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An example of expressions of Bolivian irredentism over territorial losses in the War of the Pacific (1879–1884). In the mural it is written; "What once was ours, will be ours once again", and "Hold fast rotos (Chileans), for here come the Colorados of Bolivia"

Anti-Chilean sentiment (Spanish: antichilenismo) or chilenophobia (Spanish: chilenofobia) refers to the historical and current resentment towards Chile, Chileans, or Chilean culture. Anti-Chilean sentiment is most prevalent among Chile's neighbors Argentina, Bolivia and Peru.

One of the historic causes of anti-Chilean sentiment is the perceived Chilean expansionism that took place during the 19th century when Chile won the War of the Pacific, a war declared by Bolivia after forming a secret alliance with Peru. The sentiment also applied to Chilean immigration in Argentina and the United States.

History

Despite no war erupting between the two nations, there have been elements of anti-Chilean sentiment in Argentina in the past and present.[citation needed] Anti-Chilean sentiment in Argentina can be blamed on the historical and ongoing border disputes in the Patagonia region.[citation needed] In addition, the events that occurred during the Beagle conflict in 1978 resulted in many anti-Chilean speeches and rhetoric in the Argentine media.[citation needed] Argentine General Luciano Benjamin Menendez was a leading advocate for war during the conflict and was known[by whom?] for his aggressive and vulgar discourse against Chileans.[1][original research?]

Another source of resentment are the substantiated accounts that Chile's Pinochet regime aided Britain during the latter's Falklands War victory over Argentina.[2][citation needed] In the 1990s, Chile's involvement in the Falklands war was only a source of speculation; however, it was highlighted in the Argentine tabloids when Margaret Thatcher visited Augusto Pinochet during his home detention in London in the late 1990s. Chile's involvement in the war unraveled when Thatcher acknowledged Pinochet for helping Britain win the war.[2]

In Bolivia, anti-Chilean sentiment is fueled by Bolivian claims for territory in the Pacific coast.[citation needed] A common political discourse attributes[citation needed] Bolivia's underdevelopment to its loss of seaports in the War of the Pacific becoming thus a landlocked country. This anti-Chilean sentiment has been exploited by Bolivian politicians for more than a century [3]

In Peru, a strong anti-Chilean sentiment exists due to losing "a large chunk of its southern territory to Chile" in the War of the Pacific.[4]

Citizens of all three countries also believe they have been economically exploited by Chilean businesses over the last decade, which have taken over large market shares of various consumer businesses, especially retail (Cencosud, Falabella, Ripley) and banking.[citation needed]Ironically, Peruvian and Bolivian citizens constitute the bigger immigrant groups in Chile[5]

Outside of South America during the California Gold Rush, Chileans experienced a high degree of anti-Chilean sentiment by United States miners. Chilean businesses and mine workers were usually harassed and at times violently attacked.[6][7]

Anti-Chilean terminology

In Argentina the word Chilote is the degrading term for Chileans,[8] instead of Chileno which is the correct word for Chilean. Normally a Chilote is an inhabitant of the Archipelago of Chiloé (part of Chile) and so Chileans do not feel it is an insult, but it is rather as ignorance from Argentinians since in Argentina, the word has been picked up to describe any Chilean.[citation needed] But they really feel insulted when Argentines refer to them as traitor, mainly for a widespread feeling of betrayal that they felt while Chile offered support to United Kingdom during the Falklands War in 1982.[citation needed]

In Peru and Bolivia, the word roto ("tattered") is used to refer disdainfully to Chileans. The term roto was first applied to Spanish conquerors in Chile, who were badly dressed and preferred military strength over intellect.[9] In modern usage, roto is an offensive term used to disparage the ill-mannered mentally-broken people or those whom the speaker wishes to associate with the ill-mannered.[10]

Rotos chilenos and Chilenos rotos later applied to "broken and impoverished" lower classes (generally peasants). The terms were first applied to Chileans during the War of the Confederation; specifically, Chilean soldiers received the name from Peruvian soldiers.[11] The term later became used by Chileans themselves in praise of the conscript soldiers of the Pacific War era, to indicate determination despite adversity.[11][12][13]

See also

References

  1. ^ See Diario El Centro Archived 5 May 2008 at the Wayback Machine, Chile, also in Diario Página12 «Si nos dejan atacar a los chilotes, los corremos hasta la isla de Pascua, el brindis de fin de año lo hacemos en el Palacio La Moneda y después iremos a mear el champagne en el Pacífico» ("If they let us attack the Chileans, we'll chase them to Easter Island, we'll drink the New Year's Eve toast in the Palacio de La Moneda, and then we'll piss the champagne into the Pacific.")
  2. ^ a b "Pinochet - Thatcher's ally". BBC. 22 October 1998. Retrieved 21 January 2013.
  3. ^ Zwier, Paul J., ed. (2013), "How to Stop the Bickering before War Breaks Out: Bolivia, Chile, and Peru", Principled Negotiation and Mediation in the International Arena: Talking with Evil, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 217–272, doi:10.1017/cbo9781139208680.005, ISBN 978-1-139-20868-0, retrieved 10 November 2020
  4. ^ Lopez, Edison (16 January 2008). "Peru disputes boundary with Chile". USA Today. Lima, Peru. Associated Press. There is strong anti-Chilean sentiment in Peru because the country lost a large chunk of its southern territory to Chile in a war in 1879.
  5. ^ "Biblioteca del Congreso Nacional | SIIT | Chile y la migración: Los extranjeros en Chile".
  6. ^ "The Gold Rush", American Experience, PBS
  7. ^ Kowalewski, Michael (1997). Gold Rush: A Literary Exploration. Heyday Books. ISBN 0930588991. ((cite book)): Unknown parameter |agency= ignored (help)
  8. ^ Drake, Paul W. (August 2003), "Citizenship, Labour Markets, and Democratization: Chile and the Modern Sequence" (PDF), Hispanic American Historical Review, 83 (3): 604–605, doi:10.1215/00182168-83-3-604, S2CID 154285881, lingering racial stereotypes and derogatory terms (chilote) hindered full assimilation
  9. ^ Larraín, Jorge (2001). Identidad Chilena. Santiago, Chile: LOM. p. 148. ISBN 956-282-399-7.
  10. ^ "roto" at Diccionario de la Real Academia Española (in Spanish)
  11. ^ a b Frazier, Lessie Jo (2007). Salt in the Sand. Duke University Press. p. 109. ISBN 978-0822340034. Retrieved 21 January 2013. Roto had long been a derogatory term...
  12. ^ Plath, Oreste. Epopeya del "roto" chileno (in Spanish)
  13. ^ Gutiérrez, Horacio. Exaltación del mestizo: la invención del roto chileno (in Spanish)