Batman: The Animated Series is an American television series produced by Warner Bros. Animation based on the DC Comics superhero Batman. Originally, 85 episodes aired on Fox from 1992 to 1995. A further 24 episodes were aired under the title The New Batman Adventures after the show moved to The WB. Both series have since aired together on various other networks, including Cartoon Network, Boomerang, Jetix, and The Hub. Each episode is a TV half-hour (22 minutes plus commercials).

Series overview

SeasonEpisodesOriginally aired
First airedLast airedNetwork
165September 5, 1992 (1992-09-05)September 17, 1993 (1993-09-17)Fox Kids
220May 2, 1994 (1994-05-02)September 15, 1995 (1995-09-15)
324September 13, 1997 (1997-09-13)January 16, 1999 (1999-01-16)Kids' WB

Episodes

Note: This article lists the episodes in their DVD release order, rather than by their original air dates, because the original air dates severely differed from production order.

Season 1 (1992–1993)

No.
overall
No. in
season
TitleDirected byWritten byOriginal air date
11"On Leather Wings"Kevin AltieriMitch BrianSeptember 6, 1992 (1992-09-06) (primetime)
September 24, 1992 (1992-09-24) (weekday)

A mysterious bat-like creature terrorizes Gotham City, causing the police force to pursue Batman. The Dark Knight must find the real perpetrator to clear his name.

Note: Based on the comic-book story "Challenge of the Man-Bat" (Detective Comics #400, June 1970) & "Man or Bat" (Detective Comics #402, August 1970) by Frank Robbins.
22"Christmas with the Joker"Kent ButterworthEddie GorodetskyNovember 13, 1992 (1992-11-13) (weekday)
December 27, 1992 (1992-12-27) (primetime)
After escaping Arkham Asylum on Christmas Eve, the Joker takes over Gotham's airwaves and terrorizes the city. He challenges Batman and Robin to find his hidden TV studio and free his hostages – Commissioner Gordon, Detective Bullock and Summer Gleeson – before midnight.
33"Nothing to Fear"Boyd KirklandHenry T. Gilroy and Sean Catherine DerekSeptember 15, 1992 (1992-09-15)
Batman encounters the Scarecrow and attempts to foil his scheme to burn down Gotham University, but in the process is exposed to the Scarecrow's fear gas and forced to face his guilt over the death of his parents.
44"The Last Laugh"Kevin AltieriCarl SwensonSeptember 22, 1992 (1992-09-22)
The Joker covers Gotham City in a cloud of laughing gas and begins plundering the crazed city. After Alfred Pennyworth is infected with the toxin, Batman has added incentive to stop the Joker and acquire an antidote from him before all of Gotham dies with a smile.
55"Pretty Poison"Boyd KirklandStory by : Paul Dini and Michael Reaves
Teleplay by : Tom Ruegger
September 14, 1992 (1992-09-14)
When District Attorney Harvey Dent (who has not yet become the villain Two-Face) collapses after a meal with his fiancée Pamela Isley and friend Bruce Wayne, doctors discover that he has been poisoned. Batman must find the culprit and the antidote before Harvey dies.
66"The Underdwellers"Frank PaurStory by : Tom Ruegger
Teleplay by : Jules Dennis and Richard Mueller
October 21, 1992 (1992-10-21)
Batman traces a series of bizarre robberies to a band of homeless children living in Gotham's sewers who have been raised to do the bidding of their master, the Sewer King.
77"P.O.V."Kevin AltieriStory by : Mitch Brian
Teleplay by : Sean Catherine Derek and Laren Bright
September 18, 1992 (1992-09-18)
A botched police operation results in the suspension of those involved: Officer Wilkes, Officer Renee Montoya, and Detective Bullock. Interrogated by their superiors, they each tell differing tales of what happened that night.
88"The Forgotten"Boyd KirklandJules Dennis, Richard Mueller, and Sean Catherine DerekOctober 8, 1992 (1992-10-08)
While investigating the disappearances of Gotham's homeless in an undercover disguise, Bruce Wayne is kidnapped and imprisoned in a chain gang mining camp, suffering from amnesia. Alfred must thus track him down, help him escape, and free the rest of the prisoners.
99"Be a Clown"Frank PaurTed Pedersen and Steve HayesSeptember 16, 1992 (1992-09-16)
Mayor Hamilton Hill's neglected son, Jordan, rebels when his father uses his birthday party as a political gathering rather than a normal celebration, stowing away in the truck of the party clown hired by Hill for the party, who unknown to him is the Joker in disguise. It is now up to Batman, whom Mayor Hill distrusts, to rescue the boy before it is too late.
1010"Two-Face, Part 1"Kevin AltieriStory by : Alan Burnett
Teleplay by : Randy Rogel
September 25, 1992 (1992-09-25)
Mobster Rupert Thorne attempts to use Harvey Dent's secret split personality to blackmail him. But when Dent meets with Thorne at a chemical plant, "Big Bad Harv" takes over, and the resulting confrontation leads to an explosion that scars half of Dent's body.
1111"Two-Face, Part 2"Kevin AltieriRandy RogelSeptember 28, 1992 (1992-09-28)
Harvey Dent, now under the control of his alternate personality, begins calling himself Two-Face and starts robbing Rupert Thorne's illegal businesses, leading to a final confrontation with the crime boss. Batman must stop his former friend before he and Thorne kill each other.
1212"It's Never Too Late"Boyd KirklandStory by : Tom Ruegger
Teleplay by : Garin Wolf
September 10, 1992 (1992-09-10) (weekday)
January 17, 1993 (1993-01-17) (primetime)
A mob war between crime bosses Rupert Thorne and Arnold Stromwell leads to a supposed peace talk where Stromwell is set up to be killed in an explosion by Thorne, but Batman saves him at the last moment. Aided by Stromwell's brother (a priest who lost a leg in a childhood accident for which Stromwell carries secret guilt), Batman tries to persuade Stromwell to give up his life of crime and help the police bring Thorne down by testifying against him.
1313"I've Got Batman in My Basement"Frank PaurSam Graham and Chris HubbellSeptember 30, 1992 (1992-09-30)
During a fight with Batman over a stolen Fabergé egg, the Penguin incapacitates Batman with poison gas. The Dark Knight is rescued by young amateur detective Sherman Grant and his friend Roberta, who hide Batman in Sherman's basement so he can recover before the Penguin finds them.
1414"Heart of Ice"Bruce TimmPaul DiniSeptember 7, 1992 (1992-09-07)

Embittered scientist Victor Fries, calling himself Mr. Freeze, attacks several divisions of GothCorp, each time stealing a piece for a secret weapon he intends to build. Batman investigates the connections and discovers that the start of Freeze's vendetta against GothCorp was a bitter falling out between Fries and GothCorp's CEO, Ferris Boyle, during which Boyle almost killed Fries (turning him into Freeze) and presumably killed Fries' terminally ill wife Nora. Batman must find a way to bring Boyle to justice before Freeze carries out his revenge.

Note: This episode won the series a 1993 Daytime Emmy Award for Outstanding Writing in an Animated Program.[1]
1515"The Cat and the Claw: Part 1"Kevin AltieriStory by : Sean Catherine Derek and Laren Bright
Teleplay by : Jules Dennis and Richard Mueller
September 5, 1992 (1992-09-05)
Batman encounters a new cat burglar calling herself Catwoman. Around the same time, as Bruce Wayne, he meets a woman named Selina Kyle, to whom he is instantly attracted without knowing her secret identity. When Catwoman discovers that a terrorist group known as The Red Claw has built a base in the mountain lion sanctuary she was trying to protect, she decides to take matters into her own hands.
1616"The Cat and the Claw: Part 2"Dick SebastStory by : Sean Catherine Derek and Laren Bright
Teleplay by : Jules Dennis and Richard Mueller
September 12, 1992 (1992-09-12)
The leader of The Red Claw (known herself only as Red Claw) attacks a military train and steals a viral plague which she intends to release in Gotham City if she isn't paid a ransom. Batman and Catwoman must put aside their differences and work together to stop Red Claw before it is too late.
1717"See No Evil"Dan RibaMartin PaskoFebruary 24, 1993 (1993-02-24)

Lloyd Ventrix is on the verge of losing his daughter Kimberly to his ex-wife Helen due to his past as a con artist. Determined not to lose Kimberly, Ventrix dons a suit stolen from a laboratory where he used to work; it grants the user invisibility but its high toxicity will slowly cause insanity in the wearer. Helen does not know that Kimberly's "imaginary friend" Mojo is the invisible Ventrix; after winning Kimberly's trust, he plans to abduct her. Batman must solve the mysterious crimes and stop Ventrix, even though he cannot see him.

Note: Michael Gross, who provided the voice of Ventrix, later voiced Warren McGinnis in Batman Beyond.
1818"Beware the Gray Ghost"Boyd KirklandStory by : Dennis O'Flaherty and Tom Ruegger
Teleplay by : Garin Wolf and Tom Ruegger
November 4, 1992 (1992-11-04)

Simon Trent, an older actor best known for his starring role in the classic television series "The Gray Ghost", is on the verge of bankruptcy due to his declining career, and begins selling Gray Ghost merchandise to pay rent. Meanwhile, a series of bombings is occurring which resemble the plot of an episode of "The Gray Ghost". Batman, having been inspired partly by the show to become a crime fighter, goes to Trent for help and they team up to find the bomber.

Guest Star: Adam West, as the voice of Simon Trent.
1919"Prophecy of Doom"Frank PaurStory by : Dennis Marks
Teleplay by : Sean Catherine Derek
October 6, 1992 (1992-10-06)
Batman investigates a cult called the Brotherhood, founded by the "mystic" Nostromos, after hearing several stories about his ability to predict the future. Batman finds out that Nostromos is a con artist who was rigging near-fatal accidents to gain the confidence of Gotham's upper-class citizens, and he must expose this ruse before it is too late.
2020"Feat of Clay: Part 1"Dick SebastStory by : Marv Wolfman and Michael Reaves
Teleplay by : Marv Wolfman
September 8, 1992 (1992-09-08)
Bruce Wayne is framed for the attempted murder of Wayne Enterprises executive Lucius Fox. The real perpetrator is an actor and master of disguise named Matt Hagen, who was disfigured in a car accident years ago. To keep his fame, he secretly started working for Roland Daggett, who wants to take over Wayne Enterprises. Daggett provides Hagen with a regular supply of an addictive face cream known as Renuyu that can temporarily restore Hagen's disfigured face. This allows him to continue to act professionally, but also gives him the ability to reshape his face to resemble other people. After failing to murder Fox due to Batman's interference, Hagen's supply is cut off. When he breaks into Daggett's lab for more Renuyu, Daggett's men force-feed him the formula, expecting him to die. Meanwhile, Bruce Wayne is arrested and taken into custody, charged with the assault on Fox.
2121"Feat of Clay: Part 2"Kevin AltieriStory by : Marv Wolfman and Michael Reaves
Teleplay by : Michael Reaves
September 9, 1992 (1992-09-09)
Bruce Wayne is released from prison on bail. Hagen survives the assault by Daggett's men, but is transformed into a shapeshifting mutant. With his newfound powers, Hagen, now calling himself Clayface, decides to get revenge on Daggett, and Batman must bring Daggett to justice and stop Clayface before innocent people are hurt.
2222"Joker's Favor"Boyd KirklandPaul DiniSeptember 11, 1992 (1992-09-11) (weekday)
January 31, 1993 (1993-01-31) (primetime)

After a man named Charlie Collins accidentally curses at the Joker for bad driving, Joker corners him and tells him that he can go free if he does an unspecified "small favor" in the future. Two years pass, and the Joker finally decides how to use Charlie: to sneak a bomb into the Peregrinator's Club, where Commissioner Gordon is to give a speech at an award ceremony. The small favor is that Charlie simply needs to hold a door open as part of the plan. Because his family is threatened, he reluctantly decides to obey.

Note: This episode features the first appearance of the Joker's accomplice and love interest Harley Quinn in any Batman media.
2323"Vendetta"Frank PaurMichael ReavesOctober 5, 1992 (1992-10-05)
Detective Bullock is arrested for kidnapping. Batman, who dislikes Bullock but believes him to be an honest cop, investigates and discovers the identity of the real criminal: Killer Croc, who harbors a vendetta against Bullock for capturing him once. Batman must clear Bullock's name before it is too late.
2424"Fear of Victory"Dick SebastSamuel Warren JosephSeptember 29, 1992 (1992-09-29)
The Scarecrow invents a fear chemical activated by adrenaline and uses it to affect the outcome of athletic events on which he has bet. Robin catches onto the plan when a fellow college student is exposed to the chemical, and he and Batman investigate.
2525"The Clock King"Kevin AltieriDavid WiseSeptember 21, 1992 (1992-09-21)
After following advice from attorney Hamilton Hill, efficiency expert Temple Fugate makes an error which causes his company to lose a court case against a company represented by the firm where Hill works. As a result, Fugate suffers a mental breakdown. Seven years later, Hill is now Gotham's mayor and running for re-election, and Fugate, now known as the Clock King, plans to discredit and kill him. Batman must stop Fugate from carrying out his revenge and save the mayor's life.
2626"Appointment in Crime Alley"Boyd KirklandGerry ConwaySeptember 17, 1992 (1992-09-17)

With the help of arsonists, Roland Daggett plans to destroy a poor neighborhood nicknamed "Crime Alley" and use the land to expand his business empire. Batman must stop Daggett's men and save a captured Leslie Thompkins, who helped a young Bruce Wayne cope with the loss of his parents.

Note: Based on the comic-book story "There Is No Hope in Crime Alley" (Detective Comics #457, March 1976) by Dennis O'Neil and Dick Giordano.
2727"Mad as a Hatter"Frank PaurPaul DiniOctober 12, 1992 (1992-10-12)
Awkward scientist Jervis Tetch, who is developing brain interface devices for Wayne Industries, is unable to find a way to get close to his crush, office secretary Alice. When she splits up with her boyfriend, he makes an advance and develops a fast friendship with her until her boyfriend reconciles with her and proposes to her. Enraged, Tetch decides to take matters into his own hands. He dons the mantle of the Mad Hatter, using his mind-control devices to make Alice his and avenge those who have wronged him.
2828"Dreams in Darkness"Dick SebastJudith and Garfield Reeves-StevensNovember 3, 1992 (1992-11-03) (weekday)
December 20, 1992 (1992-12-20) (primetime)

Batman is committed to Arkham Asylum after exposure to the Scarecrow's fear toxin, but he knows that the Scarecrow is planning to poison Gotham's water supply with the same fear-inducing chemical. Batman must overcome his amplified fears and hallucinations and escape from Arkham before the Scarecrow brings Gotham to its knees.

  • The Scarecrow's scheme in this episode was also a plot point in the film, Batman Begins.
2929"Eternal Youth"Kevin AltieriBeth BornsteinSeptember 23, 1992 (1992-09-23)
Several rich industrialists, all having something to do with the destruction of plant life, are disappearing after being invited to the Eternal Youth Health Spa. Bruce Wayne also receives an invitation (one of his greedy directors nearly made the deal to destroy a rainforest before Bruce forced him to shut the operation down). Bruce passes his invitations on to Alfred and his lady friend Maggie and they go in his place. When they do not return, Batman investigates, discovering that Poison Ivy runs the spa and that she has been using a formula to turn the industrialists into trees, including Alfred and Maggie.
3030"Perchance to Dream"Boyd KirklandStory by : Laren Bright and Michael Reaves
Teleplay by : Joe R. Lansdale
October 19, 1992 (1992-10-19) (weekday)
March 14, 1993 (1993-03-14) (primetime)
Bruce Wayne wakes up one morning to find that his life has completely changed: his parents are alive, the Batcave does not exist, Alfred does not know anyone named Robin, and Bruce is engaged to Selina Kyle, who is not Catwoman. Batman, a separate individual from himself, continue to fight crime in Gotham City. Bruce gradually begins to accept this new life, but it may be too good to be true.
3131"The Cape and Cowl Conspiracy"Frank PaurElliot S. MagginOctober 14, 1992 (1992-10-14)

Baron Jozek, furious at Batman for humiliating him with an intrusion and interrogation while he is at a dinner party with his underworld connections, hires Josiah Wormwood, a master in setting traps, to hunt down Batman and bring back the hero's cape and cowl.

Note: Based on the comic-book story "The Cape and Cowl Death Trap!" from Detective Comics #450 August 1975, written by Elliot S. Maggin.
3232"Robin's Reckoning, Part 1"Dick SebastRandy RogelFebruary 7, 1993 (1993-02-07) (primetime)
May 17, 1993 (1993-05-17) (weekday)

During a fight with some gangsters at a construction yard, Batman and Robin learn the name of their boss: Billy Marin. While Robin looks forward to going up against Marin, Batman becomes distant and doesn't allow Robin to accompany him on the search for Marin, leading to a falling out at the Batcave. Robin investigates with the Batcomputer and soon realizes that Billy Marin is not the boss' real name. Rather, it is an alias of Tony Zucco, the man who killed his parents John and Mary Grayson. Batman chose not to tell Robin out of concern that he would desire vengeance against Zucco.

  • The flashbacks to Robin's origin story are based on Detective Comics Issue #38.[2]
3333"Robin's Reckoning, Part 2"Dick SebastRandy RogelFebruary 14, 1993 (1993-02-14) (primetime)
May 18, 1993 (1993-05-18) (weekday)
Angered by Batman's deceit, Robin sets out to find Tony Zucco on his own, while reliving the memories of his parents' deaths and how Bruce took him in as his adopted son at age eight. Eventually, Batman finds Zucco at an old amusement park but breaks his leg during the fight. Robin finally arrives and prepares to kill Zucco in vengeance.
3434"The Laughing Fish"Bruce W. TimmPaul DiniJanuary 10, 1993 (1993-01-10) (primetime)
April 27, 1993 (1993-04-27) (weekday)

Joker creates a toxin that affects only fish, mutating them to have smiling faces similar to his. Then he targets an innocent man who refuses to copyright his Joker fish. The Joker also captures Harvey Bullock, and Batman must rescue him and foil Joker's scheme.

  • This episode is based on three Batman comics, blended; "The Joker's Five-Way Revenge" from Batman #251 September 1973 by Dennis O'Neil with art by Neal Adams, followed by "The Laughing Fish" and "Sign of the Joker!" from Detective Comics #475 and #476, of February/March 1978, both by the writer Steve Englehart with art by Marshall Rogers.
3535"Night of the Ninja"Kevin AltieriSteve PerryOctober 26, 1992 (1992-10-26)
A mysterious ninja is robbing Wayne Enterprises subsidiaries, and Batman discovers that the ninja is his equal in combat. A grudge against Bruce Wayne and skills to match him can only mean one person: Kyodai Ken. A rival and fellow student under Wayne's old sensei in Japan, Ken was thrown out of the dojo after attempting to rob it and being stopped by Wayne. Ken, it turns out, wants revenge.
3636"Cat Scratch Fever"Boyd KirklandStory by : Sean Catherine Derek
Teleplay by : Buzz Dixon
November 5, 1992 (1992-11-05)
Batman must stop Roland Daggett's plan to release a viral plague designed by Professor Milo to be introduced into Gotham through stray animals. The case gains new urgency when Catwoman becomes infected with the virus while searching for her missing cat Isis. Batman must find an antidote to save the woman who loves him most.
3737"The Strange Secret of Bruce Wayne"Frank PaurStory by : David Wise
Teleplay by : Judith & Garfield Reeves-Stevens
October 29, 1992 (1992-10-29) (weekday)
February 28, 1993 (1993-02-28) (primetime)

After a prominent judge is injured during a struggle with some thugs demanding money from her in exchange for a mysterious tape, Bruce Wayne decides to take a trip to a Yucca Springs resort where the judge had vacationed and consulted the in-house psychiatrist Hugo Strange. Bruce learns that Strange has invented a machine that extracts people's darkest secrets from their minds and transfers them to videotape – but only after Strange records proof of Bruce's secret identity and plans to auction it to three of Gotham's most prominent criminals.

Note: Based on the comic stories "The Dead Yet Live" and "I Am the Batman!" from Detective Comics #471 and #472, of August/September 1977 by Steve Englehart. Dr. Strange's scheme in this episode was also used in the plot of Batman Forever.
3838"Heart of Steel: Part 1"Kevin AltieriBrynne StephensNovember 16, 1992 (1992-11-16)
Several robberies occur at major companies including Wayne Enterprises, and Bruce Wayne, as Batman, discovers the thief is a walking mechanical briefcase. After failing to catch it, Bruce meets with his old friend Karl Rossum, a robotics expert who lost his daughter to a vehicle accident years ago. He also meets Rossum's assistant, Randa Duane, and Rossum's ultimate creation: a prototype AI known as Holographic Analytical Reciprocating Digital Computer (HARDAC). Bruce invites Duane to dinner. Around the same time, certain important members of the public start acting unlike themselves and distant. Most surprising is when Duane unexpectedly leaves Wayne Manor while Bruce is on the phone, and the Batcave security system turns on Batman.
3939"Heart of Steel: Part 2"Kevin AltieriBrynne StephensNovember 17, 1992 (1992-11-17)
Batman manages to free himself from the Batcave's security system and bring it back under his control, although he fails to track down Ms. Duane. Barbara Gordon approaches Batman to inform him of her father's sudden change in behavior. A brutal fight between Batman and Detective Bullock ensues, during which Batman damages Bullock and discovers him to be an android, revealing that the real Bullock and James Gordon have gone missing. Batman knows who the culprit is: HARDAC. Batman must stop the evil supercomputer before it completes its replacement plan.
4040"If You're So Smart, Why Aren't You Rich?"Eric RadomskiDavid WiseNovember 18, 1992 (1992-11-18) (weekday)
January 3, 1993 (1993-01-03) (primetime)
Edward Nygma creates the popular video game Riddle of the Minotaur for his employer, but his superior Daniel Mockridge fires him after he sues for royalties. Nygma vows revenge and adopts the identity of the Riddler. While Batman sympathizes with Nygma's grievance, he and Robin must stop the Riddler before he kills Mockridge in a life-sized version of the Minotaur maze with a working minotaur.
4141"Joker's Wild"Boyd KirklandPaul DiniNovember 19, 1992 (1992-11-19)
Cameron Kaiser builds a casino hotel themed around the Joker called "The Joker's Wild". From Arkham Asylum, the Joker sees this on the news and is enraged. He escapes from Arkham again with one thought – destroying the casino – unaware that this is exactly what Kaiser wants him to do.
4242"Tyger Tyger"Frank PaurStory by : Michael Reaves and Randy Rogel
Teleplay by : Cherie Wilkerson
October 30, 1992 (1992-10-30)
Selina Kyle is kidnapped by the villainous genetic engineer Dr. Emile Dorian and transformed into a humanoid cat, providing his man-cat hybrid named Tygrus with a mate. Batman attempts to rescue Selina, but is captured and used to test Dorian's greatest creation, as Tygrus hunts Batman through the island's jungles.
4343"Moon of the Wolf"Dick SebastLen WeinNovember 11, 1992 (1992-11-11)

Batman investigates the appearance of a werewolf-like creature in Gotham, not realizing that the monster happens to be one of Bruce Wayne's associates — Anthony Romulus, ex-Olympic champion. Behind the scheme is twisted chemist Professor Milo.

Note: Based on the comic story of the same name by the writer Len Wein with art by Neal Adams, from Batman #255, April 1974.
4444"Day of the Samurai"Bruce W. TimmSteve PerryFebruary 23, 1993 (1993-02-23)
Kyodai Ken kidnaps Kairi Tanaga, star pupil of Yoru-sensei, the martial arts instructor who taught both Kyodai and Bruce. The ninja's ransom for her is a scroll which reveals the location of the fabled Death Touch technique.
4545"Terror in the Sky"Boyd KirklandStory by : Steve Perry and Mark Saraceni
Teleplay by : Mark Saraceni
November 12, 1992 (1992-11-12)

When a giant bat ransacks a Gotham harbor, Batman suspects that Kirk Langstrom has recreated the forbidden Man-Bat formula and is taking it again. Kirk's wife Francine shares his suspicion of her husband and leaves him. As he investigates, Batman discovers that this Man-Bat is not Kirk after all.

Note: Loosely based on "Man-Bat Over Vegas," initially presented in Detective Comics #429, by Frank Robbins, with several alterations including changes to keep the plot appropriate for the family-friendly rating of the television show.
4646"Almost Got 'Im"Eric RadomskiPaul DiniNovember 10, 1992 (1992-11-10)

The Joker, Killer Croc, the Penguin, Two-Face, and Poison Ivy meet at a poker table, each telling a tale of a time when they almost defeated Batman. At the same time, Harley Quinn is about to kill Catwoman after she rescues Batman from the Joker's electric chair, and Batman must save her.

Notes:

  • Inspired by a four-issue story arc in Batman (1977) #291–294, entitled "Where Were You on the Night Batman Was Killed?". In each of the four issues, one of Catwoman, Riddler, and The Joker all recount their claims to have killed Batman. However, the plot for "Almost Got 'Im" is quite different (six stories in the show and four completely different ones in the comic book), with only the Joker as an overlapping antagonist.
  • Two-Face's strategy in "Almost Got 'Im" (strapping down Batman to a giant coin and flipping the coin in the air) comes from Batman #81, February 1954.[3] The concept of the giant penny itself originated in World's Finest Comics #30, September 1947, in a secondary tale featuring a lesser-known villain, the Penny Plunderer.[4]
4747"Birds of a Feather"Frank PaurStory by : Chuck Menville
Teleplay by : Brynne Stephens
February 8, 1993 (1993-02-08)
Veronica Vreeland is looking for a way to create a splash with her next high society party and arrives at the idea of inviting a famous reformed criminal, the Penguin, who she finds to have comical fish-out-of-water mannerisms. Veronica convinces the Penguin to attend her party, intending him to be a laughingstock, but begins to genuinely like him. For his part, the Penguin falls in love with her until he overhears that he is being used as the butt of a joke.
4848"What Is Reality?"Dick SebastMarty Isenberg and Robert N. SkirNovember 24, 1992 (1992-11-24) (weekday)
March 7, 1993 (1993-03-07) (primetime)
Seeking to prove that he is the superior mind, the Riddler lures Batman into a riddle-solving contest inside a virtual reality game to save Commissioner Gordon's life. While solving the riddles and escaping the Riddler's traps, Batman learns that he can manipulate the virtual reality landscape much like the Riddler does.
4949"I Am the Night"Boyd KirklandMichael ReavesNovember 9, 1992 (1992-11-09) (weekday)
December 13, 1992 (1992-12-13) (primetime)
On the anniversary of the death of Bruce's parents, Batman accompanies Leslie Thompkins to Crime Alley to place roses on the spot where they were gunned down. Meanwhile, Commissioner Gordon is on a stakeout to arrest Jimmy "The Jazzman" Peake during a drug smuggling operation. Batman had promised to be there but arrives late to find the police caught in a gun battle. He helps defeat the gangsters and arrest the Jazzman, but not before Gordon is severely wounded. The incident traumatizes Batman, and he contemplates giving up his crime-fighting career. However the Jazzman has escaped prison intending to carry out his vendetta against Gordon, who had sent him to prison six years before.
5050"Off Balance"Kevin AltieriLen WeinNovember 23, 1992 (1992-11-23)

While following Count Vertigo's trail, Batman encounters Talia al Ghul, the daughter of the head of the Society of Shadows, who was sent by her father to prevent the capture of a sonic drill that the Count stole. After his identity is accidentally revealed to Talia, Batman is unsure as to where her true loyalties lie.

Note: This episode is a direct adaptation of "Into the Den of the Death-Dealers" from Detective Comics #411, May 1971 by Dennis O'Neil with art by Bob Brown.
5151"The Man Who Killed Batman"Bruce W. TimmPaul DiniFebruary 1, 1993 (1993-02-01)
When small-time gang member Sidney "Sid the Squid" Debris seemingly kills Batman by accident, his newfound reputation vaults him into the upper stratum of the criminal element in Gotham. He meets the Joker and Rupert Thorne, neither of whom believe his claim that everything happened by pure luck. Sidney soon begins to realize that his reputation is a greater liability than an asset.
5252"Mudslide"Eric RadomskiStory by : Alan Burnett
Teleplay by : Steve Perry
September 15, 1993 (1993-09-15)
Clayface's body is no longer stable and rapidly falling apart. A scientist he knew from his movie star days is working on a remedy, but Hagen is forced to steal money to pay for the expensive components of the remedy – and one of his targets is Wayne Biomedical Labs.
5353"Paging the Crime Doctor"Frank PaurStory by : Mike W. Barr and Laren Bright
Teleplay by : Randy Rogel & Martin Pasko
September 17, 1993 (1993-09-17)
Matthew Thorne, a doctor who lost his medical license and was subsequently forced into becoming the "crime doctor" by his older brother, crime boss Rupert Thorne, must perform delicate surgery on Rupert. He can't do it alone and kidnaps Leslie Thompkins to assist. Batman discovers Leslie's disappearance and rushes to track her down – and has an additional interest in Matthew because he was a medical school classmate of Bruce Wayne's father, Thomas.
5454"Zatanna"Dick Sebast and Dan RibaPaul DiniFebruary 2, 1993 (1993-02-02)
When the glamorous magician Zatanna is framed for a robbery during her act, Batman swings to her defense. Zatanna is grateful, though a little puzzled, by Batman's commitment to proving her innocence. Still, the two heroes unite and use the skills her father Zatara taught them to expose and combat the culprit: an evil illusionist named Montague Kane.
5555"The Mechanic"Kevin AltieriStory by : Steve Perry and Laren Bright
Teleplay by : Randy Rogel
January 24, 1993 (1993-01-24)

Thanks to an accident during a high-speed chase, the Batmobile is virtually demolished. When Batman takes the car to his mechanic Earl Cooper, the Penguin discovers the repair shop and tampers with the Batmobile, putting it under his control.

Note: The Penguin's scheme in this episode was adapted from a part of the plot for the movie Batman Returns.
5656"Harley and Ivy"Boyd KirklandPaul DiniJanuary 18, 1993 (1993-01-18)
When the Joker fires Harley for her incompetence, she tries going on a crime spree of her own, joining up with Poison Ivy, and the two become Gotham's Queens of Crime, much to the Joker's displeasure.
5757"Shadow of the Bat: Part 1"Frank PaurBrynne StephensSeptember 13, 1993 (1993-09-13)
When Commissioner Gordon is framed with allegations of taking bribes from Rupert Thorne, his daughter Barbara pleads with Batman to attend a rally on the commissioner's behalf. But when Batman disappears after finding the person behind the frame-up, Barbara takes the law into her hands as Batgirl.
5858"Shadow of the Bat: Part 2"Frank PaurBrynne StephensSeptember 14, 1993 (1993-09-14)
Robin discovers that Gil Mason is in league with the underworld and goes to investigate him. He encounters Batgirl, and together they learn that Mason is working with Two-Face to take out Gordon and have Batman (as Matches Malone) captured.
5959"Blind as a Bat"Dan RibaStory by : Mike Underwood and Len Wein
Teleplay by : Len Wein
February 22, 1993 (1993-02-22)
The Penguin steals an experimental helicopter from an air show, causing an explosion that temporarily blinds Bruce Wayne. Batman knows he won't be able to wait until his vision returns to apprehend the Penguin, and builds a high-tech visor to grant him a limited form of vision.
6060"The Demon's Quest: Part 1"Kevin AltieriDennis O'NeilMay 3, 1993 (1993-05-03)

Talia al Ghul and Robin are both kidnapped, forcing Batman and Ra's al Ghul into an uneasy truce to rescue them.

Note: A direct adaptation of "Daughter of the Demon" from Batman #232, June 1971, and "The Demon Lives Again" Batman #244, September 1972, both by Dennis O'Neil and Neal Adams.
6161"The Demon's Quest: Part 2"Kevin AltieriStory by : Dennis O'Neil and Len Wein
Teleplay by : Len Wein
May 4, 1993 (1993-05-04)

After freeing Talia from her father's clutches and escaping from an avalanche, Batman and Robin follow their only clue – the word "Orpheus". After discovering that "Orpheus" is Al Ghul's private satellite that passes over the Sahara, the duo travel to his desert stronghold. There, Batman learns that Al Ghul is planning to detonate bombs in Lazarus Pits throughout the world, killing billions of people in an attempt to restore natural balance.

Note: A direct adaptation of "Daughter of the Demon" from Batman #232, June 1971, and "The Demon Lives Again" Batman #244, September 1972, both by Dennis O'Neil and Neal Adams.
6262"His Silicon Soul"Boyd KirklandMarty Isenberg and Robert N. SkirNovember 20, 1992 (1992-11-20)
When a robotic Batman impersonator appears in Gotham City, the real Batman deduces that Karl Rossum (from "Heart of Steel") is involved and confronts the inventor of HARDAC, who knows nothing of any surviving robots produced by the supercomputer. After the robotic Batman experiences an identity crisis and realizes it is not the real Batman, its programming takes over and it begins restoring HARDAC's program so the computer can resume its campaign to replace humans with robots.
6363"Fire from Olympus"Dan RibaJudith & Garfield Reeves-StevensMay 24, 1993 (1993-05-24)
Believing himself to be the reincarnation of Zeus, Maximillian Zeus steals an experimental electric cannon, planning to use it to rule from his skyscraper, "Mount Olympus", high above Gotham City.
6464"Read My Lips"Boyd KirklandStory by : Alan Burnett and Michael Reaves
Teleplay by : Joe R. Lansdale
May 10, 1993 (1993-05-10)
A new gang has made its debut by committing slickly-executed crimes masterminded by gang leader Scarface, but Scarface turns out to be a puppet handled by his "dummy", the Ventriloquist.
6565"The Worry Men"Frank PaurPaul DiniSeptember 16, 1993 (1993-09-16)
Wealthy socialite Veronica Vreeland returns from Central America, bringing tiny handmade dolls for all her friends. According to native legend, once placed under a pillow, the dolls do the sleeper's worrying for them. However they are actually made by the Mad Hatter and contain small, mind-controlling microchips.

Season 2 (1994–1995)

Due to the show's success, the Fox network executives ordered a second season of 20 more episodes while the 65 episodes of the first season were still airing. Season 2 featured Robin more prominently; eleven of the 20 episodes were given the onscreen title The Adventures of Batman & Robin.

After airing five of the 20 episodes in May 1994, the network reduced the series to airing only weekly on Saturday mornings. Ten more episodes were broadcast in this format in September–November 1994 under the Adventures of Batman & Robin title. Once these fifteen episodes had premiered (the final five were held back until September 1995), the weekday slot was restored to include reruns of the entire series. All previous episodes were shown under the new title for all remaining airings on Fox, as well as several VHS releases.

The entirety of Season 2 was released on DVD as part of the Batman: The Animated Series Volume Three set alongside the final nine episodes of Season 1.

No.
overall
No. in
season
TitleDirected byWritten byOriginal air date
661"Sideshow"Boyd KirklandStory by : Michael Reaves
Teleplay by : Michael Reaves and Brynne Stephens
May 3, 1994 (1994-05-03)

En route to an upstate prison, Killer Croc escapes and leads Batman on a dangerous chase through the wilderness. After throwing Batman temporarily off his trail, the reptile-man takes refuge with a group of retired circus freaks and befriends them under false pretenses. When Batman arrives, Croc and the performers band together to capture him.

Note: Loosely based on "A Vow from the Grave" by Dennis O'Neil. This episode adapted the comic book story with the inclusion of a separate Killer Croc story.
672"A Bullet for Bullock"Frank PaurMichael ReavesSeptember 14, 1995 (1995-09-14)

Someone has put a hit out on Gotham's toughest cop, Harvey Bullock. After surviving several near misses, Bullock realizes he has no choice but to ask his arch-rival Batman to help him discover who is behind the murder attempts. During their investigation, Bullock learns that his gruff and mean-spirited manner has created enemies in the unlikeliest people.

Notes:

  • Based on the comic of the same name from Detective Comics #651, October 1992, by Chuck Dixon.
  • This episode won the 1996 Daytime Emmy Award for Outstanding Music Direction and Composition.
683"Trial"Dan RibaStory by : Paul Dini and Bruce W. Timm
Teleplay by : Paul Dini
May 16, 1994 (1994-05-16)

Gotham's new district attorney Janet Van Dorn is no fan of vigilante Batman, but both end up captured by Batman's greatest enemies after a prison riot in Arkham Asylum. They are then put on trial by the Joker (judge) and Two-Face (prosecutor) with the Ventriloquist as bailiff and a plainly biased jury of Poison Ivy, Harley Quinn, the Mad Hatter, Killer Croc, the Scarecrow, and the Riddler. Though clearly a kangaroo trial, Van Dorn is told that if she serves as Batman's defense attorney and proves that Batman is not the cause of these villains' criminal behavior, they will both be set free. But the villains have little intention of following through on their deal.

  • Henry Polic II, the Scarecrow's voice actor, was recuperating from throat surgery during the episode's production, so his character has no dialogue.
  • Van Dorn mentions in this episode that Harley Quinn was once a doctor at Arkham before the Joker corrupted her mind, a backstory which is later shown in The New Batman Adventures episode "Mad Love."
694"Avatar"Kevin AltieriMichael ReavesMay 9, 1994 (1994-05-09)
Ra's al Ghul steals a mystic Egyptian scroll donated to the Gotham Museum by Bruce Wayne. Batman and Talia must join forces to prevent her mentally unstable father from unlocking the scroll's mystic secrets of life and death. Their quest takes them to a hidden temple deep beneath the Egyptian desert where Batman battles an ancient sorceress.
705"House & Garden"Boyd KirklandPaul DiniMay 2, 1994 (1994-05-02)
Poison Ivy has not only been released from Arkham Asylum but has also married her doctor and settled down to help him raise his two sons. It would appear that Ivy has gone straight and that her old days as a criminal are over, but wealthy bachelors are being struck down by an unknown toxin, leaving Batman questioning Ivy's innocence.
716"The Terrible Trio"Frank PaurStory by : Alan Burnett and Michael Reaves
Teleplay by : Michael Reaves
September 11, 1995 (1995-09-11)
Three wealthy, bored youths seek new thrills by becoming master criminals. As animal-themed robbers Fox, Shark, and Vulture (masters of land, sea, and air), the Terrible Trio pick Gotham clean until they come to the attention of Batman.
727"Harlequinade"Kevin AltieriPaul DiniMay 23, 1994 (1994-05-23)
The Joker steals an atomic bomb and it is up to Batman and Robin to find and stop him, with Harley Quinn's help.
738"Time Out of Joint"Dan RibaStory by : Alan Burnett
Teleplay by : Steve Perry
October 8, 1994 (1994-10-08)
The Clock King returns to continue his vendetta against Mayor Hill. This time, the time-obsessed criminal hopes to murder Hill with the help of a stolen invention that allows him to warp time and travel at super speed. Securing a second device from its creator, Batman and Robin takes on the Clock King in a furious high-speed battle for the mayor's life.
749"Catwalk"Boyd KirklandPaul DiniSeptember 13, 1995 (1995-09-13)
Anxious to take up her old ways as Catwoman, Selina Kyle joins the Ventriloquist to humiliate Veronica Vreeland. But the real victim is Catwoman herself, who Scarface has secretly set up to take the fall for another robbery.
7510"Bane"Kevin AltieriMitch BrianSeptember 10, 1994 (1994-09-10)
Batman comes face-to-face with his most powerful adversary yet: the chemically-enhanced assassin Bane. Originally hired by Rupert Thorne to kill Batman, Bane plans to control Thorne's criminal empire once Batman is destroyed.
7611"Baby-Doll"Dan RibaPaul DiniOctober 1, 1994 (1994-10-01)
A washed-up actress named Mary Louise Dahl has become bitter and insane after falling into obscurity and suffering from a disorder that prevents her body from growing to adulthood, thus biologically cursed with perpetual childhood. She kidnaps her former co-stars, resentful of their continued success, and holds them prisoner on the abandoned stage of her old show. While Robin works fast to free the actors from Mary’s explosive death trap, Batman pursues her through a deadly carnival funhouse.
7712"The Lion and the Unicorn"Boyd KirklandDiane Duane, Peter Morwood and Steve PerrySeptember 15, 1995 (1995-09-15)
The Red Claw organization kidnaps Alfred, seeking a code for arming a weapon of mass destruction that he knows from his days as a British secret agent.
7813"Showdown"Kevin AltieriStory by : Kevin Altieri, Paul Dini and Bruce W. Timm
Teleplay by : Joe R. Lansdale
September 12, 1995 (1995-09-12)

Ra's al Ghul remembers a time in his past (the Wild West of the 1880s) in which Jonah Hex stopped him and his son Arkady Duvall's plan to destroy the transcontinental railroad using a war blimp.

Note: This was Elizabeth Montgomery's final role before her death on May 18th, 1995.
7914"Riddler's Reform"Dan RibaStory by : Alan Burnett, Paul Dini and Randy Rogel
Teleplay by : Randy Rogel
September 24, 1994 (1994-09-24)
Vowing to turn over a new leaf, the Riddler is hired to work for a toy company. But Batman suspects that the Riddler is still obsessed with outsmarting and defeating him.
8015"Second Chance"Boyd KirklandStory by : Paul Dini and Michael Reaves
Teleplay by : Gerry Conway
September 17, 1994 (1994-09-17)
Just before Harvey Dent is to undergo surgery to fix the damage to his face in the hopes that it will give him the mental stability needed to erase his Two-Face persona, he is kidnapped by a gang with an unknown leader. Batman and Robin split up to find who abducted Bruce Wayne's old friend, suspecting that the Penguin or Rupert Thorne may be behind the kidnapping.
8116"Harley's Holiday"Kevin AltieriPaul DiniOctober 15, 1994 (1994-10-15)
Harley Quinn is released back into society after being given a clean bill of mental health by Arkham Asylum. However, a misunderstanding at a clothing store leads to her returning to crime. Batman and Robin attempt to help her before she lands herself back in confinement.
8217"Lock-Up"Dan RibaStory by : Paul Dini
Teleplay by : Marty Isenberg and Robert N. Skir
November 19, 1994 (1994-11-19)
Lyle Bolton, the new head of security at Arkham, is fired for his atrocious mistreatment of the inmates. Six months later, Bolton becomes the vigilante Lock-Up and decides to put behind bars those who he feels are responsible for the city's ruin.
8318"Make 'Em Laugh"Boyd KirklandPaul Dini and Randy RogelNovember 5, 1994 (1994-11-05)
Using microchips stolen from the Mad Hatter, the Joker brainwashes famous comedians into committing crimes to ruin their reputations. The comedians had served as the judges who tossed the Joker out of the Gotham Comedy Competition the year before, and the Clown Prince of Crime wants revenge.
8419"Deep Freeze"Kevin AltieriStory by : Paul Dini and Bruce W. Timm
Teleplay by : Paul Dini
November 26, 1994 (1994-11-26)
Mr. Freeze is sprung from Arkham by aging billionaire Grant Walker, who is looking to replicate his immortality. Batman and Robin infiltrate the billionaire's underwater city and combat both high-tech robots and Mr. Freeze himself, who has decided to do Walker's bidding and cover the earth in a new ice age.
8520"Batgirl Returns"Dan RibaMichael Reaves and Brynne StephensNovember 12, 1994 (1994-11-12)
While Bruce is in Europe on a Wayne Enterprises business trip, the theft of a jade cat statue occurs at Gotham State University. Barbara Gordon investigates as Batgirl, only to run into Catwoman, who claims she is also investigating and that the theft was not her style. The two team up to find the statue, with Robin tailing them, and Roland Daggett is revealed to be involved.

Season 3 (1997–1999)

Main article: The New Batman Adventures

Three years after the second season of Batman: The Animated Series ended production, the show was moved from Fox to The WB, which was airing and producing Superman: The Animated Series. These shows were merged into an hour-long segment called The New Batman/Superman Adventures. The WB wanted more episodes of Batman, so 24 new episodes were produced featuring a format that focused more on Batman's supporting cast.

In addition to the network's demands, the producers decided to make the show match the graphic style of Superman, so all the characters were redesigned to use fewer lines, usually referred to by the fans and creative staff as the "revamp" (or alternately, the "new look"). Later, a similar graphic style was used with further shows and films in the DC Animated Universe.

The entire series was released on DVD as Batman: The Animated Series Volume Four (From The New Batman Adventures).

No.TitleDirected byWritten byOriginal air date
1"Holiday Knights"Dan RibaPaul DiniSeptember 13, 1997 (1997-09-13)
2"Sins of the Father"Curt GedaRich FogelSeptember 20, 1997 (1997-09-20)
3"Cold Comfort"Dan RibaHilary J. BaderOctober 11, 1997 (1997-10-11)
4"Double Talk"Curt GedaRobert GoodmanNovember 22, 1997 (1997-11-22)
5"You Scratch My Back"Butch LukicHilary J. BaderNovember 15, 1997 (1997-11-15)
6"Never Fear"Kenji HachizakiStan BerkowitzNovember 1, 1997 (1997-11-01)
7"Joker's Millions"Dan RibaPaul DiniFebruary 21, 1998 (1998-02-21)
8"Growing Pains"Atsuko TanakaStory by : Paul Dini and Robert Goodman
Teleplay by : Robert Goodman
February 28, 1998 (1998-02-28)
9"Love Is a Croc"Butch LukicSteve GerberJuly 11, 1998 (1998-07-11)
10"Torch Song"Curt GedaRich FogelJune 13, 1998 (1998-06-13)
11"The Ultimate Thrill"Dan RibaHilary J. BaderSeptember 14, 1998 (1998-09-14)
12"Over the Edge"Yuichiro YanoPaul DiniMay 23, 1998 (1998-05-23)
13"Mean Seasons"Hiroyuki AoyamaStory by : Rich Fogel
Teleplay by : Hilary J. Bader
April 25, 1998 (1998-04-25)
14"Critters"Dan RibaStory by : Steve Gerber
Teleplay by : Joe R. Lansdale
September 19, 1998 (1998-09-19)
15"Cult of the Cat"Butch LukicStory by : Paul Dini and Stan Berkowitz
Teleplay by : Stan Berkowitz
September 18, 1998 (1998-09-18)
16"Animal Act"Curt GedaHilary J. BaderSeptember 26, 1998 (1998-09-26)
17"Old Wounds"Curt GedaRich FogelOctober 3, 1998 (1998-10-03)
18"The Demon Within"Atsuko TanakaStory by : Rusti Bjornhöel
Teleplay by : Stan Berkowitz
May 9, 1998 (1998-05-09)
19"Legends of the Dark Knight"Dan RibaStory by : Robert Goodman and Bruce Timm
Teleplay by : Robert Goodman
October 10, 1998 (1998-10-10)
20"Girls' Night Out"Curt GedaHilary J. BaderOctober 17, 1998 (1998-10-17)
21"Mad Love"Butch LukicStory by : Paul Dini and Bruce Timm
Teleplay by : Paul Dini
January 16, 1999 (1999-01-16)
22"Chemistry"Butch LukicStan BerkowitzOctober 24, 1998 (1998-10-24)
23"Beware the Creeper"Dan RibaStory by : Rich Fogel
Teleplay by : Steve Gerber
November 7, 1998 (1998-11-07)
24"Judgment Day"Curt GedaRich Fogel and Alan BurnettOctober 31, 1998 (1998-10-31)

Crossovers

Superman: The Animated Series

Main articles: List of Superman: The Animated Series episodes and The New Batman/Superman Adventures

No.TitleDirected byWritten byOriginal air date
29"World's Finest"Toshihiko MasudaAlan Burnett, Paul Dini and Rich Fogel
Story by : Alan Burnett and Paul Dini
October 4, 1997 (1997-10-04)
30Steve Gerber
Story by : Alan Burnett and Paul Dini
31Stan Berkowitz
Story by : Alan Burnett and Paul Dini
Batman and Superman meet for the very first time and team up to take on their respective archenemies, the Joker and Lex Luthor.
43"Knight Time"Curt GedaRobert GoodmanOctober 10, 1998 (1998-10-10)
Superman comes to Gotham to fill in for Batman, who has mysteriously disappeared, and works with Robin to locate the Dark Knight.
52"The Demon Reborn"Dan RibaRich FogelSeptember 18, 1999 (1999-09-18)
As the Lazarus Pits can no longer heal him, Ra's al Ghul plans to siphon Superman's energy to heal himself. Superman and Batman must team up to stop him.

Static Shock

Main article: List of Static Shock episodes

No.TitleDirected byWritten byOriginal air date
14"The Big Leagues"Dave ChlystekLen UhleyJanuary 26, 2002 (2002-01-26)
Static works with Batman and Robin to stop the Joker from recruiting Bang Babies.
25"Hard as Nails"UnknownPaul DiniJanuary 25, 2003 (2003-01-25)
Static teams up with the Caped Crusader once again to help a girl who's manipulated by Harley and Ivy to steal shipments of gold with her metahuman abilities.
40"Future Shock"Vic Dal CheleStan BerkowitzJanuary 17, 2004 (2004-01-17)
After assisting Batman and Robin with a mission to stop Timecode, Static is accidentally sent 40 years into the future, where he has to help the Batman of that era, Terry McGinnis, save a captured superhero: Static's future self.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Awards – 1993". Toon Zone. Archived from the original on January 11, 2014. Retrieved August 25, 2013.
  2. ^ "GCD :: Issue :: Detective Comics #38". Grand Comics Database. Retrieved April 26, 2023.
  3. ^ "Batman #81 (Two-Face Strikes Back)". Comic Vine. Retrieved February 5, 2023.
  4. ^ "World's Finest Comics #30 (The Penny Plunderers)". Comic Vine. Retrieved February 5, 2023.