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Created byBill Finger
Bob Kane
Jerry Robinson
Original workDetective Comics #27
Owned byDC Comics
(Warner Bros. Entertainment)
Print publications
Book(s)Batman: The Complete History
The Batman Handbook: The Ultimate Training Manual
Novel(s)Batman: Dead White
Batman: Fear Itself
Batman: Inferno
Batman: The Ultimate Evil
Enemies & Allies
Wayne of Gotham
Films and television
Television series
Radio program(s)
Original musicBatman: The Musical
Holy Musical B@man! (2012)

Since his first appearance in 1939, Batman has been adapted into various media such as film, radio, television, and video games, as well as numerous merchandising items. The Batman franchise has become one of the highest-grossing media franchises of all time.


Main article: Batman in film

Early films and serials


A number of Batman theatrical films have been made. There have also been several attempted projects during the hiatus between Batman & Robin and Batman Begins.


Batman Dracula

In 1964, a Batman Dracula black and white American superhero film, was produced and directed by Andy Warhol. Few scenes survive to this day, as it was an unauthorized production, simply known because of Warhol's fame.


In 1966, a Batman feature film based on the contemporaneous Batman television series was released. It starred Adam West as Batman, Burt Ward as Robin, Cesar Romero as the Joker, Burgess Meredith as the Penguin, Frank Gorshin as the Riddler, and Lee Meriwether as Catwoman.

Tim Burton series

Occupation Films
Batman Returns
Director Tim Burton
Producer(s) Jon Peters
Peter Guber
Denise Di Novi
Tim Burton
Screenwriter(s) Sam Hamm
Warren Skaaren
Wesley Strick
Story by Sam Hamm Daniel Waters
Cinematographer Roger Pratt Stefan Czapsky
Composer Danny Elfman
Editor(s) Ray Lovejoy Chris Lebenzon
Batman portrayer Michael Keaton

Joel Schumacher series

Occupation Films
Batman Forever
Batman & Robin
Director Joel Schumacher
Producer(s) Tim Burton
Peter MacGregor-Scott
Peter MacGregor-Scott
Screenwriter(s) Akiva Goldsman Akiva Goldsman
Story by Lee Batchler
Janet Scott Batchler
Cinematographer Stefan Czapsky Stephen Goldblatt
Composer Elliot Goldenthal
Editor(s) Dennis Virkler Dennis Virkler
Mark Stevens
Batman portrayer Val Kilmer George Clooney

The Dark Knight Trilogy

Occupation Films
Batman Begins
The Dark Knight
The Dark Knight Rises
Director Christopher Nolan
Producers Charles Roven
Emma Thomas
Larry Franco
Emma Thomas
Charles Roven
Christopher Nolan
Screenwriter(s) Christopher Nolan
David S. Goyer
Jonathan Nolan
Christopher Nolan
Story by David S. Goyer Christopher Nolan
David S. Goyer
Composer(s) Hans Zimmer
James Newton Howard
Hans Zimmer
Cinematographer Wally Pfister
Editor(s) Lee Smith
Batman portrayer Christian Bale

DC Extended Universe and DC Black

Occupation DCEU Films DC Black Films
Batman v Superman:
Dawn of Justice

Suicide Squad
Justice League
Zack Snyder's
Justice League

The Flash
Director Zack Snyder David Ayer Zack Snyder (Original)
Joss Whedon (Reshoots)
Zack Snyder Andrés Muschietti Todd Phillips
Producers Charles Roven
Deborah Snyder
Charles Roven
Richard Suckle
Charles Roven
Deborah Snyder
Jon Berg
Geoff Johns
Charles Roven
Deborah Snyder
Michael Disco

Barbara Muschietti

Todd Phillips
Bradley Cooper
Emma Tillinger Koskoff
Screenwriter(s) Chris Terrio
David S. Goyer
David Ayer Chris Terrio
Joss Whedon
Chris Terrio Christina Hodson Todd Phillips
Scott Silver
Story by Chris Terrio and Zack Snyder
Composer(s) Hans Zimmer
Junkie XL
Steven Price Danny Elfman Junkie XL Benjamin Wallfisch [3] Hildur Guðnadóttir
Cinematographer Larry Fong Roman Vasyanov Fabian Wagner TBA Lawrence Sher
Editor(s) David Brenner John Gilroy David Brenner
Richard Pearson
Martin Walsh
David Brenner TBA Jeff Groth
Batman portrayer Ben Affleck Ben Affleck & Michael Keaton Dante Pereira-Olson


Featuring Batman


Web series




Batman (TV series)

Main articles: Batman (TV series) and Legends of the Superheroes

The series premiered January 12, 1966 on ABC and ended March 14, 1968 starring Adam West as Bruce Wayne / Batman and Burt Ward as Dick Grayson / Robin. West and Ward later reprise their roles in Legends of the Superheroes.


Main article: Gotham (TV series)

The series premiered September 22, 2014 on FOX and ended April 25, 2019 starring David Mazouz as a young Bruce Wayne. The series depicts young Bruce Wayne following the death of his parents. Also Bruce is 12 years old when his parents die, unlike his traditional age being 7 or 8 years old. When the series reached its finale, stunt performer Mikhail Mudrik served as the physical actor for Wayne as Mazouz still wasn't 6 foot 4, the showrunners height preference for their Batman [7] Mazouz was able wear the Batsuit in the final shot with the help of forced perspective. He also lent his voice to all Batman speaking scenes in the last episode.


Main article: Titans (2018 TV series)

Batman is mentioned several times in the series before appearing in the first season finale in a dream sequence created by Trigon. Alain Moussi and Maxim Savarias portray stunt doubles in that appearance. Batman's alter ego Bruce makes his full appearance in the second season, portrayed by Iain Glen.


Main article: Batwoman (TV series)

Bruce Wayne appears briefly on a magazine cover in The CW's Batwoman season one finale, portrayed by Warren Christie. The character Thomas Elliot masquerades as Wayne in the opening episode of season two before being discovered and forcibly unmasked by Ryan Wilder. In the episode "Armed and Dangerous", a subconscious manifestation of Bruce Wayne appeared before Luke Fox after he was shot by Russell Tavaroff in the previous episode which landed Luke in a coma. Bruce gave Luke the choice of living or dying.

Abandoned projects

Main article: Bruce Wayne (TV series)


Super Friends

DC Animated Universe



Beginning in March 1945, Batman and Robin made regular appearances on the radio drama The Adventures of Superman on the Mutual Broadcasting System, including solo stories when series star, Bud Collyer had time off. Batman was voiced by Matt Crowley, Stacy Harris and Gary Merrill, with Ronald Liss as Robin.

Efforts were later made to launch a Batman radio series in 1943 and again in 1950, but neither came to fruition.

In 1989, an original radio drama, Batman: The Lazarus Syndrome, was produced by Dirk Maggs for BBC Radio 4. Bob Sessions was the voice of Batman.

A second Maggs production aired on BBC Radio 1 in 1994, this time adapting the comic book storyline Batman: Knightfall. It was adapted, produced and directed by Maggs—with music composed by Mark Russell—who had also made Superman: Doomsday & Beyond on BBC Radio 5. This show, however was not commissioned of its own, but rather to be three-minute episodes on the Mark Goodier Show. This meant it was written with a sense of immediacy; having to make an instant effect and each three-minute segment contains a major plot development or sound effect stunt and ends on a cliffhanger. DC acknowledged the effort in an issue Shadow of The Bat by having villains jump past a sign reading "Dirk Maggs Radio". Michael Gough reprised the role of Alfred Pennyworth from the Burton/Schumacher film series.


Main article: Batman (comic strip)

From 1943 to 1946, Batman and Robin appeared in a syndicated daily newspaper comic strip produced by the McClure Syndicate. Other versions appeared in 1953, 1966, and 1989. The original run is collected in the book Batman: The Dailies. One more comic strip series ran briefly after the success of the 1989 film.


Batman appears in a novel by cyberpunk/horror novelist John Shirley, titled Batman: Dead White from Del Rey. Many other novels and short story collections featuring Batman have been published over the years, including novelizations of each of the recent movies (such as Batman and The Dark Knight Rises) and many of the comic book arcs.

There are also several more scholarly works, aimed at either Batman's history or art, such as Les Daniels' Batman: The Complete History, Will Brooker's Batman Unmasked: Analysing a Cultural Icon and compilations such as Batman: Cover to Cover: The Greatest Comic Book Covers of the Dark Knight. In 2004, The Batman Handbook: The Ultimate Training Manual, written by Scott Beatty was published by Quirk Books (ISBN 1-59474-023-2). Written in the same style as The Worst-Case Scenario Survival Handbook series, the book explained the basics on how to be Batman. Amongst the skills included in the book are "How to Train a Sidekick", "How to Execute a Backflip", "How to Throw a Grappling Hook", and "How to Survive a Poison Gas Attack". Finally, there are of course countless sticker, coloring, activity, and other children's books featuring the Dark Knight.[12]

Foreign comics

Novelty singles

Several musical singles featuring cast members of the television show singing in-character were released in 1966: Burgess Meredith as the Penguin in "The Capture" and "The Escape", Frank Gorshin as the Riddler in "The Riddler", and Adam West as Batman in "Miranda". In 1976 West performed a pair of novelty songs, "The Story of Batman" and "Batman and Robin", for Target Records. All six of these recordings (sans the b-sides to Gorshin and West's singles) were later included on the 1997 compilation, Batmania: Songs Inspired by Batman TV Series.

In 1966, Burt Ward also recorded a limited "disc jokey only" release with Frank Zappa called "Boy Wonder, I Love You".

Also in 1966, British novelty group The Scaffold produced a single called "Goodbat Nightman" (lyrics by Roger McGough, who "has written several poems" about Batman and Robin).[13]

Audio drama

Following the popularity of the Adam West television series, a pair of LPs were released in 1966 on MGM's "Leo the Lion" label. Each contained three dramatizations, including stories adapted from Batman comic books:

Throughout the 1970s Batman was the subject of a number of Power Records Book-and-record sets, as well as records unaccompanied by books:[14]

45 rpm book and record sets:

7" 3313 rpm records no comic:

3313 rpm 12 book and record sets:

The 1980 mini-series, The Untold Legend of the Batman was available in a special "MPI Audio Edition." Each of the three issues were accompanied by an audio cassette containing a performance of the text of the issue, with musical cues.

As part of its DC Superheroes collection, in 1982 Fisher-Price released Batman: The Case of the Laughing Sphinx, an audio cassette accompanied by a hard back illustrated book.

In 2007, the audiobook publisher GraphicAudio licensed DC Comics properties to adapt as audiodramas. They have produced three adaptations of Batman novels: Batman: Dead White by John Shirley, Batman: Inferno by Alex Irvine, and Alan Grant's Batman: The Stone King. Batman also appears as a supporting cast member in the GraphicAudio's adaptations of Crisis on Infinite Earths, Infinite Crisis and JLA: Exterminators.

Video games

Main article: List of Batman video games

Video games featuring Batman include:

Lego: Batman

Batman Arkham

Other DC Games


LittleBigPlanet 2 (2011) for PlayStation 3 and LittleBigPlanet PS Vita (2012) for PlayStation Vita are puzzle-platform games with several DC characters, including Batman (voiced by Gary Martin).

Other video games

Musical theatre

While a parody of a Batman musical was featured in one of the most recent series' comics, in 2002, Jim Steinman, David Ives, and Tim Burton had worked on a theatre production called Batman: The Musical although it was ultimately cancelled. Steinman has revealed five songs from the musical. The first is the opening theme for "Gotham City" and the entry of Batman with his tortured solo "The Graveyard Shift"; followed by "The Joker's Song (Where Does He Get All Those Wonderful Toys?)", "The Catwoman's Song (I Need All The Love I Can Get)", "We're Still The Children We Once Were" (the climactic sequence) and "In The Land Of The Pig The Butcher Is King", sung by the corrupt blood-suckers ruling Gotham, covered on the Meat Loaf album Bat Out of Hell III: The Monster Is Loose. These songs can be heard at the Batman: The Musical memorial site, Dark Knight of the Soul.

A Batman musical is also parodied in the animated series Batman Beyond. The episode "Out of the Past", (first aired October 21, 2000) opens with Bruce Wayne and Terry McGinnis attending a performance of (a fictional) Batman: The Musical, featuring caricatures of prominent members of the Rogues Gallery (the Joker, the Penguin, Two-Face, Catwoman, Poison Ivy, and Harley Quinn). Series creator Paul Dini, who wrote the episode in question, also wrote a song for the fictitious musical entitled Superstitious and Cowardly Lot.

An episode of the sketch comedy show MADtv also featured a Batman: The Musical parody called Batman V: Out of the Cave which starred Tommy Tune as Batman, and Ben Vereen as Robin.

A live stage show was also created, called Batman Live: World Tour. The show is a unique fusion of live action theatre, magic, stunts, digital projection and music from an 85-piece orchestra and choir. The tour began at Manchester, UK in Summer 2011 and visited arenas throughout the UK and Europe before arriving in North America in Summer 2012.

In 2012, the Internet theatre troupe StarKid Productions created a musical titled Holy Musical B@man!, which went on YouTube on April 13. It was performed in Chicago from March 16–25, and because of copyright laws, tickets were free. Batman is portrayed by Joseph (Joe) Walker.


The album Knightfall by multinational Swedish band Silent Images, is based on the Batman: Knightfall story arc, with Batman serving as a central character, the "Nightly Priest". The album explores the underlying sociopolitical themes in the Batman universe, and his struggle against "The Venomous One", which is the album's interpretation of Bane.[21][22][23]

Fine arts

Starting with the Pop Art period, and on a continuing basis, since the 1960s, the character of Batman has been "appropriated" by multiple visual artists and incorporated into contemporary artwork, most notably by Andy Warhol, Roy Lichtenstein, Mel Ramos, Dulce Pinzon, Mr. Brainwash, Raymond Pettibon, Peter Saul, and others.[24][25][26][27][28][29][30]

Games, action figures, and other toys

Main article: Batman action figures

Hundreds of Batman action figures, die-cast models, and other items have been released. Many companies have acquired the rights to make Batman merchandise, including:

Batman has appeared as a HeroClix figure, along with other Batman characters, in the following HeroClix sets:

For April 2006, Lego introduced a Batman line which also includes characters such as the Joker and Two-Face, at American International Toy Fair.

Postage stamps

In 2006, the United States Postal Service (USPS) issued a DC Comics Superheroes pane of 20 stamps which included a stamp of Batman.[31]

To celebrate the 75th anniversary of Batman, USPS released a limited edition stamp series on October 9, 2014.[32] Four versions of the superhero were depicted from the four eras of comic book history: Golden, Silver, Bronze and Modern. In addition, it included four versions of the Bat-Signal.

Theme park attractions

Main article: Batman amusement rides and stunt shows

The 61 metres (200 ft)-tall Batwing Spaceshot tower in the Gold Coast, Australia
The 61 metres (200 ft)-tall Batwing Spaceshot tower in the Gold Coast, Australia

Several Six Flags theme parks, formerly owned by Warner Bros., opened live-action "Batman Stunt Shows" as the movies increased in popularity. The now closed Six Flags Astroworld in Houston, Texas was home to a standing roller coaster known as Batman: The Escape. Six Flags Over Texas in Arlington, Texas is home to two roller coasters called Mr. Freeze, and Batman: The Ride. Six Flags México in Mexico City, Mexico has also a looping, suspended roller coaster named Batman: The Ride (Six Flags St. Louis has the same ride, as does Six Flags Great America in Gurnee, Illinois) as well as twin roller coasters named Batman and Robin: The Chiller. On the latter attraction, riders may ride on either the Batman or Robin versions of the coaster. But unfortunately in the 2007 off-season, the ride was removed after a long history of technical difficulties and occasionally breaking down. Six Flags Over Georgia contains a Gotham City area that contains the same Batman: The Ride and also features a looping coaster called The Mindbender that was adapted to fit the color tone of the Riddler after Batman Forever came out to fit the Gotham City section of the park it shares with Batman: The Ride. Six Flags Magic Mountain in Valencia, California has two Batman-themed coasters, the suspended coaster Batman: The Ride, and The Riddler's Revenge, a stand-up type roller coaster. This Six Flags park also features an entire themed area called "Gotham City" complete with architecture to match that of the fictional Gotham City. Warner Bros. Movie World in the Gold Coast, Australia, also has two Batman-themed rides. Batman Adventure – The Ride, revamped in 2001, is a motion simulator style simulator ride while Batwing Spaceshot is a vertical free-fall ride.

In 2008, The Dark Knight Coaster opened in Six Flags Great Adventure and Six Flags Great America. Based on The Dark Knight film, they are Wild Mouse roller coasters, indoors, heavily themed, and give riders a feeling that they are being stalked by the Joker. Six Flags New England was originally going to receive this roller coaster; however, due to problems with building permits, the park scratched the project and then sent the coaster to Six Flags México.

See also


  1. ^ Davis, Brandon (October 23, 2018). "'Joker': Dante Pereira-Olson Cast as Young Bruce Wayne". Retrieved October 23, 2018.
  2. ^ Couch, Aaron (October 23, 2018). "Joker' Finds Its Young Bruce Wayne and Alfred Pennyworth". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved October 23, 2018.
  3. ^ "The Flash Movie Enlists Composer Benjamin Wallfisch". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved April 19, 2021.
  4. ^ "Court of Owls will fly in 'Batman vs. Robin'". USA Today. Retrieved October 21, 2018.
  5. ^ Ashcraft, Brian (December 1, 2017). "First Look At The Batman Ninja Anime". Kotaku. Retrieved October 5, 2019.
  6. ^ "サイト名". (in Japanese). Retrieved April 13, 2018.
  7. ^ "David Mazouz Will Become Batman Before Gotham Ends, But He Won't be the One in the Batsuit". io9. February 6, 2019. Retrieved May 5, 2019.
  8. ^ Fitzpatrick, Kevin (July 23, 2010). "Comic-Con 2010: Young Justice Goes Under Cover". UGO Networks. Archived from the original on July 26, 2010. Retrieved July 23, 2010.
  9. ^ Harvey, James (October 4, 2011). ""Beware The Batman" CGI Animated Series Coming For 2013, "DC Nation" Updates". Archived from the original on January 11, 2012. Retrieved October 5, 2011.
  10. ^ "Cartoon Network announces Justice League Action". Entertainment Weekly's
  11. ^ Hibberd, James; Hibberd, James (May 19, 2021). "Batman Animated Series from J.J. Abrams and Matt Reeves Coming to HBO Max". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved May 19, 2021.
  12. ^ "Fansite For Batman Comics, Toys, Figures, News and more!". Batman YTB. June 23, 2010. Retrieved June 30, 2010.
  13. ^ Norton Anthology of Modern Poetry, page 1359; edited by Richard Ellman and Robert O'Clair; published 1973 by W.W. Norton and co.
  14. ^ "The Power Records Pages • Discography". September 30, 2006. Retrieved June 30, 2010.
  15. ^ Knight, Gareth (June 17, 2002). "A500 Batman Bundle". Retrieved June 30, 2010.
  16. ^ Game Informer features a two-page gallery of the many heroes and villains who appear in the game with a picture for each character and a descriptive paragraph. See "LEGO Batman: Character Gallery", Game Informer 186 (October 2008): 92.
  17. ^ Moriarty, Colin (March 4, 2014). "The New Batman Game is Batman: Arkham Knight". IGN. Archived from the original on March 4, 2014. Retrieved March 4, 2014.
  18. ^ Dyer, Mitch (March 4, 2014). "Arkham Knight Has No Multiplayer, Kevin Conroy Returns as Batman". IGN. Archived from the original on March 4, 2014. Retrieved March 4, 2014.
  19. ^ "News: Batman in new Mortal Kombat - fatalities OUT". April 18, 2008. Retrieved June 30, 2010.
  20. ^ "Justice League VR: The Complete Experience on Steam -". December 5, 2017. Retrieved April 25, 2021.
  21. ^ "SILENT IMAGES: Reveal cover, title and tracklist". Metal Temple. February 24, 2016. Retrieved May 20, 2016.
  22. ^ Cavier, Jaro (May 2016). ""Brutal, Melodico y Eclectico" - Interview with Silent Images". Metal Hammer Spain, No 342, Pg 34-35. Retrieved May 12, 2016.
  23. ^ Muerte, Hermanas (April 10, 2016). "Interview with Silent Images (Sweden)". Metal Girls In Action. Archived from the original on June 23, 2016. Retrieved May 17, 2016.
  24. ^ Martin, Deborah (June 19, 2019). "Crystal Bridges exhibit 'Men of Steel, Women of Wonder' lands in San Antonio". Retrieved July 14, 2020.
  25. ^ "Men of Steel, Women of Wonder Debuts at San Antonio Museum of Art". San Antonio Magazine. June 20, 2019. Retrieved July 14, 2020.
  26. ^ Gural, Natasha. "Quickly To The Whitney, And Back Again To San Francisco, Chicago For Andy Warhol Beyond Superstardom". Forbes. Retrieved July 14, 2020.
  27. ^ Sante, Luc (May 3, 2020). "Andy Warhol, Superstar". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 14, 2020.
  28. ^ Genzlinger, Neil (October 31, 2018). "Mel Ramos, Painter of Female Nudes and Comic Heroes, Dies at 83". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 14, 2020.
  29. ^ Jesus, Carlos Suarez De (January 31, 2008). "Immigrants Are Superheroes". Miami New Times. Retrieved July 14, 2020.
  30. ^ "Mr. Brainwash will convert a Richard Meier-designed building into a Beverly Hills art museum". The Architect’s Newspaper. February 18, 2020. Retrieved July 14, 2020.
  31. ^ "Batman stamp, 2006". Smithsonian. Retrieved December 24, 2014.
  32. ^ "Exclusive! Batman 75 Stamp Set Collection Unveiled". DC Comics. September 29, 2014. Retrieved December 24, 2014.