Tim Drake
File:Robin v2 150 art.jpg
Art by Patrick Gleason and Prentis Rollins
Publication information
PublisherDC Comics
First appearanceAs Tim Drake
Batman #436 (August 1989)[1]
As Robin
Batman #442
(December 1989)[2]
As Red Robin
Red Robin #1
(August 2009)[3]
As Batman
Teen Titans (vol. 3) #17
(December 2004)[4]
Created byMarv Wolfman (writer)
Pat Broderick (artist)
In-story information
Full nameTimothy Jackson Drake-Wayne[5]
Team affiliationsBatman Family
Teen Titans
Young Justice
Wayne Enterprises
Batman Inc.
Outsiders
PartnershipsBatman
Nightwing
Oracle
Stephanie Brown
Superboy (Conner Kent)
Notable aliasesRobin, Red Robin, The Urban Legend, Tim Wayne, Alvin Draper, Mister Sarcastic, Batman, Joker Junior, Little J, Todd Richards, Gary Glanz, Caroline Hill, Mystery Danger, The Poker
Abilities
  • Highly skilled martial artist and hand-to-hand combatant
  • Master detective
  • Utilizes high-tech equipment and weapons
  • Genius-level-intellect

Timothy Jackson "Tim" Drake[3][6] (also known as Tim Wayne) is a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics, commonly in association with Batman.

The character was created by Marv Wolfman and Pat Broderick, and first appeared in Batman #436 (Aug. 1989) as the third character to take on the Robin identity until 2009. Following the events in Batman: Battle for the Cowl, he has taken up the identity of Red Robin.

The character has been featured in various other formats, such as The New Batman Adventures and Young Justice: Invasion. In 2011, Tim Drake was ranked 32nd in IGN's Top 100 Comic Book Heroes.

Publication history

Tim Drake was named after Tim Burton, director of the then-upcoming 1989 film, and introduced in 1989's Batman: Year Three and his origin detailed in Batman: A Lonely Place of Dying,[7] in which he first introduced himself to Dick Grayson and impressed the former Robin with his skills. This led to Grayson and later Alfred Pennyworth, Bruce Wayne's butler, to support Tim's request to be Batman's new partner. Not wanting to make the same mistake as he did with Jason Todd, Batman had Tim endure an intensive period of training that was never given to his predecessors. Eventually Tim proves his capability and becomes Robin. Batman editor Dennis O'Neil hoped that Grayson's approval of Drake would ease reader acceptance of him. Evidently, this approach was successful with the character being so accepted by readers that, after three successful miniseries, the character had his own 183-issue series from 1993 through 2009.[8][9] Mike Mullins on Newsarama has stated:

Throughout [the entire Robin series], the character of Robin has been captured consistently, showing him to step up to greater and greater challenges. Robin is a character who shows initiative and is driven to do what he views as right. He knows he is living up to a legacy left by Dick Grayson and strives to not disappoint Bruce Wayne, Batman. Tim is a more natural detective than previous Robins and is talented with computers, which allows him to stand in his own unique spotlight. Unlike his predecessors, Tim is not the most proficient combatant and has had to really work on his fighting technique, taking up the bo staff to give him an edge that Batman doesn’t need. Tim almost always seeks to analyze a problem and to outthink his opponent but has shown the ability to win a fight when necessary.[10]

As Robin, the character has also been featured prominently in the Young Justice and 2003 Teen Titans series. As of June 2009, he took on the new identity of Red Robin, starring in yet another series by the same name.

Fictional character biography

File:Robin0.JPG
Tim Drake's first Robin costume, designed by Neal Adams. Cover of Robin vol. 2, 0 (Oct, 1994) Art by Tom Grummett and Ray Kryssing.

Introduction

Tim Drake is the son of Jack Drake and Janet Drake, coming from the same social class as Bruce Wayne.[11] When he was a young child, he visited the circus for the first time with his parents. The Drakes asked the Flying Graysons for a photo together, resulting in a momentary bond between Tim and Dick Grayson as they met for the first time.[12]

After reaching the age of nine, Drake deduces the identities of Batman and Robin as Bruce Wayne and Dick Grayson after witnessing a gymnastic move by Robin that Grayson displayed while performing with the Flying Graysons. Inspired by the heroes, Tim trains himself in martial arts, acrobatic, detective works, in addition excel in scholastic to better himself in both physically and intellectually. When Tim reaches the age of thirteen, he notes that Batman has grown reckless and violent following the second Robin (Jason Todd) being murdered by the Joker, Drake decided to intervene and Batman eventually enlisted him as the third Robin after his mother's death and his father's paralysis.

Robin (1989–2009)

File:Robin (Tim Drake) (Batman 465 1991).jpg
Portion of the cover of Batman vol. 1 #465 (July, 1991) based on the cover to Batman #9 by Jack Burnley. Art by Norm Breyfogle.

Before joining Batman as the third Robin, Tim Drake was given a modern redesign of the Robin costume and sent to train abroad with numerous masters, refining his already skilled martial arts.[13] When Bruce Wayne retires after Knightfall, Robin goes solo to defend Gotham. Robin would eventually go on to co-star with other teenaged superheroes in Young Justice and Teen Titans. He also made guest appearances in other DC comic books such as Nightwing and Azrael.

Following the deaths of his father in Identity Crisis (2004), his best friend Superboy (Kon-El) in Infinite Crisis (2005–2006), and the presumed death of his girlfriend Stephanie Brown in Batman: War Games (2004–2005), Drake was relocated to Blüdhaven, the city where Nightwing fights crime, for a period of time in order to escape the "ghosts" of Gotham City and to stay close to his stepmother Dana Winters who was admitted into a Blüdhaven clinic after going into psychological shock over Jack Drake's murder at the hands of Captain Boomerang.[14][15] Drake was then given another redesign of the Robin costume in the colors of Superboy's costume[16] and was formally adopted by Bruce as his son.[11][17]

Once Dick takes over the role of Batman after Bruce's apparent death in Batman R.I.P. and Final Crisis, Dick fires Tim from the Robin mantel and gives it to Damian Wayne. Tim, still believing that his mentor is still alive, assumes the identity of Red Robin and leaves Gotham City to go on a worldwide search for Wayne.[3][18][19]

Red Robin (2009–2011)

File:Red Robin Drake.jpg
Tim Drake-Wayne as Red Robin. Cover of Red Robin #6. Art by Marcus To.

Red Robin, which was launched in late 2009, depicted Tim Drake's search to find evidence that Bruce Wayne was still alive after cutting himself off from the rest of the Bat Family. He was approached by Ra's al Ghul's assassins who were also interested in finding out what happened to Batman. At the same time, Tamara "Tam" Fox, Lucius Fox's daughter, has been sent to find Tim Drake-Wayne to bring him back to Gotham. Tim goes to Iraq and manages to discover definitive proof that Bruce was alive and lost in time, but was ambushed by an assassin from the Council of Spiders. He manages to drive himself and Pru[clarification needed] to Tam's hotel room, and they are promptly abducted by the League of Assassins. Although initially reluctant, he entered into an alliance with Ra's before nearly bleeding to death due to their encounter with the Council of Spiders. He was put in charge of the League of Assassins by Ra's and used the time to simultaneously plan how to stop the Council of Spiders and destroy the League of Assassins. After failing to foil all but one of the Council's assassination attempts, Tim realizes that the Council will be attacking the League's base, and realizes that he left Tam in danger at the base. Rushing back to base, he simultaneously manages to delay the Council of Spiders, blow up the League's base, and escape with Tam.

After crippling Ra's' League of Assassins, Drake returns to Gotham City to overthrow Ra's plans to use Hush (surgically altered to resemble Bruce Wayne) to gain control of the Wayne family resources by becoming the CEO and controlling shareholder of Wayne Enterprises in accordance to Bruce's will. Ra's plans to destroy all that Batman held dear, and begins directing his assassins to target all of the Batman's associates. Realizing that these attacks are a smokescreen and that the real target is coercing Hush to sign away Wayne Enterprises, Red Robin decides to confront Ra's head on. He calls upon all of his friends to protect the various targets. He distracts Ra's from stopping Lucius Fox from making Drake the controlling shareholder of Wayne Enterprises. Realizing that Red Robin has bested him, Ra's commends him, calls him 'detective' and launches Tim out of the window. Tim is happy that he was able to achieve victory without any compromises, and is saved from falling by Dick Grayson (as Batman). Drake has since moved back to Gotham City and reestablished ties with his family and friends. After Bruce Wayne's return, Tim begins to aid his plans for expanding their mission globally with Batman, Inc.[20] Tim is eventually appointed as the head of the newest incarnation of the Outsiders that now serve as Batman Inc.'s black-ops wing.[21] Red Robin eventually rejoins the Teen Titans and takes over leadership from Wonder Girl. He remains as the team's leader during their climactic battle against Superboy-Prime and the new Legion of Doom.[22]

Following an adventure with Blackbat where he faces Ra's al Ghul's sister,[23] Tim stalks and attempts to kill a revived Captain Boomerang during the Brightest Day. Though Tim ultimately stops himself from killing Boomerang, he is chastised by Batman for his actions.[24]

The New 52 (2011–2016)

File:RRDCNu.jpg
The post-Flashpoint Red Robin outfit. Art by Brett Booth.

As part of the New 52, Tim Drake (now a pseudonym) is seen in Teen Titans #1 (September 2011) as Red Robin, now sporting a new costume designed by Brett Booth.[25] According to writer Scott Lobdell, many elements of Drake's history will remain canon.[26] At the start of the series, Tim has been in a state of semi-retirement after his falling out with Batman, and uses his computer skills to fight crime over the internet in a manner similar to Oracle. He is also shown monitoring various teenaged superheroes, such as Static, Miss Martian, Solstice and Kid Flash. After being attacked by agents from the shadowy organization N.O.W.H.E.R.E., Tim dons a new Red Robin suit and returns to the world of crime fighting.[27]

As Red Robin, Tim teams up with the mysterious and belligerent powerhouse thief known as Wonder Girl and the hyperactive speedster calling himself Kid Flash to stand a chance against his many enemies. This Teen Titans roster seems to have no ties to the previous Titans.

Teen Titans #0 revealed Tim Drake's new origin, showing a large departure from his original origin, removing his connections to Dick Grayson's origin story. In the New 52, Tim is a talented athlete and computer genius who comes close to discovering the Batman's identity but never totally figures it out. When Tim finds the Batman and gets rejected for the role of sidekick, he decides to bring the Batman to him, by hacking the Penguin's bank account and donating millions of dollars. The Penguin's goons come after Tim and his family, but the Batman saves them. Tim's parents go into witness protection, but they believe Tim deserves better and ask Bruce to take care of him for them. Bruce adopts Tim, the Witness Protection Program renames him "Tim Drake," and he takes on the identity of "Red Robin", rather than the identity of "Robin", out of respect to Jason Todd, but this contradicts several established issues where he is mentioned as having been Robin.

In recent issues he is shown to be a founding member of the Teen Titans as well as their leader. He shows feelings for Wonder Girl.

Tim was unwilling to meet with rest of the Bat-Family at the Batcave after he was infected with the Joker's new compound "HA". He was present when Damian was killed by The Heretic and admitted to Bruce that even though he had a dysfunctional relationship with Damian that he did grieve for him. He was also at the final battle between Batman and The Heretic when Talia killed her son's clone and blew up Wayne Tower.

Tim was also part of the Bat-Family's assembled team which went to Apokolips to retrieve Damian's body. As their mission focused on retrieving Robin, Tim, Jason, and Barbara wore costumes which resembled Damian's colors and each wore a Robin symbol. Following the completion of their mission and the revival of Damian he handed him the Robin symbol on his suit to welcome Damian back to life and to the role of Robin.

File:Red Robin (2016).jpg
Tim Drake's new Red Robin costume, during the DC Rebirth events. Art by Eber Ferreira.

In the pre-Convergence timeline of Futures End, Refuges from Earth-2 are given a signal from Brother Eye, which allow them into the Earth-0 Universe, but start a war when Darkseid follows them, leading to the deaths of the teen titans, except for Drake. Tim abandons his Red Robin mantle and becomes a bartender until an attack by Braniac, where changes to the timeline are made. Brainiac is captured, and Terry McGinnis dies at the hands of Brother Eye's Batman-Joker hybrid. Tim dons the Batman Beyond suit and goes back in time and prevents Brother Eye from sending the signal to Earth-2, creating a new future where there is less destruction, and the events of Convergence and everything afterwords take place. Tim is launched into the new future, 35 years later, where he becomes the new Batman and destroys a weakened Brother Eye.

DC Rebirth (2016–present)

In Rebirth, Tim Drake, still going with the Red Robin alias, is now a part of Batman and Batwoman's team in Detective Comics with Orphan, Spoiler, and Clayface. He gains a new and third overall Red Robin suit which is very similar to his first Robin suit except with two "R"s on his logo to show that he is no longer Robin and now Red Robin. Tim, Orphan, Spoiler, and Clayface are being trained as a group by Batman and Batwoman, who are preparing them for the upcoming enemies known as the Colonists.

Skills and abilities

Combat skills

Prior to becoming Robin, Tim Drake has trained himself in martial arts and acrobatic, and has been further taught by Batman and other instructors across the world, including Lady Shiva after assuming the role. He has knowledge in several martial arts such as ninjutsu, karate, judo, jujutsu, aikido, Wing Chun, Shaolin Kung Fu, Brazilian jiu-jitsu, and Jeet Kune Do. His favorite combat defense is bojutsu (taught in ninjutsu), and he has beaten Lady Shiva in sparring and is classed the best staff fighter who ever lived. Tim was able to fend off several notorious assassins from the Council of Spiders at once while protecting Tam Fox and also in the end game of his plan to destroy several League of Assassins bases; earning commendation from Ra's al Ghul himself who was watching the fight from afar.[28] His combat style is a reflection of everything he learned from the masters, Bruce, and his own incredible intelligence deducing weak points in opponents and targeting them with a variety of combat tactics. He is also inoculated against several toxins the Bat-family has encountered, including Joker Venom, Fear Toxin, and some of Poison Ivy's pheromones.

Intellectual, deductive, and leadership skills

At the age of about nine years old, Tim Drake was able to deduce Robin's secret identity as Dick Grayson when Robin performed a quadruple somersault, in which Grayson was only one of the three people who could perform such a flip. This deduction also allowed Drake to deduce that Grayson's guardian Bruce Wayne was Batman.[12] Drake's intellect has allowed him to deduce a majority of other heroes' identities including Flash and Superman. In addition, after foiling Ra's al Ghul's master plan to assassinate everyone Bruce Wayne cared about and ruining the Wayne Family fortune, Ra's has addressed Tim as "Detective", a title the villain once only reserved for Bruce Wayne.[29] His intellect has enabled him to excel in computer science and a grasp of assorted scientific techniques, including biology, engineering, and genetics, which he has been shown to use in his attempts at re-cloning Superboy.[30] Tim also speaks several languages beyond his native English, including Cantonese,[31] Russian,[32] Spanish[3] and German.[33]

Drake, like Dick Grayson, has served as leader to the Teen Titans, as well as Young Justice, and was even placed in charge of the rescue efforts of Blüdhaven by Superman, following the attack made by Deathstroke and his fellow villains.

Costumes

Tim Drake as Robin in his first costume; design and art by Neal Adams.

Tim Drake's original costume was different from that of his predecessors to give him a measure of increased protection, which included an armored tunic, a cape colored black on the outside and yellow on the inside, and green leggings. Other details include an armored gorget, jika-tabi style boots, an emergency "R" shuriken on his chest in addition to the traditional batarangs, and a collapsible bo staff as the character's primary weapon. Following Infinite Crisis, his costume was modified to favor a black and red color scheme and included long sleeves.

The Red Robin costume consists of a long-sleeved red tunic, along with black boots, tights, gloves, cape and cowl. It also includes a black-and-gold utility belt that carries Drake's weaponry such as his bo staff and throwing discs. After Drake's confrontation with Ra's al Ghul in Red Robin #12, the costume was slightly altered with spiked gauntlets, a cropped tunic, and a new utility belt.

After the 2011 relaunch, the full cowl is replaced with a mask that covers his eyes, similar to his two Robin costume designs. The rest of the costume has also been altered considerably, as it is now a single piece black and red costume, adorned with assorted belts on his waist and legs. His chest harness meanwhile is attached to a set of rocket powered wings, designed by Virgil Hawkins a.k.a. Static, that allow Red Robin the ability of flight. He continues to use his bo-staff, and assorted other gadgets.

In the 2016 Rebirth line, Tim's latest Red Robin costume serves as a homage to his first Robin costume. It is primarily red and green with a red top and green pants. He also sports green gauntlets and boots. The top's sleeves end under shoulders creating a t-shirt appearance. Tim also has new cape that's black on the outside and yellow on the inside similar to the Robin cape. He also has a yellow utility belt. The logo on the corner of his chest armor has two R's on top of each other and the overall design is similar to the Robin logo. The mask is similar to his New 52 domino mask except green. Tim still continues to use his bo-staff.

Alternate versions

Further information: Alternate versions of Robin

Batman Beyond

Set after the events of Batman Beyond: Return of the Joker, Tim Drake serves as a supporting character in the ongoing Batman Beyond comic book series. It is suggested that, after a series of examinations, he is freed from the Joker's control, although the experience has left him with doubts and remain struggling to keep his sanity intact. His wife is revealed to have been aware of her husband's heroic and tortured past, and implied to have met Tim and his former mentor at some point before he retires as Robin.

Bruce has offered Tim a job in his company, which he accepted, after he merged it with Lucius Fox Jr.'s company Foxteca and renamed the company Wayne Incorporated, on the condition that Tim will not get himself involved with the superheroic activities Bruce, Terry or the JLU and Bruce would pay for his children's college tuition.[34]

"Titans Tomorrow"

Main article: Titans Tomorrow

In the "Titans Tomorrow" story arc during writer Geoff Johns' run on Teen Titans, Robin and the rest of the team encounter future versions of themselves from a time after all of their mentors have been killed. As a brutal new Batman, Tim Drake personally hunted down every member of his mentor's Rogues Gallery, turning Arkham Asylum into a cemetery filled with the graves of the original Batman's enemies, whom Tim killed using the same pistol that Joe Chill used to murder Thomas and Martha Wayne when Bruce was a child. Tim had difficulty accepting that he could ever adopt such brutal methods as the direct successor to Batman, who always maintained a strict policy against murder. In a final battle culminating in both present and future Titans colliding, the battle ends in a stalemate. Using a Cosmic Treadmill in the adult Tim's Batcave, Robin and his team return home to contemplate the future they've seen.[4]

Injustice: Gods Among Us

In this reality based off the video game of the same name, Tim Drake was a new member of the Teen Titans as Red Robin at the time the Joker's nuclear explosion went off in Metropolis. The Titans tracked down Superboy to the Fortress of Solitude where he attempted to stop Superman. Tim tries lifting the Phantom Zone projector, but can't because Superman placed a safety cap that weighs a hundred tons. When Superboy is mortally wounded, Tim and the other Titans are sent by Superman to the Phantom Zone.

The New 52: Futures End and Batman Beyond

An older Tim Drake as Batman on the cover of Batman Beyond vol. 6 #1 (June 2015). Art by Bernard Chang.

In the Futures End series, an older Tim Drake takes the role of Batman after Terry McGinnis dies. In 2015 Drake stars in the new Batman Beyond series. In the series, Tim Drake faked his death during the war between Earth Prime and Earth-2 and became a bar owner by the name of Cal Corcoran. He assisted Terry McGinnis who had come back through time to prevent the creation of Brother Eye. After Terry was killed in action defending Drake from Brother Eye's Batman/Joker Hybrid (a Brother Eye-controlled fusion of Batman and Joker from Terry's timeline) he passed on his futuristic Batsuit to Tim and in his dying wish asked him to become the new Batman and go back through time to prevent the war between Prime Earth and Earth 2, which believed will prevent the creation of Brother Eye.

He successfully travels back through time 5 years using time band and convinces Brother Eye to not send a beacon to attract the surviving hero's of Earth-2 thus preventing the war with Earth 2. Following the completion of his mission Brother Eye sends Tim back to Terry's timeline hoping to find Terry alive so he can return the Batsuit to him. However what he finds is still same future Terry came from realizing that Terrifitech is a constant and Brother Eye cannot be defeated in the past Tim declares that Brother Eye hasn't won yet.

A few days later Tim stops a break in at a Wayne-Powers facility by Jokers who attempt to steal a critical component that keeps Brother Eye from detecting Gotham City. He later meets up with Terry's brother Matt who is angry at Tim for wearing his brother's costume and in private declares that he should have been the one who succeed Terry as Batman.

Following the meeting Tim heads outside Gotham City to an interment camp that holding all people captured by Brother Eye. Before he can break into the facility he is attacked by a Brother Eye converted Superman who attempts to kill him. Knowing he can't kill Superman A.L.F.R.E.D overloads the Batsuits power reserves, temporally injuring Superman. As a result, the Batsuit deactivates itself leaving Tim in his civilian attire and defenceless against Brother Eye's army. He is then captured and placed in a detention center where he meets Terry's friend Max Gibson and to his surprise Barbara Gordon.

In other media

See also: Robin in other media

Television

DC Animated Universe

File:Robin TNBA.png
Tim Drake as Robin in The New Batman Adventures.

Tim Drake makes his animated debut as the second incarnation of Robin in the DCAU, with Robin initially voiced by Mathew Valencia (in The New Batman Adventures and Superman: The Animated Series) and later by Eli Marienthal (in Batman: Mystery of the Batwoman) and Shane Sweet (in Static Shock), whereas Tim Drake's adult form is voiced by Dean Stockwell (in Batman Beyond: Return of the Joker).

Film

Video games

File:Robin alternates.jpg
Tim Drake in Batman: Arkham City as Red Robin (left), Robin (middle), Dick Grayson's design (right).

Lego series

Arkham series

File:Arkham Knight Robin Promo.jpg
Robin in a promotional image for Batman: Arkham Knight.

Further information: Batman: Arkham

The Tim Drake incarnation of Robin appears in the Batman: Arkham series, where he is voiced by Troy Baker (in Arkham City) and Matthew Mercer (in Arkham Knight).[51]

Collected editions

In 1993, a few years after his debut as Robin, DC launched a monthly solo series featuring Tim Drake's adventures as Robin, with Batman appearing as a supporting character. The series ended in February 2009 with issue #183 following the events of Batman: RIP and Final Crisis. Starting in August 2009, Drake starred in a new series, Red Robin. He has also starred in some miniseries and one-shots. This material has been collected as follows:

Year Title Material collected ISBN
2015 Robin Vol. 1: Reborn Robin Vol. 1 #1-5, Detective Comics Vol. 1 #618-621 and Batman #455-457 978-1401258573
1993 Robin: Tragedy & Triumph Detective Comics #618–621; Robin II #1–4 SC: 1-56389-078-X
1998 Robin: A Hero Reborn Batman #455–457, Robin (1991 miniseries) #1–5 SC: 1-56389-029-1
2000 Robin: Flying Solo Robin Vol. 4 #1-6; Showcase '94 #5–6 SC: 1-56389-609-5
2004 Robin: Unmasked! Robin Vol. 4 #121-125 SC: 1-4012-0235-7
2005 Robin/Batgirl: Fresh Blood Robin Vol. 4 #132–133; Batgirl #58–59 SC: 1-4012-0433-3
2006 Robin: To Kill a Bird Robin Vol. 4 #134–139 SC: 1-4012-0909-2
2006 Robin: Days of Fire and Madness Robin Vol. 4 #140–145 SC: 1-4012-0911-4
2007 Robin: Wanted Robin Vol. 4 #148–153 SC: 1-4012-1225-5
2007 Robin: Teenage Wasteland Robin Vol. 4 #154–162 SC: 1-4012-1480-0
2008 Robin: The Big Leagues Robin Vol. 4 #163–167 SC: 1-4012-1673-0
2008 Robin: Violent Tendencies Robin Vol. 4 #170–174; Robin/Spoiler Special #1 SC: 1-4012-1988-8
2009 Robin: Search for a Hero Robin Vol. 4 #175–183 SC: 1-4012-2310-9
2010 Red Robin: The Grail Red Robin #1-5 SC: 1-4012-2619-1
2010 Red Robin: Collision Red Robin #6–12, Batgirl Vol. 3 #8 SC: 1-4012-2883-6
2011 Red Robin: Hit List Red Robin #13–17 SC: 1-4012-3165-9
2012 Red Robin: 7 Days of Death Red Robin #18-21 & #23-26 and Teen Titans Vol. 3 #92 SC: 1-4012-3364-3

Other collected editions

See also

References

  1. ^ Wolfman, Marv (w), Broderick, Pat (p), Beatty, John (i). Batman, vol. 1, no. 436 (August 1989). DC Comics.
  2. ^ Wolfman, Marv (w), Aparo, Jim (p), DeCarlo, Mike (i). Batman, vol. 1, no. 442 (December 1989). DC Comics.
  3. ^ a b c d Yost, Christopher (w), Bachs, Ramon (a). Red Robin, vol. 1, no. 1 (August 2009). DC Comics.
  4. ^ a b Johns, Geoff (w), McKone, Mike (p). Teen Titans, vol. 3, no. 17 (December 2004). DC Comics.
  5. ^ Thomas, Brandon (w), Williams II, Freddie E. (a). Robin, vol. 4, no. 167 (December 2007). DC Comics.
  6. ^ Nicieza, Fabian (w), To, Marcus (p), McCarthy, Ray (i). Red Robin, vol. 1, no. 15 (October 2010). DC Comics.
  7. ^ Manning, Matthew K.; Dolan, Hannah, ed. (2010). "1980s". DC Comics Year By Year A Visual Chronicle. Dorling Kindersley. p. 241. ISBN 978-0-7566-6742-9. With the pencils of [George] Pérez, Jim Aparo, and Tom Grummett, [Marv] Wolfman concocted the five-issue 'A Lonely Place of Dying'...In it, Tim Drake...earned his place as the new Robin. ((cite book)): |first2= has generic name (help)CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  8. ^ Manning "1990s" in Dolan, p. 261: ""[Robin] embarked on a solo career, with the help of writer Chuck Dixon and artist Tom Grummett."
  9. ^ Tipton, Scott (2003-12-17). "Heroes and Villains: Batman, Part IV". Comics 101 Archive. Retrieved 2010-08-14.
  10. ^ Mullins, Mike (2009-04-26). "Reminiscing About Robin: A Look Back in Wonder". Newsarama. Retrieved 2010-08-14.
  11. ^ a b Porter, Alan J.; Chris Roberson; Jake Black (2008). Dennis O'Neil (ed.). Batman Unauthorized: Vigilantes, Jokers, and Heroes in Gotham City. Smart Pop. p. 142. ISBN 978-1-933771-30-4.
  12. ^ a b Wolfman, Marv (w), Aparo, Jim (p), DeCarlo, Mike (i). Batman, vol. 1, no. 441 (November 1989). DC Comics.
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  18. ^ Daniel, Tony S. (w), Daniel, Tony S. (p), Florea, Sandu (i). Batman: Battle for the Cowl, vol. 1, no. 2 (June 2009). DC Comics.
  19. ^ Daniel, Tony S. (w), Daniel, Tony S. (p), Florea, Sandu (i). Batman: Battle for the Cowl, vol. 1, no. 3 (July 2009). DC Comics.
  20. ^ Red Robin #17 (Jan. 2011)
  21. ^ Batman Inc. #6 (May 2011)
  22. ^ Teen Titans (vol. 3) #98 (July 2011)
  23. ^ Red Robin #25 (July 2011)
  24. ^ Red Robin #26 (August 2011)
  25. ^ http://www.newsarama.com/comics/dcnu-brett-booth-new-teen-titans-costumes-110610.html
  26. ^ http://www.bleedingcool.com/2011/06/13/scott-lobdell-talks-teen-titans-to-bleeding-cool/
  27. ^ Teen Titans (vol. 4) #1
  28. ^ Yost, Christopher (w), Bachs, Ramon (p), Major, Guy (i). Red Robin, vol. 1, no. 4 (November 2009). DC Comics.
  29. ^ Yost, Christopher (w), To, Marcus (p), McCarthy, Ray, McKenna, Mark (i). Red Robin, vol. 1, no. 12 (July 2010). DC Comics.
  30. ^ Johns, Geoff (w), Daniel, Tony S. (p), Conrad, Kevin, Thibert, Art (i). Teen Titans, vol. 3, no. 34 (May 2006). DC Comics.
  31. ^ Nicieza, Fabian (w), To, Marcus (p), McCarthy, Ray, McKenna, Mark (i). Red Robin, vol. 1, no. 13 (August 2010). DC Comics.
  32. ^ Nicieza, Fabian (w), To, Marcus (p), McCarthy, Ray (i). Red Robin, vol. 1, no. 18 (February 2011). DC Comics.
  33. ^ Yost, Christopher (w), Bachs, Ramon (p), Major, Guy (i). Red Robin, vol. 1, no. 3 (October 2009). DC Comics.
  34. ^ Batman Beyond Unlimited #2 (May 2012)
  35. ^ "Trivia for The New Batman Adventures: Sins of the Father". IMDB. Retrieved 2010-08-14.
  36. ^ Writer: Robert Goodman, Director: Curt Geda (1998-10-10). "Knight Time". Superman: The Animated Series. Season 3. Episode 43. The WB. ((cite episode)): Unknown parameter |serieslink= ignored (|series-link= suggested) (help)
  37. ^ Writer: Len Uhley, Director: Dave Chlystek (2002-01-26). "The Big Leagues". Static Shock. Season 2. Episode 14. The WB. ((cite episode)): Unknown parameter |serieslink= ignored (|series-link= suggested) (help)
  38. ^ Writer: Stan Berkowitz, Director: Victor Dal Chele (2004-01-17). "Future Shock". Static Shock. Season 4. Episode 40. The WB. ((cite episode)): Unknown parameter |episodelink= ignored (|episode-link= suggested) (help); Unknown parameter |serieslink= ignored (|series-link= suggested) (help)
  39. ^ Batman Unlimited: Animal Instincts (film). 2015.
  40. ^ [1]
  41. ^ [2]
  42. ^ [3]
  43. ^ [4]
  44. ^ [5]
  45. ^ [6]
  46. ^ [7]
  47. ^ [8]
  48. ^ [9]
  49. ^ TIM DRAKE CONCEPT FIGHT
  50. ^ Game Informer features a two-page gallery of the many heroes and villains who appear in the game with a picture for each character and a descriptive paragraph. See "LEGO Batman: Character Gallery", Game Informer 186 (October 2008): 92.
  51. ^ https://twitter.com/matthewmercer/status/596430660346060800
  52. ^ Miller, Greg. "Batman: Arkham City -- Everyone Probably Gets Robin". IGN.