Ministry of Science and Innovation
Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación
Logotipo del Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación.svg
Ministerio de Industria, Turismo y Comercio de España (Madrid) 01.jpg

Headquarters of the Ministry of Science
Agency overview
FormedApril 5, 1979; 43 years ago (1979-04-05) (as Ministry of Universities and Research)
January 13, 2020 (as Ministry of Science and Innovation)
Preceding agencies
TypeMinistry
JurisdictionGovernment of Spain
HeadquartersPaseo de la Castellana, 162
Madrid, Spain
Employees4,561 (2019)[note 1][1]
Annual budget 8.5 billion, 2021[2]
Minister responsible
Agency executives
  • Rafael Rodrigo Montero, Secretary-General for Research
  • Teresa Riesgo Alcaide, Secretary-General for Innovation
  • Pablo Martín González, Under-Secretary
WebsiteMinistry of Science (in spanish)

The Ministry of Science and Innovation (MICINN) is the department of the Government of Spain responsible for developing and implementing the government policy on scientific research, technological development and innovation in all sectors. In particular, MICINN is responsible for the exercise of research, technological development and innovation competencies in space matters, including representation and participation in European Union and International organizations.[3]

MICINN is headed by the Minister of Science, who is appointed by the King of Spain at request of the Prime Minister. The Minister is assisted by three main officials, the Secretary-General for Research, the Secretary-General for Innovation and the Ministry's Under Secretary. The current Minister is Diana Morant.[4][5]

The first predecessor of this ministry was established during the regency of Maria Christina of Austria with the creation of the Ministry of Public Instruction and Fine Arts, formed by Royal Decree of the April 18, 1900. The first minister was Antonio García Alix. This ministry included an area for the "promotion of science".[6]

History

Origins

At the very beginning, like many of the current ministries, the Ministry of Science responsibilities were integrated in the Ministry of Development when it was created in 1832.

The first attempt of separating the responsibilities on education and science from the Development Ministry happened in 1886. This year, in order to give more autonomy to the education matters it was passed the Royal Decree of May 7, 1886,[7] which divided the mentioned ministry into two ministries: Ministry of Public Instruction and Sciences, Letters and Fine Arts —with competencies on public and private education, education staff, inspection and promotion of knowledge, promotion of sciences, promotion of writing and fine arts, archives, libraries and museums, the economic and infrastructure issues on these matters, astronomy, statistics, meteorology and metrology, astronomical observatories, population movements and censuses— and the Ministry of Public Works, Agriculture, Industry and Trade —with competences over public investments in infrastructure and transport, agriculture, fishing, food, industry and commerce—. However, this royal decree that divided the Development Ministry into two ministries did not come to pass, as the necessary credits were not approved by the Cortes.

Antonio García Alix, first Minister of Education in his office.
Antonio García Alix, first Minister of Education in his office.

Ministry of Public Instruction

Fourteen years later and inspired by the decree of 1886, the Budget Act of 1900 approved the necessary credit to split the Ministry of Development into two new ministries, and the science responsibilities were transferred to the new Ministry of Public Instruction and Fine Arts which assumed the competencies provided for in the decree of 1886.[8]

In 1907, the Count of Gimeno, Minister of Education, created the Board for the Extension of Studies and Scientific Research (JAE). This new institution was heir to the principles of the Institución Libre de Enseñanza, and with it was intended to end Spanish isolation and link with European science and culture, as well as prepare the personnel in charge of carrying out the necessary reforms in the areas of science, culture and education. In this way, the effort to reform, to regenerate the country, became a national enterprise, independent of the political swings, in which intellectuals of different ideology were involved.

The JAE created dozens of laboratories, research centers and gave hundreds of scholarships for research abroad as well as connecting intellectuals from Spain and the rest of Europe. Since its inception was chaired by the Medicine Nobel Prize winner Santiago Ramón y Cajal.[9]

Dictatorship and CSIC

During the Civil War, Franco created the Technical Board of the State (1936–38) to rule the country and the science responsibilities were assumed by the Commission of Culture and Education. With the Civil War over and the Ministry of Education restored, the science responsibilities were maintained in the Education Ministry. In 1939 it was created the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC) which assumed the research centers and laboratories from the Board for the Extension of Studies and Scientific Research, from the Foundation for Scientific Research and Reform Studies and from the Institute of Spain. Minister José Ibáñez Martín was its first President.

Without permanent staff, the first years of the CSIC was limited to consultative responsibilities to the Government, but in 1945 it was approved the first permanent scientific positions, limited to technical research and agriculture.[10]

The last years of the dictatorship were the most relevant to science. In 1966,[11] the Ministry of National Education was renamed Ministry of Education and Science being this one the first time that the word "science" appeared in a Ministry and remained like that until 1979 when for the first time the responsibilities on universities and research got their own ministry named Ministry of Universities and Research.

Democracy

This new ministry assumed the functions of the Secretary of State for Universities and Research that had been created in 1977[12] within the Ministry of Education and Science, and other administrative bodies of scientific competence, as well as some bodies dependent on the Office of the Prime Minister.[13] In 1980 the National Museum of Science and Technology was created and in 1986 the Carlos III Health Institute and the Center for Energy, Environmental and Technological Research.

Diana Morant, current Minister of Science and Innovation.
Diana Morant, current Minister of Science and Innovation.

Without reaching two years of life, the Ministry was merged again with the Education Ministry and, with different denominations, remained so until in 2000, when the Premier José María Aznar, created the Ministry of Science and Technology that grouped the competences on scientific research of the Ministry of Education, and the competences on technological development of the Ministry of Industry and Energy, including telecommunications; retaining the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport the universities responsibilities.[14]

After four years without much success, the ministry was reinstated in the Education Ministry by Prime Minister José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero who recovered the old name of Ministry of Education and Science. However, in his second term Zapatero again granted ministerial rank to scientific competencies with the Ministry of Science and Innovation in order to depend less "on the construction and more outstanding services of knowledge, invest more in science and technology, help to companies to innovate and coordinate universities and research centers». However, the dependence on construction did not stop and with the outbreak of the property bubble and the subsequent economic crisis made the following government, led by Mariano Rajoy, in an effort to reduce public spending, reduced the size of the Administration merging the Ministry of Science and Innovation with the Ministry of Economy.[15] During the premiership of Rajoy, the State Research Agency was created.

Already with a better economic situation, the new government of Pedro Sánchez recovered the Department of Science including not only the scientific and innovation competencies, but also recovering for this Ministry the responsibilities on universities that the Ministry already had under the premiership of Adolfo Suarez, naming as Science Minister astronaut Pedro Duque.[16]

In 2020, the department lost its power over universities due to the re-creation of the Department of Universities.

Organization chart

The Department of Science and Innovation is structured in the following bodies:[17]

List of officeholders

Office name:

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Party Government Prime Minister
(Tenure)
Ref.
Took office Left office Duration
Luis González Seara 1979 (cropped).jpg
Luis González Seara
(1936–2016)
6 April
1979
27 February
1981
1 year and 327 days UCD Suárez III Adolfo Suárez
Adolfo Suárez 1980 (cropped).jpg

(1976–1981)
[18]
[19]
Juan Antonio Ortega y Díaz-Ambrona 1981b (cropped).jpg
Juan Antonio Ortega y Díaz-Ambrona
(born 1939)
27 February
1981
7 March
1981
8 days UCD Calvo-Sotelo Leopoldo Calvo-Sotelo
Leopoldo Calvo-Sotelo 1978 (cropped).jpg

(1981–1982)
[20]
[21]
Office disestablished during this interval.[a]
Anna Birulés 2002 (cropped).jpg
Anna Birulés
(born 1954)
28 April
2000
10 July
2002
2 years and 73 days Independent Aznar II José María Aznar
José María Aznar 2003d (cropped).jpg

(1996–2004)
[22]
[23]
Josep Piqué 1999 (cropped).jpg
Josep Piqué
(born 1955)
10 July
2002
4 September
2003
1 year and 56 days PP [24]
[25]
Juan Costa 2007b (cropped).jpg
Juan Costa
(born 1965)
4 September
2003
18 April
2004
227 days PP [26]
[27]
Office disestablished during this interval.[b]
Cristina Garmendia 2010 (cropped).jpg
Cristina Garmendia
(born 1962)
14 April
2008
22 December
2011
3 years and 252 days Independent Zapatero II José Luis
Rodríguez Zapatero

José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero 2011c (cropped).jpg

(2004–2011)
[28]
[29]
Office disestablished during this interval.[c]
Pedro Duque 2020 (cropped).jpg
Pedro Duque
(born 1963)
7 June
2018
13 January
2020
3 years and 35 days Independent Sánchez I Pedro Sánchez
Pedro Sánchez 2021b (cropped).jpg

(2018–present)
[30]
[31]
[32]
13 January
2020
12 July
2021
Sánchez II
Diana Morant 2021 (cropped).jpg
Diana Morant
(born 1980)
12 July
2021
Incumbent 1 year and 40 days PSOE [33]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The department's competences were transferred to the Ministry of Education and Science between 1981 and 1996, and to the Ministry of Education and Culture between 1996 and 2000.
  2. ^ The department's competences were transferred to the Ministry of Education and Science between 2004 and 2008.
  3. ^ The department's competences were transferred to the Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness between 2011 and 2016, and to the Ministry of Economy, Industry and Competitiveness between 2016 and 2018.

Notes and references

  1. ^ Ministry of Territorial Policy and Civil Service (2018). Statistical Bulletin of the personnel at the service of the Public Administrations (PDF). pp. 32 and 48. ((cite book)): |author= has generic name (help)
  2. ^ "2021 State Budget" (PDF). www.boe.es. 4 January 2021. Retrieved 6 January 2021.
  3. ^ "Royal Decree 865/2018, of July 13, by which the basic organic structure of the Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities is developed". boe.es. Retrieved 2019-04-14.
  4. ^ Jones, Sam (2018-06-06). "Spanish PM appoints 11 women and six men to new cabinet". the Guardian. Retrieved 2018-06-16.
  5. ^ esa. "ESA astronaut Pedro Duque appointed to new Spanish government". European Space Agency. Retrieved 2018-06-16.
  6. ^ "Instituto de Formación del Profesorado, Investigación e Innovación Educativa (IFIIE) - Gobierno de España - Ministerio de Educación". 2011-11-08. Archived from the original on 2011-11-08. Retrieved 2018-06-16.
  7. ^ "Royal decree abolishing the Ministry of Development from July 1 next, which will be replaced by two others that will be called Ministry of Public Instruction and Sciences, Letters and Fine Arts and Ministry of Public Works, Agriculture, Industry and Trade" (PDF).
  8. ^ "Royal decree suppressing the Ministry of Development and creating in its place those of Public Instruction and Public Works" (PDF).
  9. ^ "Junta para Ampliación de Estudios e Investigaciones Junta para Ampliación de Estudios e Investigaciones Científicas". www.jae2010.csic.es. Retrieved 2019-04-14.
  10. ^ "las primeras reformas - csic.es". www.csic.es. Retrieved 2019-04-14.
  11. ^ "Law 35/1966, of May 31, on change of name of the Ministry of National Education for Education and Science and restructuring of Section 18 of the General State Budget". boe.es. Retrieved 2019-04-14.
  12. ^ "Royal Decree 1558/1977, of July 4, by which certain organs of the Central State Administration are restructured". www.boe.es. Retrieved 2019-04-14.
  13. ^ "Royal Decree 708/1979, of April 5, by which certain organs of the Central State Administration are restructured". boe.es. Retrieved 2019-04-14.
  14. ^ "Royal Decree 557/2000, of April 27, on the restructuring of ministerial departments". www.boe.es. Retrieved 2019-04-14.
  15. ^ Catanzaro, Michele (2011). "Spain cuts science ministry in government changeover". Nature News. doi:10.1038/nature.2011.9725. S2CID 159821556.
  16. ^ Moro-Martín, Amaya (2018-07-13). "Spain's good news". Science. 361 (6398): 111. Bibcode:2018Sci...361..111M. doi:10.1126/science.aau6630 (inactive 31 July 2022). ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 30002229.((cite journal)): CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of July 2022 (link)
  17. ^ "Royal Decree 139/2020, of January 28, which establishes the basic organic structure of the ministerial departments". boe.es. Retrieved 2020-01-30.
  18. ^ "Real Decreto 711/1979, de 5 de abril, por el que se nombran Ministros del Gobierno" (PDF). Boletín Oficial del Estado (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (83): 8192. 6 April 1979. ISSN 0212-033X.
  19. ^ "Real Decreto 259/1981, de 26 de febrero, por el que se dispone el cese en sus funciones de los miembros del Gobierno" (PDF). Boletín Oficial del Estado (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (50): 4430–4431. 27 February 1981. ISSN 0212-033X.
  20. ^ "Real Decreto 256/1981, de 26 de febrero, por el que se nombran Ministros del Gobierno" (PDF). Boletín Oficial del Estado (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (50): 4430. 27 February 1981. ISSN 0212-033X.
  21. ^ "Real Decreto 325/1981, de 6 de marzo, por el que se reestructuran determinados órganos de la Administración del Estado" (PDF). Boletín Oficial del Estado (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (57): 5096–5098. 7 March 1981. ISSN 0212-033X.
  22. ^ "Real Decreto 561/2000, de 27 de abril, por el que se nombran Ministros del Gobierno" (PDF). Boletín Oficial del Estado (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (102): 16448. 28 April 2000. ISSN 0212-033X.
  23. ^ "Real Decreto 668/2002, de 9 de julio, por el que se dispone el cese de doña Anna María Birulés i Bertrán como Ministra de Ciencia y Tecnología" (PDF). Boletín Oficial del Estado (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (164): 24993. 10 July 2002. ISSN 0212-033X.
  24. ^ "Real Decreto 678/2002, de 9 de julio, por el que se nombra Ministro de Ciencia y Tecnología a don Josep Piqué i Camps" (PDF). Boletín Oficial del Estado (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (164): 24994. 10 July 2002. ISSN 0212-033X.
  25. ^ "Real Decreto 1117/2003, de 3 de septiembre, por el que se dispone el cese de don Josep Piqué i Camps como Ministro de Ciencia y Tecnología" (PDF). Boletín Oficial del Estado (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (212): 33333. 4 September 2003. ISSN 0212-033X.
  26. ^ "Real Decreto 1122/2003, de 3 de septiembre, por el que se nombra Ministro de Ciencia y Tecnología a don Juan Costa Climent" (PDF). Boletín Oficial del Estado (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (212): 33334. 4 September 2003. ISSN 0212-033X.
  27. ^ "Real Decreto 449/2004, de 15 de marzo, por el que se declara el cese de los miembros del Gobierno" (PDF). Boletín Oficial del Estado (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (65): 11575. 16 March 2004. ISSN 0212-033X.
  28. ^ "Real Decreto 436/2008, de 12 de abril, por el que se nombran Ministros del Gobierno" (PDF). Boletín Oficial del Estado (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (90): 19762. 14 April 2008. ISSN 0212-033X.
  29. ^ "Real Decreto 1743/2011, de 21 de noviembre, por el que se declara el cese de los miembros del Gobierno" (PDF). Boletín Oficial del Estado (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (281): 123537. 22 November 2011. ISSN 0212-033X.
  30. ^ "Real Decreto 357/2018, de 6 de junio, por el que se nombran Ministros del Gobierno" (PDF). Boletín Oficial del Estado (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (138): 58729. 7 June 2018. ISSN 0212-033X.
  31. ^ "Real Decreto 8/2020, de 12 de enero, por el que se nombran Ministros del Gobierno" (PDF). Boletín Oficial del Estado (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (11): 2882. 13 January 2020. ISSN 0212-033X.
  32. ^ "Real Decreto 521/2021, de 10 de julio, por el que se dispone el cese de don Pedro Francisco Duque Duque como Ministro de Ciencia e Innovación" (PDF). Boletín Oficial del Estado (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (165): 82895. 12 July 2021. ISSN 0212-033X.
  33. ^ "Real Decreto 533/2021, de 10 de julio, por el que se nombra Ministra de Ciencia e Innovación a doña Diana Morant Ripoll" (PDF). Boletín Oficial del Estado (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (165): 82907. 12 July 2021. ISSN 0212-033X.
  1. ^ Spain has 156,042 university employees although universities are independent.