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Eid prayers
Eid congregation in Jakarta, Indonesia
Official nameصلاة العيد
Also calledHolidays prayer
Observed byMuslims
TypeIslamic
SignificanceA Muslim prayer offered to Allah yearly in Eids.
BeginsDuha
EndsZenith - Noon
DateCycles according to the Islamic lunar calendar
FrequencyYearly
Related toSalah, Friday Prayer, Eid al-Fitr, Eid al-Adha

Eid prayers, also referred to as Salat al-Eid (Arabic: صلاة العيد), are holy holiday prayers in the Islamic tradition. The literal translation of the word "Eid" in Arabic is "festival" or "feast" and is a time when Muslims congregate with family and the larger Muslim community to celebrate.[1]

There are generally two central Eids that take place in accordance with the Islamic lunar calendar (hence the additional name Șālat al-’Īdayn (Arabic: صلاة العيدين "Prayer of the Two Eids"):

There is no set date for the Eid holidays, as it changes from year to year. This is due to the nature of the lunar calendar that calculates months based on the phases of the moon, unlike the solar Gregorian calendar that is used most widely today. The lunar calendar is about 11 days shorter than that of the Gregorian, and so the equivalent date shifts back about 11 days every year. This is true for other holidays, such as the Chinese New Year or Rosh Hashanah, that are also based on the lunar calendar.[8] The date normally varies in locations across the world, but many communities choose to follow the sighting reports of the crescent moon in Mecca for the sake of consistency.[9]

Name variations

Region/country Language Main Romanised
Arab World Arabic صلاة العيد Ṣalāh al-'Eid
Greater Albania Albanian Namazi i Bajramit
Avaristan Avar ГІидалъул как GÍidal"ul kak
Greater Persia Persian, Dari, Tajik نماز عيد, Намози ид Namoz-i-Eid
Russia, Pakistan, India Hindustani, Punjabi, Russian, Sindhi عيد نماز, ईद नमाज़, Ид намаз Eid namāz
China Chinese 會禮 Huì lǐ
Turkey, Azerbaijan Turkish, Azeri Bayram namazı
Balkans Serbo-Croatian, Bosnian Bajram-namaz
Bashkortostan Bashkir Байрам намаҙҙары Bayram namaz̦z̦ary
Kazakhstan Kazakh Айт намазы Ayt namazı
Laksky, Kulinsky Lak Байрам-чак Bayram-chak
Bengal Bengali ঈদের নামাজ Eid er namaz
Sweden Swedish Eidbön
Indonesia Indonesian, Javanese Salat Id
Malaysia Bahasa Melayu Solat Sunat Hari Raya
Kurdistan Kurdish نوێژی جێژن
Pashtunistan Pashto د اختر لمونځ
Tamil Nadu Tamil பெருநாள் தொழுகை Perunal thozhugai
Zazaistan Zazaki Nemacê roşani

Eid greetings

The customary greeting on the days of Eid Festivals is "Eid Mubarak", meaning "Have a Blessed Eid" and is often accompanied by other forms of cultural greetings and customs.

Location and timing

Eid prayers are traditionally offered in an open space (such as a Musalla or Eidgah) or field available for prayer if weather permits.[10] The technical appointed time of Salat Al-Eid, as specified by the Quran and Sunnah (sayings, teachings, and actions of Muhammad), begins when the sun reaches approximately three meters above the horizon - above the height of a spear, until it reaches its meridian - approaching its zenith. Generally speaking, it is recommended that the prayer is offered in the morning, anytime after sunrise and before noon.[11]

The time for Eid al-Fitr prayer may be delayed while the prayer of Eid al-Adha is hastened. This is to ensure enough time to facilitate the distribution of the Zakat before the prayer or offer sacrifice after, respectively. This has been a proved Sunnah and has been well recorded in Hadith books.[7]

Specified times of the prayer vary according to local Masjids and larger communities may offer two prayers to allow as many people as possible the chance to make the prayer.

Degree of importance

The degree of importance of the Eid prayer vary between different Madhhab, or schools of Islamic thought. According to Hanafi scholars, Salat al-Eid is Wajib (obligatory). To Hanbali jurisprudence, it is Fard (necessary; often synonymous with Wajib) and according to Maliki and Shafiʽi schools, it is considered to be Sunnah Al-Mu'akkadah ("confirmed Sunnah, "continuously performed and never abandoned") but not mandatory.[12]

Procedure and ritual

In addition to the actual praying of the Salah, another component of the Eid Prayers is the delivering of a Khutbah or Islamic sermon, like that given weekly on Fridays at Jumu'ah (obligatory Friday prayers). While the sermon is delivered prior to the Salah for Jumu'ah, it is delivered after the Salah for Eid. This is in accordance with the narration by Abdullah ibn Umar that Muhammad performed Eid Prayers in this order.[13]

The Eid prayers also take place without the customary calling of the Adhan or Iqama (arabic call to prayer), which is normally called before every Salah. This is per the traditional narration by Jabir sin Samurah, who had prayed Eid Salah behind Muhammad, and noted that the calls were not made.[13]

Another specific characteristic of the Eid prayer is the number of Takbir, or calling of the phrase "Allahu Akbar" ("God is Great") performed in each Rakat (unit of prayer) of Salah. The Takbir for regular Salah (as well as most sunnah and special Salah) is called only once at the start with repetitions between steps of the prayer. According to Hadith narrated by 'Amr bin Shuaib over certified generations, Muhammad completed 7 takbirs in the first rakah of the Eid prayer and 5 in the second, then began with the recitation of the Quran.[14] The Hanafis complete 3 takbirs before reciting Quran in the first rak'ah and 3 takbirs after reciting Quran before prostrating.

Eid prayer during Eid al-Fitr at Taipei Grand Mosque, Taiwan

Additional sunnah

To reap further rewards from praying the Eid, there are additional recommended steps that Muhammad did in his time according to his Sunnah that Muslims may perform. These include bathing or Ghusl prior to attending the festival, dressing in one's best clothes, eating before the Eid al-Fitr prayer and waiting until after Eid al-Adha prayer to eat, saying the Takbir to and from the place of Eid and after every prayer for the remaining days of the festival, as well as taking an alternative route home from the one taken to the prayer.[15]

Women and the Eid Salah

Eid festivals are meant to be an event for all members of the Muslim community, including women and children. According to the Hadith narrated by the Nusaybah Bint Al-Harith (Umm 'Atiyah), women, young and old, were called to come out and participate in the joy of Eid and reap its blessings.[16]

See also

References

  1. ^ Chitwood, Ken. "What is Eid al-Fitr and how do Muslims celebrate it? 6 questions answered". The Conversation. Retrieved 2021-10-03.
  2. ^ "Search Results - Search Results - Seven five takbir (page 1) - Sunnah.com - Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم)". sunnah.com. Retrieved 2021-05-13.
  3. ^ "What Is the Day of 'Arafah and Why Is it Important?". Zakat Foundation of America. Retrieved 2021-10-03.
  4. ^ a b "Eid al-Adha". History. Retrieved 2021-10-04.
  5. ^ "Who is Qurbani Compulsory on?". International Learning Movement. Retrieved 2021-10-04.
  6. ^ "Eid-ul-Fitr and Eid-ul-Adha – What is the Difference?". Muslim Aid. Retrieved 2021-10-04.
  7. ^ a b "Obligations of Eid-ul-Adha". Daily Sun. Retrieved 2021-10-04.
  8. ^ "Lunar New Year: Why the solar calendar actually rules our lives". Big Think. Retrieved 2021-10-05.
  9. ^ "Celebrating Eid / Eid ul-Fitr in 2021". Muslim Aid. Retrieved 2021-10-05.
  10. ^ "It is the Sunnah to pray the Eid Prayer outdoors – Madeenah.com". Retrieved 2021-10-03.
  11. ^ The Two Eids and their Significance.
  12. ^ "الارشيف". اسلام اون لاين (in Arabic). Retrieved 2021-10-04.
  13. ^ a b Muḥammad ibn Ismāʻīl, Bukhārī. Sahih Bukhari. Muhammad Sarid. OCLC 222681584.
  14. ^ al-Sijistani, Abu Daud Sulayman ibn al-Ashath (1984). Sunan Abu Dawud. Sh. M. Ashraf. OCLC 818811968.
  15. ^ "Sunnah Acts to be Performed on Eid ul-Fitr". MuslimHands.org.
  16. ^ Muhammad, Zulfiqar (2006). Prayer according to the Sunnah. Darussalam. ISBN 9960-9706-8-X. OCLC 237827079.