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This is a list of child brides, females of historical significance who married under 18 years of age, which is the general marriageable age and age of majority in most countries in the 21st century.[citation needed]

AFRICA

Middle East

Ancient Egypt

14th century

18th century

19th century

Wives of Abdulmejid I
Wives of Murad V

20th century

21st century

East Asia

8th century

9th century

10th century

12th century

17th century

19th century

20th century

Europe

From 380 A.D. to 1983 A.D., the age of majority was 21 years old in the Roman Catholic Church, which was adopted into canon law from Roman law. From 380 A.D. to 1971 A.D. the minimum marriageable age was 12 years for females and 14 years for males in the Roman Catholic Church, which was adopted into canon law from Roman law.

During the Holy Roman Empire (9th–19th centuries), age of majority was 21 years old and minimum marriageable age was 12 years for females and 14 years for males. There were some fathers who arranged marriages for a son or a daughter before he or she reached the age of maturity. Consummation would not take place until the age of maturity. Roman Catholic canon law defines a marriage as consummated when the "spouses have performed between themselves in a human fashion a conjugal act which is suitable in itself for the procreation of offspring, to which marriage is ordered by its nature and by which the spouses become one flesh."[12]

In England, the Marriage Act 1753 required a marriage to be covered by a license (requiring parental consent for those under 21) or the publication of banns (which parents of those under 21 could forbid). The Church of England dictated that both the bride and groom must be at least 21 years of age to marry without the consent of their families; in the certificates, the most common age for the brides is 22 years. For the grooms 24 years was the most common age, with average ages of 24 years for the brides and 27 for the grooms.[13] While European noblewomen often married early, they were a small minority of the population,[14] and the marriage certificates from Canterbury show that, in England, even among nobility it was very rare to marry women off at very early ages.[13]

In England, the minimum marriageable age was raised to 16 in 1929. Before then, the minimum marriageable age was 12 for females and 14 for males. In 1971, the age of majority was lowered to 18 years old.

The age of majority is 18 years old since 1983 C.E. and the minimum marriageable age is 14 years old for females and 16 years old for males since in 1917 C.E in the Roman Catholic Church.

9th century

10th century

11th century

12th century

13th century

14th century

15th century

16th century

17th century

18th century

19th century

20th century

North America

17th century

18th century

19th century

For the latter half of the 19th century between 13-18% of native-born white female first marriages in the US were under age 18.[21]

20th century

Notes

See also

References

  1. ^ "Princess Fawzia of Egypt Married". The Meriden Daily Journal. Cairo. AP. 15 March 1939. Retrieved 16 July 2013.
  2. ^ Ghazal, Rym (8 July 2013). "A forgotten Egyptian Princess remembered". The National. Retrieved 16 July 2013.
  3. ^ "Hayrünnisa marriage". November 22, 2002. Retrieved July 31, 2018.
  4. ^ Farrell, Courtney (2010-01-01). Children's Rights. ABDO. pp. 58–. ISBN 9781616133405. Retrieved 28 October 2013.
  5. ^ Borzou Daragahi (June 11, 2008). "Yemeni bride, 10, says I won't - Los Angeles Times". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 23 November 2013.
  6. ^ Vivienne Walt (Feb 3, 2009). "A 10-Year-Old Divorcee Takes Paris - TIME". Time. Retrieved 23 November 2013.
  7. ^ Lahiri, Shompa (2013-10-18). Indians in Britain: Anglo-Indian Encounters, Race and Identity, 1880-1930. Routledge. pp. 13–. ISBN 9781135264468. Retrieved 4 March 2014.
  8. ^ Rappaport, Helen (2003). Queen Victoria: A Biographical Companion. ABC-CLIO. pp. 429–. ISBN 9781851093557. Retrieved 4 March 2014.
  9. ^ Ramanujan’s wife: Janakiammal (Janaki). Profile at the Institute of Mathematical Sciences (IMSc)
  10. ^ Chatterjee, Santimay; Chatterjee, Enakshi (2002). Satyendra Nath Bose (PDF). National Book Trust. ISBN 9788123704920.
  11. ^ Wali, Kameshwar (2009). Satyendra Nath Bose, His Life and Times. World Scientific. pp. xviii–. ISBN 9789814518277.
  12. ^ canon 1061 §1
  13. ^ a b Laslett, Peter. 1965. The World We Have Lost. New York, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. p 82
  14. ^ Coontz, Stephanie. 2005. Marriage, a History: From Obedience to Intimacy, or How Love Conquered Marriage. New York, New York: Viking Press, Penguin Group Inc. p 125-129.
  15. ^ Jones, Michael K. (1993-04-22). The King's Mother: Lady Margaret Beaufort, Countess of Richmond and Derby. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521447942. Retrieved 23 November 2013.
  16. ^ Ralph A. Griffiths, King and Country: England and Wales in the Fifteenth Century, (Hambledon Press, 1991), 91.
  17. ^ Butler, Alban; Burns, Paul (January 1998). Butler's Lives of the Saints. Continuum. pp. 48–. ISBN 9780860122517. Retrieved 28 October 2013.
  18. ^ Tunis, David L. (2005-01-01). Fast Facts on the Kings and Queens of England. Author House. pp. 125–. ISBN 9781467065238. Retrieved 4 March 2014.
  19. ^ Matthews-Grieco, SaraF (2017-07-05). Cuckoldry, Impotence and Adultery in Europe (15th-17th century). Routledge. p. 38. ISBN 9781351570466.
  20. ^ "I'm A Celebrity: Bev Callard's tumultuous first marriage at 16 before baby heartbreak". Daily Mirror. 24 November 2020.
  21. ^ Fitch, Catherine; Ruggles, Steven (2000). "Historical trends in marriage formation: The United States 1850–1990". In Waite, Linda J.; Bachrach, Christine (eds.). The Ties that Bind: Perspectives on Marriage and Cohabitation. Transaction Publishers. pp. 59–88. ISBN 9781412839365. Retrieved 11 September 2021.
  22. ^ Hales, Brian C. "Joseph Smith and Fanny Alger". Joseph Smith's Polygamy. Retrieved 11 September 2021.
  23. ^ a b Dukakis, Andrea (4 April 2017). "Child Marriage, Common In The Past, Persists Today". Colorado Public Radio. Retrieved 5 December 2020.
  24. ^ Little, Becky (6 June 2018). "When a Millionaire Married a Teen And Sparked Opposition to U.S. Child Marriage". HISTORY. Retrieved 5 December 2020.
  25. ^ "Education: Exempt Bride". Time. 1937-08-23. ISSN 0040-781X. Retrieved 2021-03-22.
  26. ^ "Child Bride Happy in Play With Doll – 22-Year-Old Husband of Girl, 9, Plans, Meanwhile, for a New Farm Home – Parents Not to Interfere – Mother Says Young Daughter Is Beginning to Take Interest in Her Wifely Duties". The New York Times. 1937-01-31. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2021-03-22.
  27. ^ Tauke, M.S. (May 18, 1973). "Karen Fibbed on Weddings, Investigation Here Reveals". Journal & Courier.
  28. ^ Kenyatta 2002, p. 25
  29. ^ Duncan, Amy (July 18, 2017). "The story of R Kelly and Aaliyah – from their secret teenage marriage to those pregnancy rumours". Metro. Retrieved January 7, 2019.
  30. ^ "R. Kelly: Indecent Proposal". Vibe. September 18, 2008. Archived from the original on December 1, 2008. Retrieved May 14, 2009.
  31. ^ Ogunnaike, Lola (May 2002). "CAUGHT IN THE ACT". Vibe. Retrieved January 7, 2019.
  32. ^ McClain, Shonda (July 8, 1995). "Aaliyah: Weathering the storm of controversy". Indianapolis Recorder. Indianapolis. p. 9.