GFiber
Area served28 areas across the contiguous United States
OwnerGoogle (2010–2015)
Access/Alphabet Inc. (2015–present)
Key peopleDinesh Jain
(CEO of Access)[1]
IndustryMultiple-system operator
ProductsBroadband Internet
IPTV
VoIP telephone
URLfiber.google.com
LaunchedFebruary 10, 2010; 14 years ago (2010-02-10)
Current statusActive
ASNs
  • 16591 (primary)
  • 19165 (Webpass)

Google Fiber, sometimes stylized as GFiber, is a fiber broadband Internet and IPTV service operated by Google Fiber Inc.,[2] a subsidiary of Alphabet,[3] servicing a small and slowly increasing number of locations in the United States.[4] In mid-2016, Google Fiber had 68,715 television subscribers and was estimated to have about 453,000 broadband customers.[5]

The service was first introduced to the Kansas City metropolitan area,[6] including twenty Kansas City area suburbs within the first three years. Initially proposed as an experimental project,[7] Google Fiber was announced as a viable business model in December 2012, when Google executive chairman Eric Schmidt stated "It's actually not an experiment, we're actually running it as a business", at The New York Times' DealBook Conference.[8]

Google Fiber announced expansion to Austin, Texas, and Provo, Utah, in April 2013, and subsequent expansions in 2014 and 2015 to Atlanta, Charlotte, Research Triangle, Nashville, Salt Lake City, and San Antonio.[9]

In August 2015, Google announced its intention to restructure the company, moving less central services and products into a new umbrella corporation, Alphabet Inc. As part of this restructuring plan, Google Fiber would become a subsidiary of Alphabet and would possibly become part of the Access and Energy business unit.[10]

In October 2016, all expansion plans were put on hold and some jobs were cut.[11] Google said it would continue to provide Google Fiber service in the cities where it was already installed.

In March 2022, Google Fiber announced it would bring high speed internet to the Des Moines, Iowa, metro area, making it the first expansion in five years.[12][13]

In August 2022, Google Fiber announced it would expand into 22 metro areas in five states (Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Nebraska, and Nevada), including previously announced expansions into Mesa, Arizona, and Colorado Springs, Colorado, based on where it felt speeds were lagging.[14] It also announced additional investment in North Carolina.[15] CNET characterized this an example of fast fiber winning the broadband wars.[16]

In October 2023 Google Fiber rebranded to GFiber and announced plans to begin offering 20Gig internet and Wi-Fi 7 hardware in the near future.[17]

Services

A map of cities with Google Fiber as of late 2023[18]
Google Fiber Network Box (now being retired 2023)

Google Fiber offers four options, depending on location: Fiber 1 Gig, 2 Gig, 5 Gig, 8 Gig and an option for home phone service. All speed tiers include one terabyte of storage on Google Drive service.

Google Fiber offers four different service plans to its customers (depending on market/region):[19][20]

Plan Fiber 1 Gig Fiber 2 Gig Fiber 5 Gig Fiber 8 Gig
Internet bandwidth (download) 1 Gbit/s 2 Gbit/s 5 Gbit/s 8 Gbit/s
Internet bandwidth (upload) 1 Gbit/s 1 Gbit/s (2 Gbit/s select markets) 5 Gbit/s 8 Gbit/s
Construction fee None None None None
Monthly recurring cost $70 $100 $125 $150
Storage included 1 TB Google Drive 1TB Google Drive 1TB Google Drive 1TB Google Drive
Hardware included Includes a Nest Wifi Pro or

Google Wifi

Wi-Fi 6 router

1 Mesh Extender

Wi-Fi 6 router

Includes up to 2 Mesh Extenders

Wi-Fi 6 router

Includes up to 2 Mesh Extenders

Diagram showing all fiber jacks offered for service
Representation of Google Fiber Jacks

Google also offers free Google Fiber Internet connectivity in each of its markets to select public and affordable housing properties.[21]

Google Fiber participates in the FCC's ACP Affordable Connectivity Program with discounted rates.

In February 2020, Google Fiber stopped offering TV service directly to new customers. Instead, during the sign-up process for Google Fiber, customers are presented with promotions for three virtual MVPD services: sister company YouTube TV, as well as FuboTV and (later) Philo. TV service was maintained for existing clients until early 2022.[22][23]

Distribution

In order to avoid underground cabling complexity for the last mile, Google Fiber relies on aggregators dubbed Google Fiber Huts.[24]

From these Google Fiber Huts, the fiber cables travel along utility poles into neighborhoods and homes, and stop at a Fiber Jack (an optical network terminal or ONT) in each home.[25]

The estimated cost of wiring a fiber network like Google Fiber into a major American city was $1 billion in 2016.[26][27]

First city selection process

The initial location was chosen following a competitive selection process.[28] Over 1,100 communities applied to be the first recipient of the service.[29][30] Google originally stated that they would announce the winner or winners by the end of 2010; however, in mid-December, Google pushed back the announcement to "early 2011" due to the number of applications.[31][32][33]

The request form was simple, and, some have argued, too straightforward.[34] This led to various attention-getting behaviors by those hoping to have their town selected.[34] Some examples are given below:

Municipalities and citizens also uploaded YouTube videos to support their bids. Some examples:

Operating locations

In 2011, Google launched a trial in a residential community of Palo Alto, California.[43] On March 30 of the same year, Kansas City, Kansas, was selected as the first city to receive Google Fiber.[6] In 2013, Austin, Texas, and Provo, Utah, were announced as expansion cities for Google Fiber on April 9 and 17 respectively.

Stanford University

Kansas City, Kansas, and Kansas City, Missouri

A service desk for Google Fiber in Kansas City in 2012

Google found that affluent neighborhoods in Kansas City signed up for the faster service while those in poorer neighborhoods did not sign up for even the free option. In response to this digital divide, Google sent a team of 60 employees to the under-served areas to promote the Google Fiber service. Additionally, Google offered micro-grants to community organizations that want to start up digital literacy programs in Kansas City.[44]

The following are chronological announcements of service in the Kansas City metropolitan area. Neighborhoods are said to be selected based on demand:[45]

Google placed deployment in Overland Park, Kansas, on indefinite hold in October 2013, following delays by the City Council over concerns about whether an indemnification clause that Google required might force the city to repair any damage caused by the project.[64] As of July 2014, Overland Park's City Council had voted on a deal that would allow for Google Fiber. Soon after, the city appeared on Google Fiber's website.[65]

Austin, Texas

Utah

Charlotte, North Carolina

On July 12, 2016, sign-ups opened in Highland Creek.[84]
On October 4, 2016, sign-ups opened in Prosperity Village.[85]

Atlanta

In the original announcement of 2015, the following areas were announced:[86]

In August 2016, sign-ups were opened.[87]

Research Triangle, Raleigh–Durham, North Carolina

In the original announcement of 2015, the following areas of the Research Triangle of Raleigh–Durham, North Carolina, were announced:[86]

On September 13, 2016, sign-ups opened.[88]

Nashville, Tennessee

The areas initially announced in February 2015 were:[86]

As of December 2016, construction is underway.[89] Sign-ups are open.

As of August 2017, Google Fiber announced that the Sylvan Park neighborhood in West Nashville had Google Fiber service officially operating, making Nashville a city currently with Google Fiber service.[90]

Huntsville, Alabama

On February 22, 2016, Google announced that Google Fiber would expand into Huntsville, Alabama.[91] Google Fiber announced it would start offering high-speed Internet, TV and telephone service in north Huntsville on May 23, 2017.[92] On April 2, 2018, Huntsville Utilities continues to build fiber in Southeast Huntsville which have been turned over to Google fiber to service.[93]

West Des Moines, Iowa

Google Fiber announced it would start offering high-speed Internet, TV and telephone service in northeast West Des Moines on March 22, 2021.[94]

Announced future locations

Utah

California expansion

On January 27, 2015, Google announced that Google Fiber would expand into additional markets:[86]

San Antonio, Texas

On April 14, 2016, Google sent a blast email to early adopters of Google Fiber announcing that they were indeed behind the visible construction across San Antonio, Texas.[101] A few details were given about the vast extent of the construction that was being undertaken, Google was in the process of deploying about 4,000 linear miles (6,500 km) of fiber-optic cable throughout San Antonio.[102] In advance of the imminent deployment of the new fiber network the direct competitors of Google Fiber, AT&T U-Verse, Time Warner Cable, and Grande Communications, dropped prices and increased the speeds of their networks. San Antonio, the seventh-largest city in the nation, was the largest project that Google Fiber had taken on to date.

On August 5, 2015, expansion into San Antonio was announced.[103] As of December 2016, construction was underway.[104] However, in January 2017, construction was halted pending concerns about the placement of Google Fiber huts in city parks.[105][106] Mayor Ivy Taylor expressed commitment to working with Google to address community concerns and allow the project to continue.[107]

As of May 9, 2019, Google Fiber had micro-trenched 600 miles of fiber in San Antonio neighborhoods. City staff said the majority was on the far Northwest and Northeast sides, including the pilot area in the Westover Hills neighborhood. After closing service in Louisville, Kentucky, the company said it learned from its challenges and refined its micro-trenching program to go deeper. According to the company, its Louisville microtrenching was as shallow as two inches. City staff said San Antonio's trenching depth was 6–8 inches.[108]

Closed and former locations

Louisville, Kentucky

In April 2017, Google announced that Google Fiber would start construction in Louisville, Kentucky.[109] Google Fiber got the service to sections of Louisville in five months after it first announced that it would be coming to the city—faster than it had ever deployed before—by using shallow trenching.[110][111] In February 2019 Google announced it would shut down service on April 15.[112] Prior to departing, Google Fiber service was criticized for disruptive infrastructure installations and poor workmanship.[113] Google agreed to pay $3.8 million for clean up.[114]

Possible future expansion

2014

In February 2014, Google announced it had "invited cities in nine metro areas around the U.S.—34 cities altogether—to work with us to explore what it would take to bring them Google Fiber."[115]

The remaining metropolitan areas where Fiber has not yet begun constructing are: Phoenix, Portland, San Antonio and San Jose.[115] Of these, the following have yet to be selected by Google for fiber deployments:[116]

On April 15, 2014, Google began polling business users on their need for gigabit service, saying they would be "conducting a pilot program where we'll connect a limited number of small businesses to our network".[117]

2015

On September 10, 2015, Google tweeted[118] that it was exploring the possibility of adding Irvine and San Diego, California, as future expansion cities.

On October 28, 2015, Jill Szuchmacher, Google Fiber Director of Expansion, announced ongoing negotiations with local governments in Jacksonville, Florida, Tampa, Florida, and Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. Szuchmacher stated that Google is interested in the installation of Google Fiber networks in each of the cities and that construction could take up to eighteen months once the project is underway.[119] In October 2016, those plans were put on hold.[11]

On December 8, 2015, the Seattle City Council's Director of Communications replied to a tweet indicating that the city was in the process of applying for Google Fiber service.[120] On December 8, 2015, Jill Szuchmacher said the company will work with Chicago city leaders to collect information and study factors that could affect construction of Google Fiber.[121]

2016

On June 14, 2016, Jill Szuchmacher said the company will work with Dallas mayor Mike Rawlings to try to bring another hub to Texas.[122]

In October 2016, all expansion plans were put on hold and some jobs were cut.[11] Google Fiber will continue to provide service in the cities where it is already installed.

2017

In 2017 Google Fiber launched in three new cities: Huntsville, Alabama; Louisville, Kentucky; and San Antonio, Texas.[111] It also began to heavily rely on shallow trenching, a new method of laying cables that cuts a small groove in the street or sidewalk, lays the fiber in that groove, and backfills it with a special epoxy, to expedite the construction process.[110] In at least one case, cables were buried too shallow and were ripped up by repaving.[123]

Acquisition of Webpass

On June 22, 2016, Google Fiber bought Webpass, an Internet service provider that has been in business for 13 years and specializes in high-speed Internet for business and residential customers. They have a large presence[clarification needed] in California and specifically the Bay Area as well as San Diego, Miami, Miami Beach, Coral Gables, Chicago, Denver, and Boston. The deal closed in October 2016.[124][125]

Technical specifications

GFiber FCC Broadband Label
Broadband Consumer Label

Google Fiber provides an Internet connection speed of up to eight gigabits per second (8,000 Mbit/s) for download and eight gigabit per second (8,000 Mbit/s) upload.[126] Google Fiber says its original 1 Gbps download service allows for the download of a full movie in less than two minutes.[127]

FCC Broadband Consumer Label[128] The GFiber Nutrition Label was created because the FCC will soon require all internet providers to display their product info in a standardized format. We have always believed in being transparent with our products and pricing, so we’ve launched an initial version of the label before this FCC requirement goes into effect.[129]

With the FCC requirement of nutrition labels, all internet providers will be required to be more transparent with their fees, promotional pricing and typical speeds and latency.

Prohibition of servers

When first launched, Google Fiber's terms of service stated that its subscribers were not allowed to create any type of server: "Your Google Fiber account is for your use and the reasonable use of your guests. Unless you have a written agreement with Google Fiber permitting you do so, you should not host any type of server using your Google Fiber connection, use your Google Fiber account to provide a large number of people with Internet access, or use your Google Fiber account to provide commercial services to third parties (including, but not limited to, selling Internet access to third parties)."[130]

The Electronic Frontier Foundation criticized the practice, noting the ambiguity of the word "server" which might include such common application protocols as BitTorrent, and Spotify, as well as the effect of and on IPv6 adoption due its lack of NAT technical limitations on network servers, but also noted similar prohibitions from other ISPs such as Comcast, Verizon, Cox, and AT&T.[131]

In October 2013, the acceptable use policy for Google Fiber was modified to allow "personal, non-commercial use of servers".[132][133]

April Fools' hoaxes

See also: List of Google April Fools' Day jokes

On April Fools' Day 2007, Google hosted a signup for Google TiSP offering "a fully functional, end-to-end system that provides in-home wireless access by connecting your commode-based TiSP wireless router to one of the thousands of TiSP Access Nodes via fiber-optic cable strung through your local municipal sewage lines."[134]

On April Fools' Day 2012, Google Fiber announced that their product was an edible Google Fiber bar instead of fiber-optic Internet broadband. It is stated that the Google Fiber bar delivers "what the body needs to sustain activity, energy, and productivity."[135]

On April Fools' Day 2013, Google Fiber announced the introduction of Google Fiber to the Pole. The description provided was "Google Fiber to the Pole provides ubiquitous gigabit connectivity to fiberhoods across Kansas City. This latest innovation in Google Fiber technology enables users to access Google Fiber's ultrafast gigabit speeds even when they are out and about." Clicking on the "Learn more" and "Find a pole near you" buttons displayed a message reading "April Fool's! While Fiber Poles don't exist, we are working on a bunch of cool stuff that does. Keep posted on all things Fiber by checking out our blog."[136]

The April Fools' Day 2014 prank was an announcement of Coffee To The Home, using a spout on the fiber jack where the service enters the customer's home to deliver customized coffee drinks.[137]

On April Fools' Day 2015, Google Fiber announced Dial-Up Mode for people who prefer slower Internet. It reaches speeds up to 56k and helps people get back to real life more often.[138]

For the 2016 April Fools' Day joke, Google Fiber announced it was "exploring 1 billion times faster speeds".[139]

Reactions

Time magazine has claimed that rather than wanting to actually operate as an Internet service provider, the company was just hoping to shame the major cable operators into improving their service so that Google searches could be done faster. Google has neither confirmed nor denied this claim.[44]

AT&T and other Internet service providers have launched their own gigabit services since Google Fiber was revealed. Some cable subscribers have also had their speeds increased without additional costs.[citation needed]

According to a Goldman Sachs report, Google could connect approximately 830,000 homes a year at the cost of $1.25 billion a year, or a total of 7.5 million homes in nine years at a cost of slightly over $10 billion.[140]

In January 2014 a bill was introduced in the Kansas Legislature (Senate Bill 304, referred to as the "Municipal Communications Network and Private Telecommunications Investment Safeguards Act") which would prevent Google Fiber from expanding further in Kansas using the model used in Kansas City.[141][142] The bill proposes: "Except with regard to unserved areas, a municipality may not, directly or indirectly:

  1. Offer to provide to one or more subscribers, video, telecommunications or broadband service; or
  2. purchase, lease, construct, maintain or operate any facility for the purpose of enabling a private business or entity to offer, provide, carry, or deliver video, telecommunications, or broadband service to one or more subscribers."

By February 2014, Senate Bill 304 (SB304) had lost momentum in the Kansas state senate, and the bill's sponsor, Kansas Cable Telecommunications Association (KCTA), indicated that it is highly unlikely that it will continue to pursue the legislation in the current legislative session.[143]

See also

Notes

On Feburary 5 2024, Google Fiber is offically launch called GFiberTV is a IPTV provider available from across America.[citation needed]

References

  1. ^ "Alphabet hires Time Warner Cable executive to lead Access and Google Fiber". February 6, 2018. Archived from the original on March 5, 2018. Retrieved March 4, 2018.
  2. ^ "Google Fiber Inc". OpenCorporates. June 15, 2010. Retrieved August 20, 2023.
  3. ^ Wakabayashi, Daisuke (October 25, 2016). "Google Curbs Expansion of Fiber Optic Network, Cutting Jobs". The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 12, 2020. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
  4. ^ Helft, Miguel (March 21, 2010). "Hoping for Gift From Google? Go Jump in the Lake". The New York Times. Archived from the original on June 9, 2017. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
  5. ^ Baumgartner, Jeff (September 9, 2016). "Google Fiber 'Very Pleased' with TV Sign-Ups". Multichannel News. Archived from the original on February 25, 2018. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
  6. ^ a b c Medin, Milo (March 30, 2011). "Ultra high-speed broadband is coming to Kansas City, Kansas". Official Google Blog. Archived from the original on December 23, 2017. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
  7. ^ Ingersoll, Minnie; Kelly, James (February 10, 2010). "Think big with a gig: Our experimental fiber network". Official Google Blog. Archived from the original on November 29, 2016. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
  8. ^ Copeland, Michael V. (December 12, 2012). "Eric Schmidt Says Google Fiber Won't Stop With Kansas City". Wired. Archived from the original on April 23, 2019. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
  9. ^ Brodkin, Jon (August 5, 2015). "Google Fiber plans service in San Antonio, its biggest city yet". Ars Technica. Condé Nast. Archived from the original on May 17, 2017. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
  10. ^ Bergen, Mark (November 30, 2015). "Meet Access, the Google Unit That's Taking On Comcast and the Rest of the Cable Biz". Recode. Vox Media. Archived from the original on April 10, 2019. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
  11. ^ a b c d e f Brodkin, Jon (October 26, 2016). "Google Fiber division cuts staff by 9%, "pauses" fiber plans in 11 cities". Ars Technica. Condé Nast. Archived from the original on December 23, 2020. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
  12. ^ Clayworth, Jason (April 5, 2022). "Google Fiber is coming to Des Moines". Axios. Archived from the original on August 11, 2022. Retrieved August 11, 2022.
  13. ^ Porter, Jon (August 11, 2022). "Google Fiber isn't dead, it's expanding". The Verge. Archived from the original on August 11, 2022. Retrieved August 11, 2022.
  14. ^ Dave, Paresh (August 10, 2022). "Exclusive: Google Fiber plans 5-state growth spurt, biggest since 2015". Reuters. Archived from the original on August 10, 2022. Retrieved August 10, 2022.
  15. ^ "Google Fiber expanding in NC markets, too | WRAL TechWire". wraltechwire.com. August 10, 2022. Archived from the original on August 11, 2022. Retrieved August 11, 2022.
  16. ^ Shankland, Stephen. "While You Weren't Watching, Fiber Broadband Leapfrogged DSL and Cable in Much of the World". CNET. Archived from the original on August 11, 2022. Retrieved August 11, 2022.
  17. ^ "Google Fiber Blog: GFiber Labs announces first project: 20 Gig with Wi-Fi 7". Fiber Blog. Retrieved October 27, 2023.
  18. ^ "Google Fiber | Gigabit Fiber Optic Internet". fiber.google.com. Retrieved October 27, 2023.
  19. ^ "Service plans and pricing". Google Fiber Internet. Google Inc. Archived from the original on August 11, 2020. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
  20. ^ "Landline Phone Service – Google Fiber Phone". Fiber.Google.com. Archived from the original on December 20, 2020. Retrieved January 4, 2018.
  21. ^ Swanson, Erica (July 15, 2015). "Bringing Internet access to public housing residents". Official Google Fiber Blog. Archived from the original on December 4, 2020. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
  22. ^ Li, Abner (February 4, 2020). "Google Fiber no longer offering traditional TV plan for new customers". 9to5Google. Archived from the original on November 30, 2020. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
  23. ^ "Alternatives to Google Fiber TV". Reviews.org. February 28, 2022. Archived from the original on May 17, 2022. Retrieved June 18, 2022.
  24. ^ "Construction stages - Google Fiber Help". support.google.com. Retrieved October 27, 2023.
  25. ^ Hack, Rachel (April 4, 2012). "A Construction Update". Official Google Fiber Blog. Archived from the original on November 12, 2020. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
  26. ^ Bergen, Mark (May 11, 2016). "Google Fiber is the most audacious part of the whole Alphabet". Recode. Vox Media. Archived from the original on April 4, 2019. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
  27. ^ Bray, Hiawatha (June 23, 2016). "Could Google's purchase of a wireless company boost Boston's Internet?". The Boston Globe. Archived from the original on October 19, 2017. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
  28. ^ Malik, Om (February 11, 2010). "How Much Will Google's Fiber Network Cost?". Gigaom. Archived from the original on December 20, 2019. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
  29. ^ Rao, Leena (March 27, 2010). "The Final Tally: More Than 1100 Cities Apply For Google's Fiber Network". TechCrunch. AOL. Archived from the original on January 9, 2021. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
  30. ^ Blodget, Henry (March 28, 2010). "Google: 1,100 Cities Want Us To Build Them Huge Fiber Networks". Business Insider. Axel Springer SE. Archived from the original on August 21, 2019. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
  31. ^ Medin, Milo (December 15, 2010). "An update on Google Fiber". Official Google Blog. Archived from the original on September 14, 2017. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
  32. ^ Anderson, Nate (December 15, 2010). "Google delays its 1Gbps fiber announcement". Ars Technica. Condé Nast. Archived from the original on September 29, 2020. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
  33. ^ L. Flatley, Joseph (December 16, 2010). "Google Fiber's 1Gbps ISP 'test community' selection delayed until 2011". Engadget. AOL. Archived from the original on September 11, 2017. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
  34. ^ a b c d e Van Buskirk, Eliot (March 11, 2010). "Al Franken Jokes, But Google Fiber Is No Laughing Matter". Wired. Archived from the original on November 9, 2020. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
  35. ^ "Greenville Feels Lucky". Archived from the original on February 1, 2014. Retrieved January 28, 2014.
  36. ^ Helft, Miguel (March 26, 2010). "Cities Rush to Woo Google Broadband Before Friday Deadline". blog. The New York Times. Archived from the original on January 28, 2021. Retrieved April 10, 2010.
  37. ^ Silver, Curtis (March 10, 2010). "I, Google". Wired. Archived from the original on September 19, 2020. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
  38. ^ Murphy, David (March 7, 2010). "The 5 Strangest City Pitches for Google's New Fiber-Optic Service". PC Magazine. Ziff Davis. Archived from the original on January 5, 2018. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
  39. ^ "Al Franken YouTube video". Youtube.com. March 10, 2010. Archived from the original on December 15, 2021. Retrieved February 20, 2014.
  40. ^ "Ann Arbor YouTube channel". Youtube.com. Archived from the original on January 16, 2021. Retrieved February 20, 2014.
  41. ^ "자동차보험료비교견적사이트". www.AAGoogleFest.com. Archived from the original on September 7, 2011. Retrieved January 4, 2018.
  42. ^ Reed, Tina (March 26, 2010). "Ann Arbor 'mob' makes another case to attract Google Fiber". AnnArbor.com. Archived from the original on March 3, 2016. Retrieved April 10, 2010.
  43. ^ a b "Google Fiber Goes Live Near Stanford". anandtech.com. August 22, 2011. Archived from the original on November 26, 2020. Retrieved September 5, 2011.
  44. ^ a b Gustin, Sam (September 14, 2012). "Google Fiber Issues Public Challenge: Get Up To Speed!". Time. Retrieved May 26, 2013.
  45. ^ Google Gets Into the Cable TV Business, for Real Archived September 18, 2012, at the Wayback Machine, All Things Digital, July 26, 2012.
  46. ^ Medin, Milo (May 17, 2011). "Everything's up to date in Kansas City". Official Google Fiber Blog. Archived from the original on October 25, 2020. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
  47. ^ Hack, Rachel (March 19, 2013). "Google Fiber is coming to Olathe, Kansas". Official Google Fiber Blog. Archived from the original on November 24, 2020. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
  48. ^ Farivar, Cyrus. "North Kansas City leases network to Google Fiber". Kansas City Business Journal. Archived from the original on January 28, 2021. Retrieved April 19, 2013. North Kansas City will lease two paths of its LINKCity fiber-optic data network to Google Fiber. The City Council approved a 20-year agreement Tuesday worth $3.2 million
  49. ^ Vockrodt, Steve (May 7, 2013). "Google Fiber bails out North Kansas City's fiber-optic misfire". The Pitch. Archived from the original on May 14, 2013. Retrieved May 14, 2013. 'This doesn't mean we're delivering Google Fiber service to the city of North Kansas City,' Google spokeswoman Jenna Wandres says. 'It just means we're using their fiber as a pass-through to get to surrounding areas.'
  50. ^ Hack, Rachel (May 2, 2013). "Welcome, Shawnee, Kansas!". Official Google Fiber Blog. Archived from the original on November 12, 2020. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
  51. ^ Canon, Scott (May 3, 2013). "Raytown latest city promised Google Fiber". Kansas City Star. Archived from the original on January 16, 2021. Retrieved May 3, 2013.
  52. ^ Hack, Rachel (May 7, 2013). "Grandview, Mo. — our newest Fiber community". Official Google Fiber Blog. Archived from the original on November 12, 2020. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
  53. ^ Hack, Rachel (May 13, 2013). "Another local expansion into Gladstone, Mo". Official Google Fiber Blog. Archived from the original on January 21, 2021. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
  54. ^ Hack, Rachel (May 22, 2013). "Raytown, Mo. approves Google Fiber". Official Google Fiber Blog. Archived from the original on November 11, 2020. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
  55. ^ Hack, Rachel (June 20, 2013). "Fiber for Lee's Summit". Official Google Fiber Blog. Archived from the original on January 21, 2021. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
  56. ^ Hack, Rachel (June 26, 2013). "Mission, Kansas: from the Santa Fe Trail to the information speedway". Official Google Fiber Blog. Archived from the original on November 12, 2020. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
  57. ^ "Prairie Village approves deal for Google Fiber" Archived January 29, 2021, at the Wayback Machine, Jonathan Bender, Kansas City Star, August 5, 2013. Retrieved September 18, 2013.
  58. ^ Hack, Rachel (August 19, 2013). "Leawood, Kansas Approves Fiber". Official Google Fiber Blog. Archived from the original on November 12, 2020. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
  59. ^ "error". KSHB.com. Archived from the original on May 15, 2016. Retrieved January 4, 2018.
  60. ^ Hack, Rachel (August 26, 2013). "Fiber for Merriam, Kansas". Official Google Fiber Blog. Archived from the original on January 22, 2021. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
  61. ^ Hack, Rachel (September 3, 2013). "Rolling into Roeland Park, Kan". Official Google Fiber Blog. Archived from the original on November 12, 2020. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
  62. ^ a b Hack, Rachel (September 9, 2013). "Fiber's coming to Mission Hills and Fairway". Official Google Fiber Blog. Archived from the original on January 22, 2021. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
  63. ^ Hack, Rachel (September 17, 2013). "Bringing Fiber to Lenexa, Kan". Official Google Fiber Blog. Archived from the original on November 11, 2020. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
  64. ^ Canon, Scott; Bhargava, Jennifer (October 25, 2013). "Momentary stall in Overland Park puts Google Fiber on long hold". Kansas City Star. McClatchy. Archived from the original on September 22, 2016. Retrieved January 23, 2014.
  65. ^ "Overland Park reaches deal to bring in Google Fiber". KMBC. Archived from the original on November 19, 2020. Retrieved July 24, 2014.
  66. ^ Medin, Milo (April 9, 2013). "Google Fiber's Next Stop: Austin, Texas". Official Google Blog. Archived from the original on September 14, 2017. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
  67. ^ "Google Announces December Fiber Signups for South Austin". kut.org. October 15, 2014. Archived from the original on November 11, 2020. Retrieved October 15, 2014.
  68. ^ "Google Fiber goes live in Austin". Rapid TV News. December 3, 2014. Archived from the original on January 25, 2021. Retrieved December 3, 2014.
  69. ^ "Google Fiber Blog: Keeping Austin Wired! 5 Gig now available in Austin as Google Fiber continues growth and investment across Central Texas". Fiber Blog. Retrieved August 22, 2023.
  70. ^ Lo, Kevin (April 17, 2013). "Google Fiber—On the Silicon Prairie, the Silicon Hills, and now the Silicon Slopes". Official Google Fiber Blog. Archived from the original on November 11, 2020. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
  71. ^ "Asset Purchase Agreement" (PDF). This Asset Purchase Agreement... ...between Google Fiber Inc., a Delaware corporation ('Purchaser'), and Provo City Corporation, a Utah municipal corporation ('Seller').[permanent dead link]
  72. ^ "Network Services Agreement" (PDF). terms and conditions upon which Google Fiber will provide high speed broadband Internet access services to the City and certain residents of Provo, free of charge.[permanent dead link]
  73. ^ "Google Fiber Pricing Provo". Archived from the original on January 28, 2021. Retrieved February 14, 2015.
  74. ^ Brodkin, Jon (August 24, 2016). "Google Fiber hits Salt Lake City, now available in seven metro areas". Ars Technica. Condé Nast. Archived from the original on November 8, 2020. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
  75. ^ "Google Fiber is Coming to Millcreek, UT". Archived from the original on September 30, 2020. Retrieved September 17, 2020.
  76. ^ a b c d "Looking back on an interesting year". December 28, 2021. Archived from the original on April 26, 2022. Retrieved April 26, 2022.
  77. ^ "Google Fiber coming to South Salt Lake". February 25, 2021. Archived from the original on May 6, 2021. Retrieved May 6, 2021.
  78. ^ a b "One hot summer in the Salt Lake Valley". July 26, 2021. Archived from the original on February 26, 2022. Retrieved February 25, 2022.
  79. ^ "Google Fiber Comes to Holladay Tweet". March 11, 2021. Archived from the original on February 26, 2022. Retrieved February 25, 2022.
  80. ^ "Google Fiber coming to Taylorsville". April 22, 2021. Archived from the original on February 26, 2022. Retrieved February 25, 2022.
  81. ^ "Google Fiber coming to another Salt Lake County city". May 5, 2021. Archived from the original on May 5, 2021. Retrieved May 6, 2021.
  82. ^ a b "Things to watch on the Wasatch Front". March 22, 2022. Archived from the original on May 6, 2022. Retrieved April 26, 2022.
  83. ^ "City of North Salt Lake City Council Meeting". July 26, 2021. Archived from the original on February 26, 2022. Retrieved February 25, 2022.
  84. ^ GFiber [@googlefiber] (July 12, 2016). "Hello, Charlotte. #googlefiber has arrived. Sign-ups now open in Highland Creek. Learn more" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  85. ^ GFiber [@googlefiber] (October 4, 2016). "Hello, Prosperity Village. Google Fiber has arrived. Check your address" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  86. ^ a b c d Kish, Dennis (January 27, 2015). "Google Fiber is coming to Atlanta, Charlotte, Nashville and Raleigh-Durham". Official Google Fiber Blog. Archived from the original on January 21, 2021. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
  87. ^ "Google Fiber hits Atlanta, and you can (maybe) get it". Curbed.com. August 10, 2016. Archived from the original on October 27, 2020. Retrieved January 4, 2018.
  88. ^ "Lauren K. Ohnesorge (September 12, 2016). It's Here: Where Google Fiber is starting its Triangle service - Triangle Business Journal". Archived from the original on January 6, 2018. Retrieved October 27, 2016.
  89. ^ "Fiber is coming to Nashville – Sign up for updates". Google.com. December 7, 2016. Archived from the original on December 7, 2016. Retrieved January 4, 2018.
  90. ^ Siner, Emily. "One Nashville Neighborhood Finally Gets Google Fiber, But There's High-Speed Competition". NashvillePublicRadio.org. Archived from the original on December 5, 2018. Retrieved January 4, 2018.
  91. ^ Szuchmacher, Jill (February 22, 2016). "Working with Huntsville to connect more people". Official Google Fiber Blog. Archived from the original on January 16, 2021. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
  92. ^ Roop, Lee (May 23, 2017). "Google Fiber starts serving Huntsville customers today". al.com. Archived from the original on November 12, 2020. Retrieved June 5, 2019.
  93. ^ "Fiber Installation Check-in from Huntsville Utilities". huntsvilleal.gov/. City of Huntsville. April 2, 2018. Archived from the original on January 16, 2021. Retrieved June 5, 2019.
  94. ^ McIntosh, Marcus (March 25, 2022). "West Des Moines has a new high speed internet option". KCCI. Archived from the original on April 22, 2022. Retrieved May 4, 2022.
  95. ^ "Woods Cross Google Fiber FAQ" (PDF). July 26, 2021. Archived (PDF) from the original on February 26, 2022. Retrieved February 25, 2022.
  96. ^ "South Jordan to get Google Fiber". October 8, 2021. Archived from the original on October 11, 2021. Retrieved October 11, 2021.
  97. ^ "Google Fiber Coming to Springville in 2022". October 20, 2021. Archived from the original on October 20, 2021. Retrieved October 20, 2021.
  98. ^ "Google Fiber Expanding To Riverton, Utah". December 14, 2021. Archived from the original on July 14, 2022. Retrieved July 14, 2022.
  99. ^ "Google Fiber expanding to another Utah city (Draper)". February 2, 2022. Archived from the original on February 26, 2022. Retrieved February 25, 2022.
  100. ^ "Google Fiber expanding to another Utah city (West Jordan)". February 24, 2022. Archived from the original on February 26, 2022. Retrieved February 25, 2022.
  101. ^ [https://fiber.google.com/cities/sanantonio/
  102. ^ "Google Fiber is coming to San Antonio – Sign up for updates". fiber.google.com. Archived from the original on January 21, 2021. Retrieved April 17, 2016.
  103. ^ Strama, Mark (August 5, 2015). "Everything's faster in Texas: Google Fiber is coming to San Antonio". Official Google Fiber Blog. Archived from the original on November 8, 2020. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
  104. ^ "Fiber is coming to San Antonio – Sign up for updates". Google.com. December 7, 2016. Archived from the original on December 7, 2016. Retrieved January 4, 2018.
  105. ^ Flahive, Paul (January 12, 2017). "San Antonio Pushes Pause on Google Fiber Deployment". Texas Public Radio. Archived from the original on November 11, 2020. Retrieved January 4, 2018.
  106. ^ Zielinski, Alex (January 13, 2017). "City Stalls Google Fiber Rollout, Blames Google". SACurrent.com. San Antonio Current. Archived from the original on October 24, 2020. Retrieved January 4, 2018.
  107. ^ Gonzales, Charles (January 12, 2017). "City halts huts for Google fiber; mayoral candidates weigh-in". KSAT 12. Graham Media Group. Archived from the original on January 16, 2021. Retrieved January 4, 2018.
  108. ^ Flahive, Paul (February 8, 2019). "Google Fiber Says Goodbye In Kentucky, But Soldiers On In San Antonio". tpr.org. Texas Public Radio. Archived from the original on November 12, 2020. Retrieved June 5, 2019.
  109. ^ Shafer, Sheldon S. (April 26, 2017). "Google Fiber confirms it will wire Louisville". Courier-Journal. Archived from the original on February 21, 2023. Retrieved July 7, 2017.
  110. ^ a b Forrest, Conner (October 20, 2017). "Google Fiber is using a secret weapon to outpace AT&T and other gigabit competitors". TechRepublic. Archived from the original on July 1, 2020. Retrieved January 3, 2018.
  111. ^ a b Krauth, Olivia (December 11, 2017). "How Google Fiber turned 2017 into its comeback year". TechRepublic. Archived from the original on January 21, 2021. Retrieved January 3, 2018.
  112. ^ Google Fiber is leaving Louisville in humiliating setback Archived November 12, 2020, at the Wayback Machine. The Verge. February 7, 2019.
  113. ^ Leskin, Paige (February 7, 2019). "Google Fiber is shutting down its super-high speed internet service in Louisville after residents complained that it left exposed cables in the streets". TechInsider, A Part of Business Insider. Archived from the original on January 21, 2021. Retrieved February 10, 2019.
  114. ^ Brodkin, Jon (April 16, 2019). "Google Fiber exits Louisville, pays city $3.8M to clean up the mess it left". Ars Technica. Archived from the original on November 7, 2020. Retrieved April 17, 2019.
  115. ^ a b Medin, Milo (February 19, 2014). "Exploring new cities for Google Fiber". Official Google Blog. Archived from the original on December 14, 2020. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
  116. ^ "The future of Fiber". February 19, 2014. Archived from the original on September 9, 2018. Retrieved February 20, 2014.
  117. ^ "Google Fiber – Questionnaire for small business". Archived from the original on March 5, 2017. Retrieved April 15, 2014.
  118. ^ GFiber [@googlefiber] (September 10, 2015). "We're exploring bringing a super fast network to Irvine, Louisville & San Diego. Learn more" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  119. ^ "Google Fiber begins negotiations to lay super-fast Internet network in Jacksonville". jacksonville.com. Archived from the original on January 21, 2021. Retrieved October 29, 2015.
  120. ^ "Seattle City Council Applies for Google Fiber". Exstreamist.com. December 8, 2015. Archived from the original on November 8, 2020. Retrieved January 4, 2018.
  121. ^ Sky, Blue (December 8, 2015). "Google Fiber superfast Internet service may come to Chicago". chicagotribune.com. Archived from the original on April 15, 2019. Retrieved February 24, 2016.
  122. ^ Szuchmacher, Jill (June 14, 2016). "Exploring Dallas for Google Fiber". Official Google Fiber Blog. Archived from the original on November 8, 2020. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
  123. ^ Finley, Jeremy (June 29, 2018). "Google fiber thrill turns to apprehension for neighbors". WSMV. Archived from the original on July 2, 2018. Retrieved July 2, 2018. Five months later, the News4 I-Team found that in six neighborhoods in Nashville, the lines were buried so close to the surface that they were torn apart during repaving and customers lost service for days.
  124. ^ Russell, Jon (June 22, 2016). "Google Fiber is buying high-speed internet provider Webpass". TechCrunch. AOL. Archived from the original on November 8, 2020. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
  125. ^ Brodkin, Jon (October 3, 2016). "Google Fiber is now a fiber and wireless ISP". Ars Technica. Condé Nast. Archived from the original on January 21, 2021. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
  126. ^ "Google Fiber". Archived from the original on March 25, 2013. Retrieved June 4, 2015.
  127. ^ "Google Wants To Expand Its Ultrafast Internet In USA". What is USA News. February 21, 2014. Archived from the original on January 5, 2018. Retrieved September 12, 2013.
  128. ^ "Broadband Consumer Labels". www.fcc.gov. Retrieved October 27, 2023.
  129. ^ "GFiber Nutrition Label - Google Fiber Help". support.google.com. Retrieved October 27, 2023.
  130. ^ Singel, Ryan (July 30, 2017). "Now That It's in the Broadband Game, Google Flip-Flops on Network Neutrality". Wired. Archived from the original on December 20, 2020. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
  131. ^ Auerbach, Dan (August 12, 2013). "Google Fiber Continues Awful ISP Tradition of Banning 'Servers'". Electronic Frontier Foundation. Archived from the original on November 11, 2020. Retrieved August 14, 2013.
  132. ^ Fenley, John (October 15, 2013). "Google Fiber has changed its terms of service and now allows servers for non-commercial use". GoogleProtest.com. Archived from the original on October 17, 2013.
  133. ^ Brodkin, Jon (October 15, 2013). "Google Fiber now explicitly permits home servers". Ars Technica. Condé Nast. Archived from the original on December 23, 2020. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
  134. ^ "Welcome to Google TiSP". Google. April 1, 2007. Archived from the original on January 8, 2021. Retrieved August 6, 2014.
  135. ^ "Introducing the Google Fiber Bar" (video). Google. April 1, 2012. Archived from the original on December 15, 2021. Retrieved May 5, 2013 – via YouTube.
  136. ^ "Google Fiber to the Pole" (video). Google Fiber. March 31, 2013. Archived from the original on December 15, 2021. Retrieved August 6, 2014 – via YouTube.
  137. ^ "Introducing Coffee to the Home" (video). Google Fiber. April 1, 2014. Archived from the original on December 15, 2021. Retrieved April 1, 2014 – via YouTube.
  138. ^ "Introducing Dial-Up Mode" (video). Google Fiber. April 1, 2015. Archived from the original on December 15, 2021. Retrieved April 1, 2015 – via YouTube.
  139. ^ Takácsi, Pál (April 1, 2016). "Exploring 1 billion times faster speeds". Official Google Fiber Blog. Archived from the original on January 21, 2021. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
  140. ^ "Google Fiber Could Reach 8 Million Homes By 2022" Archived November 12, 2020, at the Wayback Machine, Elise Ackerman, Forbes, June 14, 2013. Retrieved September 2013.
  141. ^ "Senate Bill No. 304: An Act enacting the municipal communications network and private telecommunications investment safeguards act" (PDF). Kslegislature.org\accessdate=2015-06-04. Archived (PDF) from the original on January 21, 2021. Retrieved January 31, 2014.
  142. ^ "Kansas To Nix Expansion of Google Fiber and Municipal Broadband - Slashdot". Tech.slashdot.org. January 31, 2014. Archived from the original on March 16, 2018. Retrieved February 20, 2014.
  143. ^ Brodkin, Jon (February 20, 2014). ""It's dead": Kansas municipal Internet ban was "stabbed, shot, and hanged"". Ars Technica. Condé Nast. Archived from the original on January 27, 2021. Retrieved March 25, 2017.