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Education in Kenya refers to the education system in Kenya. It is considered a basic right that should be offered to every individual. Education in Kenya predates to as early as the 18th century among the Swahili people. The earliest school was established by missionaries in Rabai. During the colonial era, the number of Kenyans with exposure to education steadily increased and a good number of them were privileged to proceed abroad for further education.

Kenya has manoeuvered through three education curriculums since independence with the latest being, the Competency-Based Curriculum, rolled out in 2017 to replace the 8-4-4 Curriculum that has been in practice since 1985.

Even though efforts have been put in place to promote basic education, with literacy levels increase among the Kenyan population. Poverty, teenage pregnancy, truancy, drug abuse, among others, all affect the literacy levels of prospective pupils.

In 2017, Kenya's education system was rated as the strongest among other forty three mainland countries on the African continent by the World Economic Forum. In the following year 2018, the World Bank also ranked Kenya as the top African country for education outcomes.[1]

History

Historical records, not only from the travels of Johann Ludwig Krapf and Johannes Rebmann, reveal that Swahilis had access to education as far back as 1728 with a Swahili manuscript Utendi wa Tambuka (Book of Heraclius) attesting to the fact. The CMS missionaries interacted with locals in the coastal town of Mombasa and set up one of the earliest mission schools in the country at Rabai in 1846.

With the expansion of the railway from Mombasa to Uganda, the missionaries expanded their work into Kenya's interior. An attempt to set up a school and mission at Yatta in 1894 was resisted by the Kamba tribe. The missionaries then penetrated into western Kenya and set up schools and missions. The first school in western Kenya was established at Kaimosi in 1903.

During the colonial era, the number of Kenyans with exposure to education steadily increased and a good number of them were privileged to proceed abroad for further education. Among those who furthered their education abroad in the colonial era were Jomo Kenyatta, who attended Woodbrooke College and London School of Economics, Charles Njonjo, who attended Gray's Inn Law School, Peter Mbiyu Koinange, who attended Columbia University, Mwai Kibaki who attended London School of Economics, R. Mugo Gatheru who attended Roosevelt University, Tom Mboya, who attended Ruskin College, Oxford, Masinde Muliro, who attended University of Cape Town, Julius Gikonyo Kiano who attended Stanford University, and Barack Obama Sr., who attended the University of Hawaii at Manoa. Between 1959 and 1963, eight hundred Kenyan students attended US and Canadian universities.[2]

Julius Gikonyo Kiano was the first Kenyan to obtain a PhD. The trend steadily rose over the years and by the time of independence in 1963, 840,000 African children were attending elementary school.

Pre-Independence Schools in Kenya

History form 1

Institutionalised education in Kenya had begun way before the country became independent in 1963, with at least sixty schools having been established by various groups and for various communities.

Schools for Ethnic Africans

Majority of the education institutions formed for ethnic Africans in the East Africa Protectorate were started by Christian missionaries. Their stated purpose was to “civilise and convert the African”. They also set up teacher training college-type institutions whose graduates went back to their villages as “evangelists” to “break the yoke of primitivity and usher in civilisation”.[3] Some schools were started through local community initiatives.

  1. Rabai Mission School near Mombasa (1847): established by missionaries Johann Ludwig Krapf and Johannes Rebmann from the Anglican Church Mission Society
  2. United Methodist School (1862): (later in 1963 the co-educational Ribe Secondary School, in 1989 Ribe Boys and Ribe Girls High Schools), established at Ribe, Kilifi County
  3. The Mary Leakey Girls' High School (1901): established at Kabete as a co-educational mission school by Rev. A. W. McGregor of the Church Mission Society (CMS), and later named after the founder of the girls' section, Mary Bazett Leakey[4]
  4. Friends Africa Industrial Mission (1903): (later Kaimosi Friends Elementary School in 1904, now Kaimosi Friends Primary School), established in Kaimosi, Nandi County by American Quaker missionaries
  5. Maseno School (1906): established in Maseno by the Missionaries of the Church Missionary Society (CMS) for the children of local ethnic chiefs, currently sponsored by the Anglican Church of Kenya (ACK) and overseen by the Diocese of Maseno South
  6. Nyeri High School (1907): established in Nyeri as a primary school along with the neighbouring St. Paul Seminary and the Mathari Mission Hospital by the Consolata Missionary Sisters
  7. Tumutumu Mission School (1908): (now Tumutumu Girls' High School and Kagumo Teachers College) established as a co-ed primary school in Nyeri County by the Church of Scotland Mission
  8. Kabare School (1911): (from 1964 Kabare Girls High School), established by the Church Mission Society in Gichugu, Kirinyaga County, after area coffee farmers agreed to each contribute two cents per half kilogramme of cherry thereby raising over KES 80,000.[5]
  9. Mutige School (1911): (later Mutige Boys School), established by the Church Mission Society in Gichugu, Kirinyaga County, after area coffee farmers agreed to each contribute two cents per half kilogramme of cherry thereby raising over KES 80,000.[5]
  10. Government African School Machakos (1915): formed as a boys' primary school, from 1946 a co-educational primary school. In 1950 the boys' section relocated to become Machakos School; the girls section was renamed Government African Girls’ Intermediate School, which gave rise to today's Machakos Girls' High School[6]
  11. Butere Girls High School (1916): founded as a primary school in Butere, Kakamega County by the Irish missionary Jane Elizabeth Chadwick (Church Mission Society, CMS)
  12. Kabaa High School (1923): established by the Catholic Church in Machakos County
  13. Harambee Waa School (1923): (later Waa Boys High School), established in Kwale County by missionaries of the Holy Ghost Catholic Fathers[7]
  14. Central Training School for Catechists (1925): (later Catholic Central School and Kabaa School, now Mang'u High School), established in Thika by Dutch priest Michael Joseph Witte (from the Holy Ghost Fathers)
  15. Government African School Kapsabet (1925): established in Nandi County by the Africa Inland Mission; today Kapsabet High School and Kapsabet Girls' High School (from 1951)
  16. Jeanes School Kabete (1925): (later Public Service Management and Development Institute plus Kenya Medical Training College in 1961, Kenya Institute of Administration in 1963, and in 2012 Kenya School of Government), established in Kabete[8]
  17. Jeanes School Maseno: later Maseno Training Centre (1961), Maseno Government Training Institute (1967), in 1990 merged with Siriba Teachers' College to form Maseno University College, today Maseno University (since 2001)
  18. Alliance School (1926): now Alliance High School, established as a junior secondary school by the Alliance of Protestant Missions
  19. Francis Scott High School (1927): (later in 1963 Nakuru High School plus Nakuru Girls Secondary School in 1961)
  20. St. Mary's School Yala (1927): founded by the Roman Catholic Mill Hill Missionaries
  21. Kisii School (1932): established Kisii, Kenya
  22. Government African School Kakamega (1932): (later Kakamega High School, now Kakamega School)
  23. Kagumo High School (1933) established as a primary school in Kiganjo (Nyeri County)
  24. MaryHill Girls' High School (1933): established in Thika town, Kiambu County by the Catholic Missionary Sisters of Our Lady of Africa (White Sisters)[9]
  25. Buxton School (1935): (later Ronald Ngala Primary School), established by the Church Mission Society in Mombasa
  26. Our Lady Consolata Mugoiri Girls High School (1938): in Mugoiri, Murang'a County (formerly Gaiteiguru Intermediary School)[10]
  27. Kangaru schools (1947): in Embu County, established as a Church Mission Society primary school, later Government African Teacher Training Center and Secondary School (G.A.T.T.C. & S.S) in 1952, and African Girls Intermediate School (GAGI) in 1953. Embu Girls High School was fused into the school in July 1973, separating again in 1989
  28. African Girls High School (1948): (now Alliance Girls High School) established in Kikuyu town, Kiambu County by the Alliance of Protestant Missions.
  29. Gitoro Technical (1956): later Meru Technical School (1964), Meru Technical Vocational Training School (1969), Meru Technical Secondary School (1973), Meru Technical Training Institute (1986), Meru National Polytechnic (2016). Originally established in Meru town by the local town council to train youth in various practical skills[11]
  30. Xaverian Primary School (1956): established in Kisumu County
  31. Kahuhia Girls' High School (1957): established in Kahuhia, Murang'a County through an initiative by the local community and Christian missionaries[12]
  32. Starehe Boys' Centre and School (November 1959): established by Dr. Geoffrey William Griffin, Geoffrey Gatama Geturo and Joseph Kamiru Gikubu in Starehe, Nairobi
  33. Cardinal Otunga High School Mosocho (1960): established in Kisii County following a request from the then Kisii Diocese Bishop, His Eminence Maurice Otunga[13]
  34. Bishop Gatimu Ngandu Girls High School (1960): established by The Right Reverend Caesar Gatimu in Karatina, Nyeri County
  35. Baricho High School (1960): established in Ndia, Kirinyaga County by The Right Reverend Caesar Gatimu[14]
  36. Chebokokwa School (1961): (now St. Patrick's High School Iten), established by the Patrician Brothers in Iten, Elgeyo-Marakwet County, and currently operated by the Roman Catholic Diocese of Eldoret
  37. Kianyaga High School (1961): boys' school established in Gichugu, Kirinyaga County through fundraisers by local elders.[15]

Schools for Muslims and Ethnic Arabs

The Colonial government was the original provider of institutionalised education for Indian children, whose families originally arrived in the East Africa Protectorate from British India as labourers and indentured servants working on the Uganda Railway. Later, various religious communities mobilised to establish schools to serve their members.

  1. Arab Boys' Primary School Mombasa (1920s): established in Mombasa
  2. Shimo La Tewa School (1932): (later Coast African Secondary School, then Shimo-La-Tewa High School), established in Shanzu, Mombasa City as secondary school for Arab boys who has successfully completed their primary education at the Arab Boys' Primary School Mombasa[16]
  3. Mombasa Institute of Muslim Education - MIOME (1948): (later in 1966 Mombasa Technical Institute - MTI, from 2007 Mombasa Polytechnic University College - MPUC, from 2013 Technical University of Mombasa), established in Mombasa to provide technical education to Muslim students of East Africa[17]

Schools for Ethnic Indians

The Colonial government was the original provider of institutionalised education for Indian children, whose families originally arrived in the East Africa Protectorate from British India as labourers and indentured servants working on the Uganda Railway. Later, various religious communities mobilised to establish schools to serve their members.

  1. Railway Educational Centre (1906): co-educational institution. Later Railway School Nairobi, then Government Indian School, then The Duke of Gloucester School for boys, today Jamhuri High School in Ngara, Nairobi[18]
  2. Indian School (1912): in Mombasa County, from which emerged Allidina Visram High School (in 1923, named after Allidina Visram) as a rehousing and secondary extension of the Indian School
  3. The Aga Khan Primary School, Mombasa (1918): established as a boys' school in Kizingo, Mombasa City, from which later emerged The Aga Khan High School, Mombasa. It is operated by Aga Khan Education Services of the Shia Ismaili community of Muslims[19][20]
  4. The Duchess of Gloucester School (1932): (now Pangani Girls High School), established in Pangani, Nairobi
  5. Oshwal Academy (1950): established in Parklands, Nairobi; managed by the Oshwal Education and Relief Board (OERB) of the Jain community
  6. Arya Vedic School (1950): established at Puri Bhavan, Ngara, Nairobi by The Arya Stree Samaj movement. It gave rise to Arya Vedic Academy
  7. The Aga Khan Primary School, Kisumu (1952): established in Kisumu City. It is operated by Aga Khan Education Services of the Shia Ismaili community of Muslims[21]
  8. Parklands Arya Girls High School (1957): established in Parklands, Nairobi by the Arya Samaj community in Kenya[22]
  9. A co-educational school (1957): established in Ngara, Nairobi, from which emerged Ngara Girls' High School and in 1962 present-day Highway Secondary School for boys[23]
  10. The Aga Khan High School (1961): co-educational day school established in Westlands, Nairobi. It is operated by Aga Khan Education Services of the Shia Ismaili community of Muslims[24]

Schools for Ethnic Europeans

Nairobi Primary school
  1. Rift Valley Academy (1903): established in Kijabe town, Kiambu County as the first up-country European school by Charles Hurlburt of the Africa Inland Mission. In 1967 it was the first school in Africa to receive American accreditation.[25]
  2. The European School, Nairobi (1910): (now Nairobi Primary School), co-educational school from which emerged The Prince of Wales School in 1931 at Kabete (now Nairobi School) and The European Girls' Secondary School in 1935 (now The Kenya High School)
  3. Loreto Convent Msongari (1921): "Msongari" being a corruption of Muthangari where the school is located in Westlands Sub-county, was established by the Sisters of Loreto
  4. Hill Preparatory School (1922): (later Limuru Girls High School in 1926), established by European settler, Arnold Buttler McDonell, on his Kiambethu Farm in Limuru, Kiambu County
  5. The Hill School (1923): established in Eldoret as European Primary School, later Central School then Highlands School, which in 1956 amalgamated with New Girls' Secondary School (today Moi Girls' High School, Eldoret)
  6. Kenton College (January 1924): (now Kenton College Preparatory School), established in Kijabe, moving to Kileleshwa in 1935, taking its roots from The Grange School at Limuru
  7. Pembroke House (1927): established in Gilgil, Nakuru County. It was named after the Cambridge College attended by its founder Headmaster, Harold Turner, and has been owned by Kenya Educational Trust Limited since 1959[26]
  8. Kitale Primary (1929): (later Kitale Academy, now Kitale School) in Kitale, Trans-Nzoia County
  9. St. Andrews School, Turi (1931): established in Molo, Nakuru County[27]
  10. Mombasa European Primary School (1935): (MEPS, from 1962 Mombasa Primary School), established in Mombasa[28]
  11. Greensteds School (1936): established in Nakuru
  12. Loreto High School, Limuru (December 1936): established by the Sisters of Loreto in Limuru
  13. St. Mary's School, Nairobi (1939): established by the Holy Ghost Fathers, today located on the land of St. Austin’s Parish in Muthangari, Westlands Sub-county
  14. Loreto Convent Valley Road (1941): established by the Sisters of Loreto in Upper Hill, Nairobi
  15. Mara Hills Academy (February 1947): established in Tanganinyika by the Eastern Mennonite Mission and relocated to Gigiri, Nairobi in 1967 as Rosslyn Academy
  16. The Duke of York School (1949): (now Lenana School)
  17. Delamere School (1956): established in Nairobi, from which emerged in 1959 New Girls Secondary School (later Delamere Girls High School, now State House Girls High School) and Delamere Boys High School (later Simba Secondary School, now Upper Hill School)[29]

Multi-Ethnic Schools

  1. Strathmore College (1961): later Strathmore College of Arts and Sciences, and then the parallel Strathmore School and Strathmore College School of Accountancy. The latter merged with Kianda Secretarial College in 1993, and in 2002 became the current Strathmore University. Established under the guidance of the Opus Dei founder, Saint Josemaría Escrivá, in Muthangari, Westlands Sub-county as a residential Sixth form college and the country's first multi-ethnic plus poly-religious school; currently managed by Study Centres of Kenya[30][31]
  2. Kianda Secretarial College (1961): established by Kianda Foundation in Westlands Sub-County, Nairobi, in 1993 merged with Strathmore College School of Accountancy to form Strathmore University.[32]

Education Curricula

7–4–2–3 System

With the collapse of the East African community in 1977, Kenya continued with the same system of education but changed the examination names from their regional identity to a national identity. The East African Certificate of Primary Education (EACPE) became the Certificate of Primary Education (CPE) - awarded after 7 years of primary school - the first time the CPE was marked by a computer system. The East African Certificate of Education (EACE) became the Kenya Certificate of Education (KCE), awarded after 4 years of secondary school. The East African Advanced Certificate of Education (EAACE) became the Kenya Advanced Certificate of Education (KACE), awarded after 2 years of high school. The 7-4-2-3 system foresaw 11–13 years of basic education schooling and a minimum of 3 years for undergraduate university education.

8–4–4 Curriculum

Main article: 8-4-4 Curriculum

In 1985, President Daniel arap Moi introduced the 8–4–4 system of education, which adopted 8 years of primary education, 4 years of secondary education and 4 years of university education. With the introduction of the 8–4–4 system CPE became KCPE (Kenya Certificate of Primary Education) while KCE became the Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (KCSE). The length of basic education schooling was reduced to 12 years and the length of undergraduate studies was increased to a minimum of 4 years.

From 1985 to 2017, public education in Kenya was based on an 8–4–4 system,[33][34] with eight years of primary education followed by four years of secondary school and four years of college or university. To date, there has been steady growth in the advancement of education in the country which boasts of a great number of public and private universities as well as TVET institutions and middle-level colleges.

Competency Based Curriculum (CBC), 2-6-3-3-3

In 2017, the Competency-Based Curriculum (CBC) was launched to replace the traditional 8–4–4 system introduced by the President Moi in 1985. The Competency-Based Curriculum was designed by the Kenya Institute of Curriculum Development (KICD) with the aim of churning out 'engaged, empowered and ethical citizens'.

Unlike the 8-4-4 system where learners would spend 8 years in primary education, 4 years in secondary School and 4 years at the university, the CBC curriculum runs on a 2-6-3-3-3 System of Education where basic education has been organized in three levels; Early Years Education, Middle School Education, and Senior School.[35]

Under CBC, learners will now spend 2 years in Pre-primary, 6 years in Primary (Grade 1–6), 3 years in Junior Secondary (Grade 7, 8, 9), 3 years in Senior Secondary (grade 10,11,12) - retaining 12 years of basic education schooling - and 3 years in university.

The Competency-Based Curriculum puts emphasis on seven core competences namely; communication and collaboration, critical thinking and problem-solving, creativity and imagination, citizenship, digital literacy, learning to learn and self-efficacy.

According to KICD, the traditional curriculum is teacher-centered while the CBC is learner-centered.

Learners are constantly assessed on the seven competencies based on the following areas; Meeting Expectations (ME), Approaching Expectations (AE) and Below Expectations (BE).

The first cohort of learners under the CBC curriculum will clear Primary Education in 2022. They are expected to transition to junior high school in early 2023.The government has through the ministry of education been investing in developing the infrastructure required in public schools across the country to accommodate the junior high-schoolers.

In October 2021, President Uhuru Kenyatta directed the National Treasury to avail KSh.8 billion/= to the Education Ministry for the construction of 10,000 classrooms in secondary schools across the country by 2023. According to Education Cabinet Secretary Prof George Magoha, 700 new CBC junior classrooms had been completed within secondary schools as at February 2021.[36] Consequently, CBC has been a top priority funding area in the  KSh.126.3 billion/= supplementary budget, submitted in parliament mid February by Treasury Cabinet Secretary Ukur Yattani.[37]

According to the Kenya Institute of curriculum Development (KICD), students transitioning to Junior secondary schools will be between the ages of 12 and 14.

British Curriculum

An increasing number of private schools offer a system of education similar to the British system of education with eight to nine years of preparatory/primary school, followed by two to three years of secondary school (culminating in the International General Certificate of Secondary Education (IGCSE), and thereafter two years of high school leading to the Advanced Level qualification. This has similarities with the 7-4-2-3 system described above.

North-American Curriculum

A few private schools provide formal education based on the K–12 education system in the United States and the Canadian curriculum, consisting of twelve school grades, leading to the equivalent of the US-American and Canadian high school diplomas. Such schools include Rosslyn Academy, West Nairobi School and International School of Kenya in Nairobi, as well as Rift Valley Academy in Kijabe.

Transition rates and Overall Performance

Out of all children in Kenya, about 85% attend primary school. 75% of those who complete primary education will proceed to secondary schools and 60% of those who complete secondary school will proceed to institutions of a higher level of education, including business and vocational institutions, national polytechnics, public and private universities within the country. Over 950,000 Kenyans have furthered their education abroad with a majority of graduates primarily from India, the United Kingdom, Canada, the United States, Russia, and Uganda. [citation needed]

Education quality

Education quality has recently received a lot of attention in Kenya. The Kenyan government's primary document influencing this effort, the Kenya Education Sector Support Program for 2005–2010, established the National Assessment Centre (NAC) to monitor learning achievement. In 2010, the NAC released the results of its first assessment.

In 2009, in collaboration with the NAC, Uwezo Kenya conducted an assessment of the basic literacy and numeracy skills of children ages 6–16. The Annual Learning Assessment (ALA) reached villages in 70 out of 158 districts in Kenya and assessed nearly 70,000 children in their homes. The ALA was set at a Standard 2 level, which is the level where students are supposed to achieve basic competency in reading English and Kiswahili and complete simple arithmetic problems. The chart below shows the percent of children who could not read a Standard 2 level paragraph or solve Standard 2 level subtraction problems:[38]

Level of Children Assessed Cannot Read English Paragraph Cannot Read Swahili Paragraph Cannot Do Subtraction
Standard 2 85% 79%
Standard 5 27% 23% 30%
Standard 8 4% 4% 10%

Key findings about education in Kenya, based on the results of the Uwezo 2009 assessment:[39]

  1. Literacy levels are low, and are substantially lower in certain regions. Girls tend to perform better in reading English and Kiswahili, while boys tend to perform better in math.
  2. Literacy levels are lower in public schools than private schools.
  3. Most children can solve real world, "ethno-mathematics" problems, while fewer can solve similar math problems in an abstract, pencil and paper format.
  4. 5% of children are not enrolled in school, but the problem is far worse in particular regions.
  5. About half of children are enrolled in pre-school.
  6. Many children are older than expected for their class level, including 40% of children in class 2, and 60% of children in class 7.
  7. North Eastern Province and arid districts in Rift Valley and Eastern Provinces have particularly low performance; and many older children, especially girls, are not attending school.
  8. Many families pay for extra tuition, which focuses heavily on drilling and exam preparation.
  9. Schools struggle to plan their budgets because they receive funds at unpredictable times.
  10. Children whose mothers are educated, particularly beyond primary school, tend to have much higher rates of literacy and numeracy.
  11. About 15% of students are absent on a given day, with much higher absenteeism in certain districts as a result of increased poverty level.
  12. There is a severe shortage of teachers, estimated at 4 teachers per school.
  13. The reluctance of the government to invest in educational institutions in marginalized areas thereby developing schools in cities only which result in inefficient education process in arid and semi-arid areas
  14. Embezzlement of public funds by school administrators and lack of accountability of the use of government grants and high levels of corruption in educational institutions

Due to the mentioned problems in public education, private school are soaring in popularity, even among families that can ill afford school fees.[40]

Early Childhood Development education

Early Childhood Development (ECD) education or Pre-primary education is a foundation for later learning and development and it targets children aged 0–5 years with a focus on igniting the child's potential for lifelong adaptability, innovation and communication skills while imparting in them the values of responsible citizenship and respect for diversity. ECD is classified into three different clusters i.e.

Between the years of 2003-2007, the educational sector strategic plan and implementation plan committed to eliminating poverty as an educational development hindrance, promoting human rights through provisions of education, and attaining sustainable development of quality basic education for all. This implementation is a positive step towards education access in Kenya. One of the first steps to access education is at the early childhood development (ECD), primary, and secondary levels. The government assessed the high need for a change in access due to half of the population being composed of young people. According to Achoka et al. (2007), 20% of these people are under the age of five years old. ECD implementation is crucial in the school systems because the ages of 0-5 and key developmental years. While the children are rapidly developing, they are also the most vulnerable to environmental factors and influences. An effective ECD programme could create a beneficial foundation for further education and training. Between the years 1992 and 2002 there was a 68.9% increase in the number of ECD centers. [41]

Accessibility concerns in ECD education

The accessibility of education is influenced by four main factors: poverty, regional and gender disparities, policy framework, and the HIV/AIDS pandemic. In 2002, roughly 56% of the population lived in poverty. The people living in these conditions are also unable to acquire proper dietary needs, medical needs, and a clean and stable habitat. The children who are born into these conditions are predisposed to the disadvantaged access of education specifically to ECD. Not only can this influence their access to education, it can also influence their growth and development. While the government tries to offer some support, a majority of the costs associated with education are covered solely by the parents. Many of the families that are living in poverty are unable to afford to send their children to school. [42] In today’s highly competitive and challenge-ridden world, education can play a vital role in developing people’s characters development and promoting levels of personal growth needed to survive and thrive. Unlike uneducated people, person who pass successfully through the education system undergo experiences that often expose them to diverse cultures, worldviews, and ideas that will help foster global awareness, empathy, and vital skills needed to interact with diverse people, collaborate, learn, and pursue successful lives. In other words, it provides a sense of self-discovery and helps people form their values, beliefs, and identities. However, education as it exists today has its limitations, including following a standardized curriculum that leaves little room for personal interests and individualized learning (Schlegel et al., 2019). Such factors affect creativity and often prevent people from pursuing their unique passions and talents. Also, marginalized groups may not access education due to economic disparities that affect their opportunities for personal growth and success. In the 21st century, education is evolving, and lifelong learning continues to be relevant as many people adapt to the ever-changing technologies and industries. Online courses and self-directed learning are common today, and they offer flexibility but need strong self-discipline. Generally, education is a stepping stone to a meaningful life as it equips one with various skills and broadens horizons. It is only one part of the journey to success and personal fulfilment in today's changing world.

Geographically, Kenya is very varied and diverse. Northern Kenya are Arid and Semi-Ari Lands (ASALs), but the Central and Western areas are wetlands. Although the government has attempted to achieve accessible education for all citizens, many of the people living in the ASAL regions are continuously moving in search of Wetlands for their families and their livestock. Due to the constant migrations, their lifestyles create conflicts in education access as they are not in an area for long enough to begin the schooling process for their children in the required ECD education. Additionally, there have been land/tribal conflicts which results in families being exiled or parents being killed. The children in these conditions remain unsupported for any education needs as the parents cannot afford it. Connected to the geographical barriers are the cultural barriers in Kenya as well. Although the government attempts to provide equal educational opportunities regardless of gender, some parents focus their attention and resources on males and their education since they are seen as more of an asset to their family. As a result, more males than females are enrolled in ECD programs which creates a gender disparity. [42]

Another area of concern in ECD education is the lack of adequate policy framework which has created inconsistent and unmeasurable curriculum. This has a major effect on the children's primary education entry behavior. The group that is most affected by this are the poverty-stricken parents in rural communities. Managing these behaviors are left to the abilities of the educators, but in some areas, the extent of ECD education is processed in rooms called “academies.” Many of the teachers/caregivers in the academies may not have any training. With a variety of factors, some of these centers are not productive learning environments and make it extremely difficult to detect children with special needs. [42]

In recent years, the HIV/AIDS epidemic has been a concern for the citizens living in Kenya as it does not spare children. Many children who have HIV/AIDS are born to infected parents who transfer it to them. A majority of those children die within their first five years of life. The infant mortality rate and under-five years mortality rate has significantly increased in recent years. Since it affects a large percentage of the population, this could directly influence the numbers of ECD centers available. [42]

Primary education

Primary education marks the beginning of the 8-4-4 Curriculum. It begins at the age of 5 to 7 after completion of a year of kindergarten commonly known as nursery school or pre-unit. The first class or year of primary school is known as Standard 1, the final year as Standard 8 and primary school children are known as pupils. The school year at both primary and secondary levels, begins in January and ends in November. Students get 3 school vacations in April, August and December.

At the end of the school year, students advance to the next grade. Since repetition was banned students still progress to the next grade even though they fail their examinations. Most primary schools are day schools with pupils living at home. Fewer schools at primary level are boarding schools compared to secondary schools. All public primary school pupils sit for the Kenya Certificate of Primary Education examination at the end of the school year in Standard eight.[43] In primary school, students are taught English, Kiswahili and Indigenous language activities.[44]

Universal Primary Education (UME), an international development goal created by the World Conference on Education, has led to Kenya's target of universal primary education for all citizens. Since 2003, enrollments have increased drastically and today Kenya has much closer rates of enrollment to first world countries, such as the United States.[46] In January 2003 President Mwai Kibaki re-introduced free primary education which previously existed before the mid-80s when the government adopted cost-sharing measures that led to a minor level of school fees charged by primary schools for textbooks, PTA, and extracurricular activities. Since 2003, education in public schools became free and compulsory (Kenya Constitution, Article 53, 2010). On learning that primary education had once again[47] become free in Kenya, Kimani Maruge, an uneducated farmer and the world's oldest person to enrol in primary school joined Kapkenduiywo primary school in Eldoret at the age of 84. He was elected head boy at the age of 86 in 2005.[48]

Secondary education

Secondary schools in Kenya fall into three categories: government-funded, Harambee and private. Government-funded schools are divided into national, provincial and district levels. Harambee schools do not receive full funding from the government and private schools are run by private organizations or individuals. After taking the primary school leaving exam and successfully passing, government-funded schools select students in order of scores.

Students with the highest scores gain admission into national schools while those with average scores are selected into provincial and district schools. Harambee schools accept students with low scores. Students who fail their examinations pursue technical and vocational education. The latter is divided into technical secondary school (lasting 4 years) and apprenticeships solutions. Since 2010, technical secondary schools student can have access to university programmes.[49] A number of students also drop out of school by choice due to poor scores.

Under the current system, students attend secondary school for four years before sitting for the school-leaving exam at the end of the fourth year. The first-class or year of secondary school is known as form 1 and the final year is form 4. At the end of the fourth year, from October to November students sit for the Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education examination. In 2008, the government introduced plans to offer free Secondary education to all Kenyans.

Historic prestigious national high schools include Mang'u High School, Alliance High School (Kenya), Lenana School and Starehe Boys' Centre and School. Private secondary schools in Kenya are generally high cost, offering students an alternative system of education with better or more luxurious facilities compared to public schools. They are often favoured for prestige. Most private schools in Kenya offer the British system of education which includes "O-levels" and "A-levels". Very few offer the American system of education and a good number of them offer the Kenya system. Some of the oldest private schools in Kenya include Loreto Convent Msongari, Nairobi (1921), St. Mary's School, Nairobi, Braeburn School, Consolata School, Strathmore School, Oshwal Academy, Rift Valley Academy, Aga Khan Academy, Kenton College and Brookhouse School,

KCSE grading requirements

Subject grouping

The average grade is based on performance in seven subjects. Where a candidate sits for a minimum seven and a maximum of nine subjects, the average grade is based on the best seven subjects. The grade assigned to the candidate depends on how well he has performed in all the seven ranked subjects. The subjects are grouped and among those seven chosen Group 1 is compulsory, Group 2 must be at least 2, Group 3 must be at least 1, Groups 4 and 5 are optional.

Group
Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group 4 Group 5
Subject
English; Kiswahili; Mathematics or Mathematics, Alternative B Biology; Physics; Chemistry; Biology for the Blind; General Science History; Geography; Christian Religious Education (CRE) or Islamic Religious Education (IRE) or Hindu Religious Education (HRE) Home Science; Art and Design; Agriculture; Wood Work; Metal Work ; Building Construction; Power Mechanics; Electricity; Drawing and Design; Aviation Technology; Computer Studies French; German; Arabic; Sign Language; Music; Business Studies
Compulsory Minimum of two or maximum of three Minimum of one or maximum of two Optional or maximum of one Optional or maximum of one

Grading system

Mean grading
Grade A A− (minus) B+ (plus) B (plain) B− (minus) C+ (plus) C (plain) C− (minus) D+ (plus) D (plain) D− (minus) E
Points 84–81 80–74 73–67 66–60 59–53 52–46 45–39 38–32 31–25 24–18 17–11 10–7
Subject grading
Grade A A− (minus) B+ (plus) B (plain) B− (minus) C+ (plus) C (plain) C− (minus) D+ (plus) D (plain) D− (minus) E
Points 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

University matriculation is based on the best eight and performance in particular subjects relevant to degree courses. For instance:

Subject Group Grade Points
English 1 B+ 10
Kiswahili 1 A− 11
Mathematics 1 A 12
History & Government 3 B 9
Geography 3 A− 11
Physics 2 B+ 10
Chemistry 2 B− 8
Biology 2 A− 11
The total number of points is 74: which is a mean grade of A−. Chemistry has not been used in the ranking, as maximum number of subjects that can be used in final ranking are seven. This student qualifies for direct admission in a Public University. Training institutions and faculties and departments determine their own minimum entry requirements.

The number of students admitted to public universities through the Kenya Universities and Colleges Central Placement Service (KUCCPS), prior to 2012 known as Kenya Universities Joint Admissions Board (JAB),[50] depends on the total number of beds available in all the public universities. Nonetheless, those who miss out but attained the minimum university entry mark of C+ or C with a relevant diploma certificate are admitted through the parallel degree programs (module II) if they can afford the full fees for the course.

Students who manage a grade of C+ qualify to do a degree course at the university. Owing to the competition, and fewer places at the university, those with B and in a few cases B−, and above are taken for degree courses at the public universities and benefit by paying government-subsidized fees. The rest join private universities or middle-level colleges.

This has been the subject of much discussion with people questioning the rationale and morality of locking out qualified students from public institutions yet still admitting those who come from financially able families.

Technical and Vocational Education and Training Institutions

These institutions operate under the state department of vocational and technical training under the helm of a principal secretary. Current PS is Esther Thaara Muhoria.

They award artisan, craft and diploma and higher national diploma certificates after successful completion of relevant courses. Courses offered by these institutions include Business Education, Accounting, Secretarial Studies, Nursing, Teacher Training, Computer Studies, Journalism, Media, Design, Culinary Studies, Foreign Languages, Tourism and Engineering. In order of credibility or accreditation, national polytechnics rank first, followed by government training institutes, teacher training colleges and private institutions. Although generally termed colleges, these institutions do not award degrees. Degrees are only awarded by Universities and Technical Universities. Over time, education has been a critical component in the pursuit of a meaningful life. People can get knowledge, skills, and perspectives important for career success, personal growth, and social contributions. However, it is not appropriate to view education as the only way of fulfilling life due to its limitations. Education provides a good foundation for economic stability and career opportunities. When well-educated, people will cultivate problem-solving, critical thinking, and communication skills to navigate the complex and competitive job market in the 21st century (Tran, 2023). Notably, it brings opportunities and opens doors for people to pursue their passions and have a sense of purpose and fulfilment.

From July 2014, all government and private institutions offering Technical and Vocational Education and Training where put under "TVETA". Retrieved 10 October 2016..[51] this act normalized this sector as it had become tainted by unaccredited institutions offering substandard education as revealed by "The Standard". and "The Star". 2 December 2015. As of 10 October 2016 there were 540 institutions accredited by the Authority[52]

Government TVET institutions

There are three types of government TVET institutions in Kenya. these are National Polytechnics, Technical Institutions and Vocational Education Centers (formerly Youth Polytechnics)[53] [1] Notable Institutions include:

  1. Technical University of Kenya
  2. Technical University of Mombasa
  3. The Sigalagala National Polytechnic
  4. Rift Valley Technical Training InstituteS

University education

See also: List of universities and colleges in Kenya and Academic ranks in Kenya

There are 48 universities in Kenya, 22 of which are public and 26 private. The University of Nairobi is the oldest public university in Kenya while KAG East university is the oldest among the private universities.

While education accessibility has been of major importance at the primary and secondary levels in Kenya, the attempt of making education accessible has not been implemented at the higher education level, which leaves students from a lower socioeconomic status at a disadvantage compared to those of a higher socioeconomic status. In recent years there has been an increase in the cost of higher education worldwide, and there is no exception for Kenya which is limiting access to specific socioeconomic groups and those from different regions and ethnic groups since it favors and is more accessible to those who can afford it. There are very few students from disadvantaged backgrounds attending higher education institutions which is a reflection of the society and the quality of prior education. There are many social inequalities present in Kenya which have a direct impact on education such as: disparities in distribution of national income, security, and employment, levels of investment, health care, and public services are also evident across populations, genders, and ethnic groups. In an observation done by the Society for International Development, in 2004 10% of Kenya's population controlled about 42% of the national income while 10% contents with significantly less than 1%. The poverty gap has widened so significantly that the top 1% is making approximately $1,204 per month while the rest of the population is making approximately $181 per month.[54]

Immediately after independence, Kenya's public higher education was free for all students regardless of their socioeconomic status; it was fully funded by the government. This created a high demand for higher education which raised a concern for donor agencies. At that time, the demand was continuously increasing, but Kenya's economy was not improving, so the government established a cost sharing and cost recovery model. In the cost sharing model, the government would cover part of the cost, but the remaining cost was the institutions and families responsibility. After this change, the student loan scheme was introduced. It was the responsibility of the Higher Education Loans Board (HELB) to pay out loans to Kenyan students that are interested in attending a higher education institution; there have been concerns that the loans are not being distributed equitably which has not fully improved the higher education access issues. Kenya has also explored the Module II admissions plan. In this plan, the admitted students must pay their full tuition fees but also pay an amount that is equivalent to attending a private institution. This has widened the accessibility gap for families of lower socioeconomic status as they will not be able to pay the amount of tuition, so higher education remains unaffordable and inaccessible for those students.[54]

Due to the current policies and financial requirements, educational access is limited to students who perform highly in academics and those who do not. If students are academically inclined and perform well in their primary and secondary education institutions, the educational fees and increasing tuition costs cause them to be unable to attend a higher education institution. Cost sharing has created an even larger gap in accessibility for students; continuing similar policies will keep creating a larger gap. [55]

Higher Education Financing

In 2023, the Government of Kenya launched the Higher Education Financing portal to ensure equality in the access to education for University and TVET students. The HEF portal is based on the New Funding Model (NFM) launched by the President of Kenya on 3 May 2023. Under the NFM, students assessed as vulnerable and extremely needy will receive 100% Government funding for their education. Those assessed as needy will receive 93% of Government funding via the HEF portal.[56]

Digital accessibility in university education

There has been a recent focus on digital accessibility after the COVID-19 pandemic. In a study done by Githinji et al. (2022), there was a focus on the accessibility of digital content in Kenya. This was done at the higher education level. The study found that one of the major challenges in accessibility was the internet connectivity for both educators and students. In many areas in the country, there are not the necessary resources or funds to be able to purchase a device to access digital content.

Public universities and their constituent colleges

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Public universities

Sno University Name Area Year Chartered Original name Year established Campus
1 University of Nairobi Nairobi 1970 Royal Technical College, Royal College Nairobi 1956 Main campus, Kikuyu campus, Chiromo campus, Lower Kabete campus, Upper Kabete campus, Parklands campus, Kenya Science campus, Mombasa campus and Kisumu campus.
2 Moi University Eldoret 1984 Moi University 1984
3 Kenyatta University Nairobi 1985 Kenyatta University College 1965 Main campus, Parklands campus, Ruiru campus, City campus, Kitui campus, Mombasa campus, Nakuru campus.
4 Egerton University Njoro 1988
5 Maseno University Maseno 1991 Maseno Govt. Training Institute, Siriba Teachers College 1955 Oginga Odinga University
6 Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Kiambu 1994 Jomo Kenyatta College of Agriculture 1981 Multimedia University College of Kenya, Meru University College of Science and Technology, Murang'a University College,[57]
7 Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology Kakamega 2007 Western College of Arts and Applied Sciences 1972 Constituent colleges, Kibabii University College, Turkana University Uollege, Kaimosi University College, Main campus in Kakamega and Mumias campus
8 Dedan Kimathi University of Technology Nyeri 2012 Kimathi Institute of Technology, Kimathi University College of Technology (2007) as a Constituent College of Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology 1972 Main Campus, Nyeri
9 Chuka University Chuka 2012 Egerton University Eastern Campus College, Chuka University College (2007) as a Constituent College of Egerton University 2004 Main Campus, Chuka
10 Technical University of Kenya Nairobi 2013 Kenya Technical Institute, Kenya Polytechnic, Kenya Polytechnic University College (2007) as a Constituent College of the University of Nairobi 1961 Main Campus, Nairobi
11 Technical University of Mombasa Mombasa 2013 (MIOME), Mombasa Technical Institute [1966], Mombasa Polytechnic [1976], The Mombasa Polytechnic University College [2007] as a Constituent College of Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology 1940 Main Campus, Tudor. Satellite Campuses in Kwale and Lamu County
12 Pwani University Kilifi 2013 Kilifi Institute of Agriculture, Pwani University College as a Constituent College of Kenyatta University 2007 Main Campus, Kilifi
13 Kisii University Kisii 2013 Primary Teachers' Training College (1965), Secondary Teachers' College (1983), Egerton Campus (1994), Kisii University College (2007) as a Constituent College of Egerton University 1965 Main Campus, Kisii Town Campus
14 University of Eldoret Eldoret 2013 Chepkoilel University College as a Constituent College of Moi University Main Campus Eldoret
15 Maasai Mara University Narok 2013 Narok University College as a Constituent College of Moi University 2008 Main Campus, Narok
16 Jaramogi Oginga Odinga University of Science and Technology Kisumu 2013 Bondo Teachers Training College, Bondo University College, as a Constituent College of Maseno University (2009) Main Campus, Lake Victoria
17 Laikipia University Laikipia 2013 LSFTC (1965), AHITI (1979), Egerton University Campus (1990), Laikipia University College, as a Constituent College of Egerton University Main Campus, Nyahururu town Campus, Naivasha Campus, Nakuru Campus, Maralal Campus
18 South Eastern Kenya University Kitui 2013 Ukamba Agricultural Institute (Ukai), South Eastern University College (Seuco) 2008 SEKU Main Campus, Machakos Town Campus, Kitui Town Campus, Wote Town Campus, Mtito-Andei Campus, Nairobi City Campus.
19 Multimedia University of Kenya Nairobi 2013 Central Training School (CTS) to serve East African Posts Training School (1948), (KCCT) Kenya College of Communications Technology (1992), Multimedia University college of Kenya 2008 (MMU) Main Campus
20 University of Kabianga Kericho 2013 The Government School, Kabianga (1925), Kabianga Teachers' Training College (1929), Kabianga Framers Training Cente (1959), Kabianga Campus of Moi University (2007), Kabianga University College 2009 (UoK) Main Campus, Kapkatet Campus, Kericho Satellite Campus, Satellite Campus
21 Karatina University Karatina 2013 Moi University Central Kenya Campus, Karatina University College 2008 Main Campus, Karatina Town Campus, Itiati Campus, Nanyuki Campus, Riverbank Campus
22 Meru University of Science and Technology Meru 2013 (MECOTECH) Meru College of Technology (1979), (MUCST) Meru University College of Science and Technology 2008 MUST Main Campus, Meru Town Campus
23 Kirinyaga University Kerugoya 2016 Kirinyaga Technical Institute, Kirinyaga University College 2012 Kutus, Kerugoya
24 Machakos University. Machakos 2016 Technical Rural Training School (1957), Machakos Technical and Trade School(1958), Machakos Technical School(1967), Machakos Technical Training Institute (MTTI) (1987) 1957 Main Campus, Machakos
25 The Co-operative university of Kenya Nairobi 1968 Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology 2016 CUK Main campus,Karen

Private universities

There are 3 categories of private universities: chartered universities – fully accredited universities, by the Commission for Higher Education; universities, which had been offering degrees long before the establishment of the Commission for Higher Education; and universities authorized to operate with Letters of Interim Authority (LIA).

Chartered universities

  1. Strathmore University.
  2. Mount Kenya University.
  3. University of Eastern Africa, Baraton.
  4. United States International University Africa (USIU-A).
  5. Catholic University of Eastern Africa – CUEA.
  6. Daystar University.
  7. Kabarak University.
  8. Riara University.
  9. KAG East University
  10. Kenya Methodist University.(KeMU)
  11. Africa Nazarene University.
  12. St. Paul's University.
  13. Kenya Methodist University.
  14. Pan Africa Christian University.
  15. Scott Christian University.
  16. Maasai Mara University.
  17. Kenya Highlands Evangelical University. Formerly Kenya Highlands Bible College – KHBC
  18. Great Lakes University of Kisumu
  19. Africa International University (formerly NEGST)
  20. KCA University
  21. Adventist University of Africa (Rongai).
  22. Pan Africa Christian University
  23. University Of Eastern Africa, Baraton
  24. Aga Khan University.

Universities with Letters of Interim Authority (LIA)

  1. Kiriri Women's University of Science and Technology.
  2. Presbyterian University of East Africa.
  3. Gretsa University.
  4. The East African University
  5. UMMA University
  6. Management University of Africa
  7. Riara University
  8. Pioneer International University
  9. RAF International University
  10. Adventist University
  11. Inoorero University
  12. GENCO University

Universities operating with Certificates of Registration

  1. The Nairobi International School of theology

Teacher education

Most universities in Kenya have a teacher training programme, and the B.Ed. programmes often have the most students compared to other programmes. Kenya's population is growing, which in turn means that the demand for teachers is growing; however, there is often a shortage of teachers due to budget issues in schools. There are four different levels of teacher education. Early childhood development teacher education, which is available as a certificate or 2-year diploma, requires 300 hours of teaching practice. Primary teacher education is a 2-year programme in which teachers-in-training practice teaching in four sessions of three weeks. A variety of subjects are studied. Diploma teacher education is a 3-year programme. Teacher trainees in this programme take a wide variety of subjects. The undergraduate bachelors programme is a 4-year programme; trainees study 2 different subjects. All teaching programmes require teaching practice in which a teacher trainee prepares for lessons and teaches the lesson while being assessed on their preparation and the teaching itself. Mentor teachers at the school work with administration and supervisors to assess the teacher trainee. One challenge to teacher education in Kenya is a lack of experienced teacher educators who have knowledge of both the content and pedagogy. Additionally, some of the teacher educators of primary programmes were themselves trained at the secondary level, so they do not possess the knowledge of primary education necessary.[58]

Access to education

In 2003, the government launched the Free Primary Education programme (FPE), which abolished primary school fees for all children. Previously, school fees, uniform costs, and textbook costs were a substantial barrier to education for many, especially considering the rate of poverty and economic inequality in Kenya. The aim of FPE was to remove these barriers to education and ensure that more children with low socioeconomic status are able to access schooling. Despite the goals of FPE to improve equitable education for all, analysis of the Kenya Certificate of Primary Education (KCPE) examination scores showed that counties with high enrollment impact and improved KCPE scores were in the arid and semi-arid area, while counties with high enrollment impact and lower KCPE scores were in coastal areas.[59]

FPE led to an increased number of students who could attend school. It also led to an increase in the number of private schools, and it resulted in a larger teacher-student ratio in schools. Despite more students per teacher, researchers found that the implementation of FPE resulted in only slightly decreased test scores in those who would have finished primary school regardless of FPE. Overall, FPE succeeded in increasing access to primary school.[60]

Students with disabilities

The Free Primary Education programme secured equal rights for children with disabilities and set aside funding for schools with students with disabilities. Still, by 2005 less than 10% of children with disabilities had access to schooling. In 2010, a new constitution was adopted by Kenya which ensured that children with disabilities have the right to a free and compulsory education. Also in 2010, the National Special Needs Education Policy Framework was adopted by the Kenyan government to ensure that students with disabilities have access to good education. The objectives of this framework include early identification and intervention, increasing public awareness, supporting research, and providing adequate facilities. Despite the strong intentions of this framework to make education accessible for children with disabilities, by 2018 the framework had not been fully implemented. It is not uncommon for policies to remain unimplemented after adoption in Kenya; this may be due to a lack of available government funds.[61]

Prior to the adoption of Free Primary Education, only four categories of disability were recognized: hearing impaired, mentally handicapped, physically handicapped, and visual impaired. After Free Primary education was adopted, autism, cerebral palsy, and Down syndrome were included in the disability categories. The National Special Needs Education Policy Framework further expanded the list of recognized disability categories to twenty-two, including orphaned students, the internally displaced, and nomadic students. There have been strides made in helping students with disabilities access an equitable education, but challenges remain. Few teachers are trained in special education. Referral and assessment services do not receive adequate funding, and not all schools have access to these resources. Additionally, there is a cultural stigma on people with disabilities in Kenya. The stigma and marginalization on people with disabilities is particularly acute in rural areas.[62]

Mobile devices are seeing some success as assistive technology for the visually impaired in Kenya. Approximately 1.4% of Kenyans may be visually impaired, and students who are visually impaired have less access to textual works. There are six schools for the blind in Kenya, but only two of them offer secondary education. Only two universities admit visually impaired students, and the majors open to them are limited because of a lack of assistive technology resources. However, mobile devices are very common in Kenya, and one study found that distributing mobile devices to students made it easier for students with visual impairments to access education. Students were able to type notes, record lectures, have text read to them, and easily communicate with classmates and professors via email.[63]

Women's access to education

In 2008, the national secondary education expansion programme was put in place. This programme reduced school fees at the secondary level and increased class sizes, thereby expanding access. This policy resulted in an increase of educational attainment by women by 0.75 years. It also reduced the chance of a first childbirth by age 19 and age 20 by about 30%, and it reduced the chance of first marriage by age 16 and age 18 by 40% and 20% respectively. This hints that being able to continue secondary education reduces behaviors that could stop women from pursuing education. Higher education for women is associated with benefits for both women and their future children.[64]

Factors affecting education in Kenya

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In 2003 the Kenyan government promised free primary education to its citizens. In the early 70s primary school fees were abolished but in the mid 80s cost-sharing measures between the government and its citizens led to the re-introduction of minor fee charges by primary schools. As the trend continued with schools requiring parents to pay fees such as PTA, harambee, textbooks, uniforms, caution fees, exam fees and extracurricular activity fees, most parents became overburdened and unable to raise such fees. Those who could not afford the money to pay for their children's school fees often had their children drop out of school. Many children were also forced to drop out of school when teachers would not allow them to take exams. To pressurize parents to pay fees, schools often sent children home during the final exams.

The growth of Kenya's education sector has exceeded expectations. After the first university was established in 1970, six other public universities and 23 private universities have been established. Although Kenya has its own universities, some parents prefer to send their children to universities outside the country. This is largely because Kenyan public universities are not as flexible with admission requirements as some foreign universities. Another factor that has been pointed out is that youth with disabilities are facing major obstacles to progress in higher education, and measures as affirmative action or measures tailored to the needs of particular profiles of students could play a relevant role in this.[65]

Literacy

In a 2020 study on literacy published in Early Education and Development, researchers found that mothers and fathers in Kenya do not spend much time reading and storytelling with their children. This may be explained by the low level of education attained by the mostly rural participants in the study; it could also be explained by the amount of time these families need to spend on subsistence activities. However, one-third of other household members did read to children living in the same household, which had a positive effect on early childhood literacy.[66]

See also

[54]

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14. List of Primary Schools in Kenya

Kenyan State-institutions

Data & reports from external institution