Road signs in Nizhny Novgorod

Road signs in Russia are governed by the traffic rules approved by the Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation No. 1090 of 23 October 1993 “On the Rules of the Road”, Appendix 1 “Road Signs”.[1] They are regulated by the ГОСТ Р 52289-2019[2] and ГОСТ Р 52290-2004[3] standards determining the rules for the use and production of road signs. The vast majority of road signs used in Russia were in the preceding Soviet standard ГОСТ 10807-78,[4][5] which was introduced in the Soviet Union on 1 January 1980 before its dissolution in 1991 and is no longer valid in Russia since 1 January 2006 after it was replaced by the modern standard ГОСТ Р 52290-2004 for road signs.[6] Road signs generally conform to the Vienna Convention on Road Signs and Signals. Similar road signs are also used in other post-Soviet states.

The state importance roads have different indexes, each stand for the respective letter of Cyrillic.[7]

Index Examples Russian meaning Meaning
M M 1 Москва The М index indicates roads connecting the capital city Moscow with other major cities of Russia
P R 22 Регион The Р index indicates roads connecting cities between regions, but do not connect with Moscow
А A 183 The А index indicates roads leading to a major transport hub, railway, sea, river aviation, to a road border crossing. The А index also denotes roads connecting two federal highways
E E95 Европейский The E index indicates European routes passing through Russia
AH AH6 The AH index indicates Asian routes passing through Russia[8]

The official typeface of road signs in Russia is specified in the ГОСТ Р 52290-2004 standard, formerly the ГОСТ 10807-78 Soviet standard. However, Arial is often used on road signs instead of one specified in the ГОСТ Р 52290-2004.

According to the ГОСТ Р 52290-2004 standard, modern road signs in Russia are divided into 8 categories:

# Category name Category name (in Russian)
1 Warning signs Предупреждающие знаки
2 Priority signs Знаки приоритета
3 Prohibitory signs Запрещающие знаки
4 Mandatory signs Предписывающие знаки
5 Special regulations signs Знаки особых предписаний
6 Information signs Информационные знаки
7 Service signs Знаки сервиса
8 Additional signs (plates) Знаки дополнительной информации (таблички)


The world's first road signs were approved at an international conference of motorists in 1909; among the participants were the Russian Empire. There were four road signs of that time and all of them were round: "uneven surface", "crossroads", "bends", and "railway crossing". New road signs and signals were officially adopted already in the USSR on 1 December 1927. In 1933, the number of road signs in the USSR was increased to 23 and they received the current shapes and colours, and for the first time they were divided into three categories: "warning", "prohibition" and "indicative". The following changes and additions regarding road signs were adopted on 1 January 1961, after the USSR joined the Geneva Convention on Road Traffic in 1959. The number of road signs has increased to 36. All signs received a yellow background. In 1968, the Convention on Road Traffic and Road Signs and Signals was created in Vienna. On 8 November 1968, the Soviet Union signed the Vienna Convention on Road Signs and Signals, and on 7 June 1974 ratified it.[9][10] The Vienna Convention on Road Signs and Signals was issued in all 6 official languages of the United Nations, including Russian, due to the fact that the Russian Federation (until December 1991 the Soviet Union) is a permanent member of the UN Security Council. New rules of the road, as well as road signs adopted by this convention, entered into force in the USSR in 1973. Subsequently, changes and additions to the rules of the road, road signs and signals were made in 1975, 1976, 1979, 1980, 1984 and 1987.[11]

Currently, the most common signs are made on a metal substrate covered with a reflective film. Signs that are illuminated around the perimeter or along the contour of the image of the sign, made using miniature incandescent lamps or LEDs, have become slightly widespread.

On 1 January 2006, the modern standard ГОСТ Р 52290-2004 for road signs was introduced in Russia, completely replacing the Soviet standard ГОСТ 10807-78.[6] New road signs were introduced in the ГОСТ Р 52290-2004 standard:

In June 2018, in connection with the preparations for the 2018 FIFA World Cup in Russia, a new prohibition road sign "No buses allowed" (Russian: Движение автобусов запрещено) was introduced. This sign was used as a temporary sign from 1 June to 17 July 2018 during the 2018 FIFA World Cup and after the end of the World Cup, the sign was retired.[12][13] However, from 1 March 2023, this sign was reintroduced, but now on a permanent basis.[14] This is due to changes in the Rules of the Road in Russia that came into force on 1 March 2023, in particular, the speed limit for buses was introduced.[15]

In February 2019, the traffic police supported proposals for the introduction of reduced road signs, the idea was initiated by the Moscow government. They are planned to be installed throughout Russia after a successful experiment. The allowable size of signs will be reduced to 40 cm (16 inches) in diameter, and in some cases to 35 cm (14 inches), which is almost half the current standard of 60 cm (24 inches).[16]

On 1 March 2023, a new prohibition road sign "No personal mobility devices"[17] (Russian: Движение на средствах индивидуальной мобильности запрещено) was introduced.[18] It prohibits personal mobility devices such as electric scooters, electric skateboards, hoverboards, or segways. Earlier in October 2022, a similar sign prohibiting the movement of electric scooters was introduced in Belarus due to changes in the traffic rules of Belarus, which came into force on 27 October 2022.[19]

Dimensions (mm)

Road signs shall be manufactured in four sizes: I (small), II (normal), III (large), and IV (very large).[20]

Warning signs

Priority signs

Prohibitory signs

Mandatory signs

Special regulations signs

Information signs

Service signs

Additional signs (plates)

Experimental signs

Similar systems

For the general overview of road signs in post-Soviet states, see Traffic signs in post-Soviet states.

Similar road signs are used in most countries that formed after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. Initially, the ГОСТ 10807-78 standard was adopted in the Soviet Union in 1980, but after its collapse in 1991, the same standard continued to operate in many post-Soviet countries until some of these countries adopted their own standard, in particular, in Russia, the ГОСТ Р 52290-2004 standard was adopted, in Ukraine ДСТУ 4100:2021, in Belarus СТБ 1140-2013, in Kazakhstan СТ РК 1412-2017, and in Uzbekistan O'zDst 3283:2017.[21] Road signs in Armenia and Kyrgyzstan are entirely based on the ГОСТ Р 52290-2004 and ГОСТ Р 52289-2004 Russian standards.[22][23] Inscriptions on road signs vary depending on the country's official language.

In Estonia and Latvia, road signs are outwardly different from the Russian ones. In Lithuania, road signs still bear a resemblance to those used in the Soviet Union, despite the fact that Lithuania restored its independence in 1990 and that the country joined the European Union in 2004. This is due to the fact that the Baltic states were occupied and later annexed by the Soviet Union in 1940 during the World War II.


  1. ^ "Постановление Правительства РФ от 23.10.1993 N 1090 "О Правилах дорожного движения" (ПДД) (последняя редакция) (вместе с "Основными положениями по допуску транспортных средств к эксплуатации и обязанности должностных лиц по обеспечению безопасности \ КонсультантПлюс". Retrieved 16 November 2023.
  2. ^ "ГОСТ Р 52289-2004 Технические средства организации дорожного движения. Правила применения дорожных знаков, разметки, светофоров, дорожных ограждений и направляющих устройств" (PDF). (in Russian).
  3. ^ "Скачать ГОСТ Р 52290-2004 Технические средства организации дорожного движения. Знаки дорожные. Общие технические требования". (in Russian). Retrieved 25 March 2023.
  4. ^ "Межгосударственный стандарт ГОСТ 10807-78 "Знаки дорожные. Общие технические условия" (утв. постановлением Госстандарта СССР 30.08.1978 N 2401) (с изменениями и дополнениями) (не действует) | ГАРАНТ". (in Russian). Retrieved 20 March 2023.
  5. ^ "Скачать ГОСТ 10807-78 Знаки дорожные. Общие технические условия". (in Russian). Retrieved 25 March 2023.
  6. ^ a b "Дорожные знаки по ГОСТу Р 52290-2004 (от 14.12.2005)". (in Russian). 14 December 2005. Retrieved 14 November 2023.
  7. ^ Макров, Антон (13 July 2021). "Что обозначают буквы в названии автомобильных трасс". CAR.RU (in Russian). Retrieved 4 August 2023.
  8. ^ "МЕЖПРАВИТЕЛЬСТВЕННОЕ СОГЛАШЕНИЕ ПО СЕТИ АЗИАТСКИХ АВТОМОБИЛЬНЫХ ДОРОГ" (PDF). United Nations (in Russian). 6 January 2024. Retrieved 6 January 2024.
  9. ^ "Как менялась Венская конвенция о дорожном движении". Коммерсантъ (in Russian). 8 September 2018. Retrieved 26 June 2023.
  10. ^ "В помощь: Дорожные знаки Фотографии старого Саратова" (in Russian). Archived from the original on 13 April 2015. Retrieved 9 April 2015.
  11. ^ "В помощь: Дорожные знаки | Фотографии старого Саратова" (in Russian). Archived from the original on 13 April 2015. Retrieved 9 April 2015.
  12. ^ "Знак движение автобусов запрещено для чемпионата мира по футболу". Retrieved 26 August 2023.
  13. ^ "С сегодняшнего дня в России появился временный дорожный знак Движение автобусов запрещено". Retrieved 26 August 2023.
  14. ^ FEIP. "Новые ПДД для автобусов с 1 марта 2023". Профи Центр (in Russian). Retrieved 26 August 2023.
  15. ^ "Ограничение скорости автобусов и другие изменения в ПДД в 2023 году⁠⁠ — ТрансАвто-7 на". 21 June 2023. Retrieved 26 August 2023.
  16. ^ "Дорожные знаки меньшего размера появятся по всей России" (in Russian). 4 February 2019. Archived from the original on 4 February 2019. Retrieved 4 February 2019.
  17. ^ A personal mobility device is a vehicle that has one or more wheels, intended for the individual movement of a person using an engine. (electric scooters, electric skateboards, hoverboards, Segways, unicycles, and other similar devices)
  18. ^ "Движение на самокате запрещено: в России ввели новые дорожные знаки". Моя планета (in Russian). 1 March 2023. Retrieved 16 November 2023.
  19. ^ "Новые знаки в ПДД с 27 октября: смотрите, чтобы быть в курсе". Новости Бреста и Брестской области сегодня | БрестСИТИ. 26 October 2022. Retrieved 11 January 2024.
  20. ^ "Типоразмеры знаков дорожного движения" (PDF). (in Russian). Retrieved 12 April 2024.
  21. ^ "IndorRoadSigns: Система проектирования дорожных знаков". Retrieved 19 July 2023.
  22. ^ "ԳՕՍՏ Ռ 52290-2004". (in Armenian).
  23. ^ "Мэр Омуркулов встретится с гражданским активистом Баратовым - Вести.kg - Новости Кыргызстана". (in Russian). 19 August 2013. Retrieved 19 July 2023.

See also