice of the United Kingdom.
  2. ^ George VI had an older brother, Edward VIII, who was king of the United Kingdom as well.
  3. ^ Paul had two elder brothers, George II and Alexander, who were also kings of Greece.
  4. ^ Albert II had an older brother, Baudouin, who was king of the Belgians as well.
  5. ^ Michael's wife, Anne of Bourbon-Parma, was also descended from Christian IX through Prince Valdemar of Denmark.
  6. ^ Constantine II's wife, Anne-Marie of Denmark, is Margrethe II's younger sister.

Common ancestry between Victoria and Christian IX

Because so many monarchs descend from both Queen Victoria and King Christian IX of Denmark, the relationship between these two monarchs is of some interest. These monarchs were third cousins through their mutual descent from King George II of Great Britain. This relationship occurs twice because the maternal grandparents of King Christian IX of Denmark, Prince Charles of Hesse-Kassel (or Hesse-Cassel) (1744–1836) and Princess Louise of Denmark (1750–1831), were both children of daughters of King George II of Great Britain (1660–1727), and thus first cousins. Louise of Hesse-Kassel, wife of King Christian IX of Denmark, was a granddaughter of Prince Frederick of Hesse (1747–1837), the brother of the aforementioned Prince Charles of Hesse-Kassel.

Thus King Christian IX of Denmark and his wife Louise of Hesse-Kassel were second cousins to each other and third cousins to Queen Victoria.

Common ancestry between Victoria and Christian IX
George II of Great Britain
Frederick, Prince of WalesPrincess Mary of Great BritainPrincess Louise of Great Britain
George III of the United KingdomPrince Frederick of Hesse-KasselPrince Charles of Hesse-KasselPrincess Louise of Denmark
Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and StrathearnPrince William of Hesse-KasselPrincess Louise Caroline of Hesse-Kassel
Queen VictoriaPrincess Louise of Hesse-KasselChristian IX of Denmark

The longest lived descendants of Victoria and of Christian IX

Longest living descendants

     Currently holding Royal Office
     Living

Ages of living descendants as of 17:48, Friday, June 17, 2022 (UTC).

Name of descendants Born Died Age Descended from Through
Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh 1921 2021 99 years, 303 days Christian IX of Denmark Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark
Victoria of the United Kingdom Princess Alice of Battenberg
Andrew Andreevich, Prince of Russia 1923 2021 98 years, 311 days Christian IX of Denmark Grand Duchess Xenia Alexandrovna of Russia
Christian, Prince of Bentheim and Steinfurt 1923 Alive 98 years, 190 days Christian IX of Denmark Princess Louise of Denmark
Princess Alice, Countess of Athlone 1883 1981 97 years, 313 days Victoria of the United Kingdom Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Margaret, Princess René of Bourbon-Parma 1895 1992 97 years, 1 day Christian IX of Denmark Prince Valdemar of Denmark
Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth Realms 1926 Alive 96 years, 57 days Victoria of the United Kingdom George V of the United Kingdom
Christian IX of Denmark George V of the United Kingdom
Michael I of Romania 1921 2017 96 years, 41 days Victoria of the United Kingdom Princess Marie of Edinburgh
Princess Sophie of Prussia
Christian IX of Denmark Constantine I of Greece
Christian Castenskjold 1926 Alive 95 years, 342 days Christian IX of Denmark Princess Dagmar of Denmark
Count Lennart Bernadotte of Wisborg 1909 2004 95 years, 227 days Christian IX of Denmark Princess Alexandra of Greece and Denmark
Count Carl Johan Bernadotte of Wisborg 1916 2012 95 years, 187 days Victoria of the United Kingdom Princess Margaret of Connaught
Count Sigvard Bernadotte of Wisborg 1907 2002 94 years, 244 days Victoria of the United Kingdom Princess Margaret of Connaught
Princess Katherine of Greece and Denmark 1913 2007 94 years, 151 days Victoria of the United Kingdom Princess Sophie of Prussia
Christian IX of Denmark Constantine I of Greece
Olga, Princess Paul of Yugoslavia 1903 1997 94 years, 127 days Christian IX of Denmark Prince Nicholas of Greece and Denmark
Infanta Beatriz, Princess of Civitella-Cesi 1909 2002 93 years, 153 days Victoria of the United Kingdom Princess Victoria Eugenie of Battenberg
Patricia Knatchbull, 2nd Countess Mountbatten of Burma 1924 2017 93 years, 119 days Victoria of the United Kingdom Louis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma
Lady Pamela Hicks 1929 Alive 93 years, 59 days Victoria of the United Kingdom Louis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma
Anne, Queen of Romania 1923 2016 92 years, 318 days Christian IX of Denmark Princess Margaret of Denmark
Prince Wolfgang of Hesse 1896 1989 92 years, 247 days Victoria of the United Kingdom Princess Margaret of Prussia
Prince Carl Bernadotte 1911 2003 92 years, 168 days Christian IX of Denmark Princess Ingeborg of Denmark
Prince Michel of Bourbon-Parma 1926 2018 92 years, 125 days Christian IX of Denmark Princess Margaret of Denmark
Prince Alexander of Yugoslavia 1924 2016 91 years, 273 days Christian IX of Denmark Princess Olga of Greece and Denmark
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn 1850 1942 91 years, 260 days Victoria of the United Kingdom Queen Victoria (son & daughter)
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll 1848 1939 91 years, 260 days Victoria of the United Kingdom
Frederick Francis, Hereditary Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin 1910 2001 91 years, 100 days Christian IX of Denmark Princess Alexandra of Hanover
Prince George William of Hanover 1915 2006 90 years, 289 days Christian IX of Denmark Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick
Victoria of the United Kingdom Princess Victoria Louise of Prussia
Ingrid, Queen of Denmark 1910 2000 90 years, 224 days Victoria of the United Kingdom Princess Margaret of Connaught
Prince David Chavchavadze 1924 2014 90 years, 138 days Christian IX of Denmark Princess Maria of Greece and Denmark
Princess Astrid, Mrs. Ferner 1932 Alive 90 years, 125 days Victoria of the United Kingdom Princess Maud of Wales
Christian IX of Denmark Haakon VII of Norway

Oldest living descendants

     Currently holding Royal Office

Ages of living descendants as of 17:48, Friday, June 17, 2022 (UTC).

Name of descendants Born Age Descended from Through
Christian, Prince of Bentheim and Steinfurt 9 December 1923 98 years, 190 days Christian IX of Denmark Princess Louise of Denmark
Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom 21 April 1926 96 years, 57 days Victoria of the United Kingdom Edward VII of the United Kingdom
Christian IX of Denmark Princess Alexandra of Denmark
Christian Castenskjold 10 July 1926 95 years, 342 days Christian IX of Denmark Princess Dagmar of Denmark
Lady Pamela Hicks 19 April 1929 93 years, 59 days Victoria of the United Kingdom Princess Victoria of Hesse and by Rhine
Princess Astrid, Mrs. Ferner 12 February 1932 90 years, 125 days Christian IX of Denmark Haakon VII of Norway
Victoria of the United Kingdom Princess Maud of Wales
Count Bertram zu Castell-Rüdenhausen 12 July 1932 89 years, 340 days Victoria of the United Kingdom Charles Edward of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Anne Liddell-Grainger 28 July 1932 89 years, 324 days Victoria of the United Kingdom Princess Alice of Albany
Marianne von Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha 5 April 1933 89 years, 73 days Victoria of the United Kingdom Charles Edward of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Maximilian, Margrave of Baden 3 July 1933 88 years, 349 days Christian IX of Denmark Berthold, Margrave of Baden
Victoria of the United Kingdom Princess Theodora of Greece and Denmark
Albert II of Belgium 6 June 1934 88 years, 11 days Christian IX of Denmark Princess Ingeborg of Denmark
Princess Dorothea of Hesse 24 July 1934 87 years, 328 days Christian IX of Denmark Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark
Victoria of the United Kingdom Princess Margaret of Prussia
Princess Margaretha, Mrs. Ambler 31 October 1934 87 years, 229 days Victoria of the United Kingdom Princess Margaret of Connaught
Prince Edward, Duke of Kent 9 October 1935 86 years, 251 days Christian IX of Denmark Princess Alexandra of Denmark
Victoria of the United Kingdom Edward VII of the United Kingdom
Princess Elizabeth of Yugoslavia 7 April 1936 86 years, 71 days Christian IX of Denmark Prince Nicholas of Greece and Denmark
Princess Alexandra, The Honourable Lady Ogilvy 25 December 1936 85 years, 174 days Christian IX of Denmark Princess Alexandra of Denmark
Victoria of the United Kingdom Edward VII of the United Kingdom
Princess Birgitta of Sweden 19 January 1937 85 years, 149 days Victoria of the United Kingdom Princess Margaret of Connaught
Harald V of Norway 21 February 1937 85 years, 116 days Christian IX of Denmark Haakon VII of Norway
Victoria of the United Kingdom Princess Maud of Wales

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Nicholas II of Russia
  2. ^ "The Family Relationships that Couldn't Stop World War I". 20 December 2013.
  3. ^ George V

References