Conceptual art, also referred to as conceptualism, is art in which the concept(s) or idea(s) involved in the work take precedence over traditional aesthetic, technical, and material concerns. Some works of conceptual art, sometimes called installations, may be constructed by anyone simply by following a set of written instructions.[1] This method was fundamental to American artist Sol LeWitt's definition of conceptual art, one of the first to appear in print:

In conceptual art the idea or concept is the most important aspect of the work. When an artist uses a conceptual form of art, it means that all of the planning and decisions are made beforehand and the execution is a perfunctory affair. The idea becomes a machine that makes the art.[2]

Tony Godfrey, author of Conceptual Art (Art & Ideas) (1998), asserts that conceptual art questions the nature of art,[3] a notion that Joseph Kosuth elevated to a definition of art itself in his seminal, early manifesto of conceptual art, Art after Philosophy (1969). The notion that art should examine its own nature was already a potent aspect of the influential art critic Clement Greenberg's vision of Modern art during the 1950s. With the emergence of an exclusively language-based art in the 1960s, however, conceptual artists such as Art & Language, Joseph Kosuth (who became the American editor of Art-Language), and Lawrence Weiner began a far more radical interrogation of art than was previously possible (see below). One of the first and most important things they questioned was the common assumption that the role of the artist was to create special kinds of material objects.[4][5][6]

Through its association with the Young British Artists and the Turner Prize during the 1990s, in popular usage, particularly in the United Kingdom, "conceptual art" came to denote all contemporary art that does not practice the traditional skills of painting and sculpture.[7] One of the reasons why the term "conceptual art" has come to be associated with various contemporary practices far removed from its original aims and forms lies in the problem of defining the term itself. As the artist Mel Bochner suggested as early as 1970, in explaining why he does not like the epithet "conceptual", it is not always entirely clear what "concept" refers to, and it runs the risk of being confused with "intention". Thus, in describing or defining a work of art as conceptual it is important not to confuse what is referred to as "conceptual" with an artist's "intention".

Precursors

Marcel Duchamp, Fountain, 1917. Photograph by Alfred Stieglitz
Marcel Duchamp, Fountain, 1917. Photograph by Alfred Stieglitz
Art & Language, Art-Language Vol.3 Nr.1, 1974
Art & Language, Art-Language Vol.3 Nr.1, 1974

The French artist Marcel Duchamp paved the way for the conceptualists, providing them with examples of prototypically conceptual works — the readymades, for instance. The most famous of Duchamp's readymades was Fountain (1917), a standard urinal-basin signed by the artist with the pseudonym "R.Mutt", and submitted for inclusion in the annual, un-juried exhibition of the Society of Independent Artists in New York (which rejected it).[8] The artistic tradition does not see a commonplace object (such as a urinal) as art because it is not made by an artist or with any intention of being art, nor is it unique or hand-crafted. Duchamp's relevance and theoretical importance for future "conceptualists" was later acknowledged by US artist Joseph Kosuth in his 1969 essay, Art after Philosophy, when he wrote: "All art (after Duchamp) is conceptual (in nature) because art only exists conceptually".

In 1956 the founder of Lettrism, Isidore Isou, developed the notion of a work of art which, by its very nature, could never be created in reality, but which could nevertheless provide aesthetic rewards by being contemplated intellectually. This concept, also called Art esthapériste (or "infinite-aesthetics"), derived from the infinitesimals of Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz – quantities which could not actually exist except conceptually. The current incarnation (As of 2013) of the Isouian movement, Excoördism, self-defines as the art of the infinitely large and the infinitely small.

Origins

In 1961, philosopher and artist Henry Flynt coined the term "concept art" in an article bearing the same name which appeared in the proto-Fluxus publication An Anthology of Chance Operations.[9] Flynt's concept art, he maintained, devolved from his notion of "cognitive nihilism," in which paradoxes in logic are shown to evacuate concepts of substance. Drawing on the syntax of logic and mathematics, concept art was meant jointly to supersede mathematics and the formalistic music then current in serious art music circles.[10] Therefore, Flynt maintained, to merit the label concept art, a work had to be a critique of logic or mathematics in which a linguistic concept was the material, a quality which is absent from subsequent "conceptual art."[11]

The term assumed a different meaning when employed by Joseph Kosuth and by the English Art and Language group, who discarded the conventional art object in favour of a documented critical inquiry, that began in Art-Language: The Journal of Conceptual Art in 1969, into the artist's social, philosophical, and psychological status. By the mid-1970s they had produced publications, indices, performances, texts and paintings to this end. In 1970 Conceptual Art and Conceptual Aspects, the first dedicated conceptual-art exhibition, took place at the New York Cultural Center.[12]

The critique of formalism and of the commodification of art

Conceptual art emerged as a movement during the 1960s – in part as a reaction against formalism as then articulated by the influential New York art critic Clement Greenberg. According to Greenberg Modern art followed a process of progressive reduction and refinement toward the goal of defining the essential, formal nature of each medium. Those elements that ran counter to this nature were to be reduced. The task of painting, for example, was to define precisely what kind of object a painting truly is: what makes it a painting and nothing else. As it is of the nature of paintings to be flat objects with canvas surfaces onto which colored pigment is applied, such things as figuration, 3-D perspective illusion and references to external subject matter were all found to be extraneous to the essence of painting, and ought to be removed.[13]

Some have argued that conceptual art continued this "dematerialization" of art by removing the need for objects altogether,[14] while others, including many of the artists themselves, saw conceptual art as a radical break with Greenberg's kind of formalist Modernism. Later artists continued to share a preference for art to be self-critical, as well as a distaste for illusion. However, by the end of the 1960s it was certainly clear that Greenberg's stipulations for art to continue within the confines of each medium and to exclude external subject matter no longer held traction.[15] Conceptual art also reacted against the commodification of art; it attempted a subversion of the gallery or museum as the location and determiner of art, and the art market as the owner and distributor of art. Lawrence Weiner said: "Once you know about a work of mine you own it. There's no way I can climb inside somebody's head and remove it." Many conceptual artists' work can therefore only be known about through documentation which is manifested by it, e.g., photographs, written texts or displayed objects, which some might argue are not in and of themselves the art. It is sometimes (as in the work of Robert Barry, Yoko Ono, and Weiner himself) reduced to a set of written instructions describing a work, but stopping short of actually making it—emphasising the idea as more important than the artifact. This reveals an explicit preference for the "art" side of the ostensible dichotomy between art and craft, where art, unlike craft, takes place within and engages historical discourse: for example, Ono's "written instructions" make more sense alongside other conceptual art of the time.

Lawrence Weiner. Bits & Pieces Put Together to Present a Semblance of a Whole, The Walker Art Center, Minneapolis, 2005.
Lawrence Weiner. Bits & Pieces Put Together to Present a Semblance of a Whole, The Walker Art Center, Minneapolis, 2005.

Language and/as art

Language was a central concern for the first wave of conceptual artists of the 1960s and early 1970s. Although the utilisation of text in art was in no way novel, only in the 1960s did the artists Lawrence Weiner, Edward Ruscha,[16] Joseph Kosuth, Robert Barry, and Art & Language begin to produce art by exclusively linguistic means. Where previously language was presented as one kind of visual element alongside others, and subordinate to an overarching composition (e.g. Synthetic Cubism), the conceptual artists used language in place of brush and canvas, and allowed it to signify in its own right.[17] Of Lawrence Weiner's works Anne Rorimer writes, "The thematic content of individual works derives solely from the import of the language employed, while presentational means and contextual placement play crucial, yet separate, roles."[18]

The British philosopher and theorist of conceptual art Peter Osborne suggests that among the many factors that influenced the gravitation toward language-based art, a central role for conceptualism came from the turn to linguistic theories of meaning in both Anglo-American analytic philosophy, and structuralist and post structuralist Continental philosophy during the middle of the twentieth century. This linguistic turn "reinforced and legitimized" the direction the conceptual artists took.[19] Osborne also notes that the early conceptualists were the first generation of artists to complete degree-based university training in art.[20] Osborne later made the observation that contemporary art is post-conceptual[21] in a public lecture delivered at the Fondazione Antonio Ratti, Villa Sucota in Como on July 9, 2010. It is a claim made at the level of the ontology of the work of art (rather than say at the descriptive level of style or movement).

The American art historian Edward A. Shanken points to the example of Roy Ascott who "powerfully demonstrates the significant intersections between conceptual art and art-and-technology, exploding the conventional autonomy of these art-historical categories." Ascott, the British artist most closely associated with cybernetic art in England, was not included in Cybernetic Serendipity because his use of cybernetics was primarily conceptual and did not explicitly utilize technology. Conversely, although his essay on the application of cybernetics to art and art pedagogy, "The Construction of Change" (1964), was quoted on the dedication page (to Sol LeWitt) of Lucy R. Lippard's seminal Six Years: The Dematerialization of the Art Object from 1966 to 1972, Ascott's anticipation of and contribution to the formation of conceptual art in Britain has received scant recognition, perhaps (and ironically) because his work was too closely allied with art-and-technology. Another vital intersection was explored in Ascott's use of the thesaurus in 1963 [1], which drew an explicit parallel between the taxonomic qualities of verbal and visual languages – a concept would be taken up in Joseph Kosuth's Second Investigation, Proposition 1 (1968) and Mel Ramsden's Elements of an Incomplete Map (1968).

Conceptual art and artistic skill

An Oak Tree by Michael Craig-Martin. 1973

By adopting language as their exclusive medium, Weiner, Barry, Wilson, Kosuth and Art & Language were able to sweep aside the vestiges of authorial presence manifested by formal invention and the handling of materials.[18]

An important difference between conceptual art and more "traditional" forms of art-making goes to the question of artistic skill. Although skill in the handling of traditional media often plays little role in conceptual art, it is difficult to argue that no skill is required to make conceptual works, or that skill is always absent from them. John Baldessari, for instance, has presented realist pictures that he commissioned professional sign-writers to paint; and many conceptual performance artists (e.g. Stelarc, Marina Abramović) are technically accomplished performers and skilled manipulators of their own bodies. It is thus not so much an absence of skill or hostility toward tradition that defines conceptual art as an evident disregard for conventional, modern notions of authorial presence and of individual artistic expression.[citation needed]

Contemporary influence

Proto-conceptualism has roots in the rise of Modernism with, for example, Manet (1832–1883) and later Marcel Duchamp (1887–1968). The first wave of the "conceptual art" movement extended from approximately 1967[22] to 1978. Early "concept" artists like Henry Flynt (1940– ), Robert Morris (1931–2018), and Ray Johnson (1927–1995) influenced the later, widely accepted movement of conceptual art. Conceptual artists like Dan Graham, Hans Haacke, and Lawrence Weiner have proven very influential on subsequent artists, and well-known contemporary artists such as Mike Kelley or Tracey Emin are sometimes labeled[by whom?] "second- or third-generation" conceptualists, or "post-conceptual" artists (the prefix Post- in art can frequently be interpreted as "because of").

Contemporary artists have taken up many of the concerns of the conceptual art movement, while they may or may not term themselves "conceptual artists". Ideas such as anti-commodification, social and/or political critique, and ideas/information as medium continue to be aspects of contemporary art, especially among artists working with installation art, performance art, net.art and electronic/digital art.[23][need quotation to verify]

Notable examples

Robert Rauschenberg, Portrait of Iris Clert 1961
Robert Rauschenberg, Portrait of Iris Clert 1961
Barbara Kruger installation detail at Melbourne
Barbara Kruger installation detail at Melbourne
Olaf Nicolai, Memorial for the Victims of Nazi Military Justice, Ballhausplatz in Vienna
Olaf Nicolai, Memorial for the Victims of Nazi Military Justice, Ballhausplatz in Vienna

Notable conceptual artists

See also

Individual works

Notes and references

  1. ^ "Wall Drawing 811 – Sol LeWitt". Archived from the original on 2 March 2007.
  2. ^ Sol LeWitt "Paragraphs on Conceptual Art", Artforum, June 1967.
  3. ^ Godrey, Tony (1988). Conceptual Art (Art & Ideas). London: Phaidon Press Ltd. ISBN 978-0-7148-3388-0.
  4. ^ Joseph Kosuth, Art After Philosophy (1969). Reprinted in Peter Osborne, Conceptual Art: Themes and Movements, Phaidon, London, 2002. p. 232
  5. ^ Art & Language, Art-Language The Journal of conceptual art: Introduction (1969). Reprinted in Osborne (2002) p. 230
  6. ^ Ian Burn, Mel Ramsden: "Notes On Analysis" (1970). Reprinted in Osborne (2003), p. 237. E.g. "The outcome of much of the 'conceptual' work of the past two years has been to carefully clear the air of objects."
  7. ^ "Turner Prize history: Conceptual art". Tate Gallery. tate.org.uk. Accessed August 8, 2006
  8. ^ Tony Godfrey, Conceptual Art, London: 1998. p. 28
  9. ^ "Essay: Concept Art".
  10. ^ Henry Flynt, "The Crystallization of Concept Art in 1961"
  11. ^ Henry Flynt, "Concept-Art (1962)", Translated and introduced by Nicolas Feuillie, Les presses du réel, Avant-gardes, Dijon.
  12. ^ artlex.com Archived 2013-05-16 at the Wayback Machine
  13. ^ Rorimer, p. 11
  14. ^ Lucy Lippard & John Chandler, "The Dematerialization of Art", Art International 12:2, February 1968. Reprinted in Osborne (2002), p. 218
  15. ^ Rorimer, p. 12
  16. ^ "Ed Ruscha and Photography". The Art Institute of Chicago. 1 March – 1 June 2008. Archived from the original on 31 May 2010. Retrieved 14 September 2010.
  17. ^ Anne Rorimer, New Art in the Sixties and Seventies, Thames & Hudson, 2001; p. 71
  18. ^ a b Rorimer, p. 76
  19. ^ Peter Osborne, Conceptual Art: Themes and movements, Phaidon, London, 2002. p. 28
  20. ^ Osborne (2002), p. 28
  21. ^ http://www.fondazioneratti.org/mat/mostre/Contemporary%20art%20is%20post-conceptual%20art%20/Leggi%20il%20testo%20della%20conferenza%20di%20Peter%20Osborne%20in%20PDF.pdf
  22. ^ Conceptual Art – "In 1967, Sol LeWitt published Paragraphs on Conceptual Art (considered by many to be the movement's manifesto) [...]."
  23. ^ "Conceptual Art – The Art Story". theartstory.org. The Art Story Foundation. Retrieved 25 September 2014.
  24. ^ Hensher, Philip (2008-02-20). "The loo that shook the world: Duchamp, Man Ray, Picabi". London: The Independent (Extra). pp. 2–5.
  25. ^ Bénédicte Demelas: Des mythes et des réalitées de l'avant-garde française. Presses universitaires de Rennes, 1988
  26. ^ ChewingTheSun. "Vorschau – Museum Morsbroich".
  27. ^ a b Byrt, Anthony. "Brand, new". Frieze Magazine. Retrieved 28 November 2012.
  28. ^ Fluxus at 50. Stefan Fricke, Alexander Klar, Sarah Maske, Kerber Verlag, 2012, ISBN 978-3-86678-700-1.
  29. ^ Tate (2016-04-22), Art & Language – Conceptual Art, Mirrors and Selfies | TateShots, retrieved 2017-07-29
  30. ^ "Air-Conditioning Show / Air Show / Frameworks 1966–67". www.macba.cat. Archived from the original on 2017-07-29. Retrieved 2017-07-29.
  31. ^ "ART & LANGUAGE UNCOMPLETED". www.macba.cat. Retrieved 2017-07-29.
  32. ^ a b "BBC – Coventry and Warwickshire Culture – Art and Language". www.bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 2017-07-29.
  33. ^ Terroni, Christelle. "The Rise and Fall of Alternative Spaces". books&ideas.net. Retrieved 28 November 2012.
  34. ^ Harrison, Charles (2001). Conceptual art and painting Further essays on Art & Language. Cambridge: The MIT Press. p. 58. ISBN 0-262-58240-6.
  35. ^ Brenson, Michael (19 October 1990). "Review/Art; In the Arena of the Mind, at the Whitney". The New York Times.
  36. ^ Smith, Roberta. "Art in review: Ronald Jones Metro Pictures", The New York Times, 27 December 1991. Retrieved 8 July 2008.
  37. ^ Sandra Solimano (ed.) (2005). Maurizio Bolognini. Programmed Machines 1990–2005. Genoa: Villa Croce Museum of Contemporary Art, Neos. ISBN 88-87262-47-0.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  38. ^ "BBC News – ARTS – Creed lights up Turner prize".
  39. ^ "The Times & The Sunday Times".

Further reading

Books

Essays

Exhibition catalogues