Our Lady of Solitude of Porta Vaga
Nuestra Señora de la Soledad de Porta Vaga
Mahal na Birhen ng Soledad ng Porta Vaga
The original icon of the Our Lady of Porta Vaga located in the Diocesan Shrine of Our Lady of Solitude of Porta Vaga, San Roque Parish Church, Cavite City, Philippines.
LocationCavite City, Philippines
Date1667
WitnessSoldier
TypeMarian apparition
Approval17 November 1978, Canonical coronation by Pope John Paul II
19 March 2018, Canonical coronation by Pope Francis
Venerated inCatholic Church
Philippine Independent Church
ShrineDiocesan Shrine of Our Lady of Solitude of Porta Vaga, San Roque Parish Church, Cavite City, Philippines
PatronageProvince of Cavite
Cavite City
Galleons
Vocations
Marines
Navy
Tahanan ng Mabuting Pastol Seminary, Tagaytay
AttributesOil painting on canvas approx. 18-1/8" x 14-3/4"
Aureola with 24 stars made from diamonds. a
Rosary, made from pearls and a Cross of diamonds.
Crown of Thorns and Nails symbols of Christ's Passion.
Gold and silver Riza in the shape of candle sticks, angels, Curtains, Shells and multiple precious gems.
Feast day2nd and 3rd Sunday of November

Our Lady of Solitude of Porta Vaga (Spanish: Nuestra Señora de la Soledad de Porta Vaga, Filipino: Mahal na Birhen ng Soledad ng Porta Vaga) is a Roman Catholic Marian title of the Blessed Virgin Mary, based on the Marian apparitions reported in 1667 by a Spanish soldier during a night storm when he watched over the gates of Porta Vaga, later on the next day the icon was discovered in the seashore of Cañacao bay. The Virgin of Soledad is a venerated Marian icon associated to the Our Lady of Solitude. The province of Cavite and the city of Cavite consider her as its patroness.

The oldest dated Marian painting in the Philippines[1] and the Patroness of Cavite[2][3][4][5] is permanently enshrined at the Diocesan Shrine of Our Lady of Solitude of Porta Vaga, Parish of San Roque.[6]

The image was ceremoniously crowned on 17 November 1978, though having been long disputed as illegitimate due to lack of official decree from Rome. On 27 September 2017, the image was designated as a National Cultural Treasure of the Philippines. On 19 March 2018, new documents were submitted to the Holy Office and the image was granted an official decree of canonical coronation by Pope Francis.

Title and description

The original icon after its restoration without any ornaments

The image is known in its province as the "Queen of the City and Province of Cavite" and "Exalted Patroness and the Celestial Guardian and Protectress of the Province of Cavite and its Port" (Spanish: Reina de la Ciudad y Provincia de Cavite and La Excelsa Patrona y La Celestial Guardiana y Protectora de la Provincia de Cavite y su Puerto). The icon was used to bless departing trade galleons plying the route between Cavite and Acapulco, Mexico, earning her the title "Patroness of the Galleons", while claims of miracles associated the icon as "The Virgin of a Thousand Miracles". According to historical records, the image is sometimes called "Mother of Candles" ("Ynang Magkakandila") due to her prayerful iconography of two candles, hundreds of bottles of candles was offered in front of the image in the weeks of her festival in Cavite. Accordingly, a separate feast was celebrated supported and funded by candle makers in gratitude for their income from the recent days feast. The youth also calls the image affectionally as "Nay Choleng" (Mother Choleng) using the name "Choleng" a pseudonym of "Soledad".

The Blessed Virgin Mary is depicted as garbed in black and white, kneeling before the instruments of Passion of Jesus Christ.[7] The icon is painted on canvas and framed in carved wood. The painting itself is set in gold and silver accoutrements of precious gemstones donated as ex votos from devotees.

A Spanish inscription on the reverse of the icon reads:

Tracing of the inscription on the reverse of the icon.

Spanish language: "A 12 de Abril 1692 años, Juan Oliba puso esta Santissima Ymagen Haqui."
(English: "On the 12th of April, 1692, Juan Oliba placed this most holy image here.")

Historical timeline

1600s

1700s

Port of Cavite, detail from Carta Hydrographica y Chorographica de las Yslas Filipinas (1734). Listed on the map as "11. La Soledad" is the Ermita de Porta Vaga.
Original Spanish era Frame of Our Lady of Porta Vaga
The oldest known design of an Estampa or print of Our Lady of Solitude of Porta Vaga with the granted 80 days indulgence of Archbishop Basilio Sancho de Santa Justa y Rufina of Manila and 40 days indulgence of Bishop Mateo Joaquin Rubio de Arevalo of Cebu

1800s

The Ermita de Porta Vaga (Chapel of Porta Vaga) alongside the walls of Cavite, built as the original shrine of Our Lady of Solitude of Porta Vaga, circa 1899
The Replica and marker on the original site of the Ermita de Porta Vaga

20th century

Its Marian Procession in 1955
Mass inside the Manila Cathedral celebrating the feast of Our Lady of Porta Vaga
1978
  • (Jun 12) The Our Lady of Solitude Foundation was established from the proceeds of the safe of the Ermita lot.
Former Apostolic Nuncio to the Philippines, Bruno Torpigliani crowning the image in 1978
  • (November 17) – Apostolic Nuncio Bruno Torpigliani placed an episcopal crown, donated by Arturo Mañalac.

Theft and recovery

Main article: Theft and return

1984
  • (March 16) – The image was stolen from her altar in San Roque church.
  • (August 15) – The image was retrieved by Antonio G. Nazareno and had it authenticated by church authorities.
  • (August 19) The bishop announced the recovery of the authentic image.
  • 1990 – Preparatory stage of the Tricentennial Celebration initiated by Felix Perez. The image of the Virgin made a sentimental visit to Quiapo church.
1991
  • April 12 – Solemn opening to the Tricentennial Celebration
  • May 12 First grand Marian Procession held in Cavite in honor to the Virgen de la Soledad. It was participated by more than 42 images of the Virgin.
  • June – July – The replica of the Virgin de la Soledad was brought to the United States to Visit the Caviteño communities.
  • September – Oct – the delegation from Cavite brought the image of the Virgin back to the United States upon the fervent request of her other devotees.
  • October – A Marian Congress was held in San Roque in honoring the Virgen de la Soldead. A perpetual Rosary Devotion was held before the image of the Virgen de la Soledad.
  • October 19 – Development Foundation was launched at the Manila Hotel with the Ambassadors of Spain and Mexico as guests.
  • November 1991 – The image of the Nuestra Señora de la Soledad in Barrio Soledad (now Camba in Binondo) was brought to Cavite City. The image must have been brought by the Caviteños who settled in that particular place in Binondo. It has been venerated in Camba since 1887.
  • November 1991 – The Historical Marker commemorating the Tricentennial of the Enthronement of the Soledad was unveiled by Bishop Felix Perez of Imus and Mayor Timoteo Encarnacion of Cavite City at the former site of the Ermita de Porta Vaga. The Marker was granted by the National Historical Institute upon the approval of Director Serafin Quiazon.
1992
  • December 1991 – The century-old Maytinis of Kawit, Cavite representing the different personalities in the Bible through colorful floats was re-enacted in CaviteCity in honor of the Soledad. It is traditionally held in Cavite on the eve of Christmas.
  • February 1992 – The original image of Nuestro Padre Jesus Nazareno made a sentimental visit to the shrine of the Soledad. It was the first time that the said image was brought out of Quiapo to the place where it first landed over three hundred years ago. The most emotional part of the visit was when the Soledad met the Nazareno at the junction of Ronquillo Street. The Sorrowful Mother meeting the Suffering Son.
  • March 1992 – The Soledad Visual Art Competition was held. Many young Caviteño artists participated painting the Soledad.
  • April 1992 – A press conference was held in Cavite City on the Porta Vaga Festival in celebration of the Tricentennial of the Soledad. Over 30 press people from Manila were ferried to Cavite. Alter a tour to Cavite's historical sites, the members of the press were treated with a sumptuous Caviteño lunch and a press conference was followed.
  • April 12, 1992 – The Soledad Tableau was presented by high school students in San Roque Parish Church. The tableau re-enacted the apparition and the coronation of the Soledad.
  • April 24, 1992 – the commemorative stamps issued by the Philippine Postal Services office on Apr 12 1992 was formally presented to Mayor Tim Encarnation and Pedro Arigo, the Diocesan administrator of Cavite. The stamp was designed by Rafael Asuncion and approved by the Postmaster General Jorge Sarmiento. Four hundred thousand stamps were issued under two denominations.
  • April 24, 26 – The closing ceremonies to the Tricentennial celebration dubbed as Porta Vaga '92 was held at the former site of the Ermita de Porta Vaga. It was a 3-day religious-cultural celebration honoring the Soledad.

21st century

2017

the 350th Anniversary of the Arrival of the Original icon in the shores of Cavite.

2018
  • 24 November – Public declaration of the image of La Virgen de la Soledad de Porta Vaga as National Cultural Treasure. Hon. Gemma Cruz Araneta give the keynote speech.
  • 12 April 2019 – Unveiling of the Marker of the image as NCT.[13] According to Gemma Cruz-Araneta, former director of the National Museum, this was the first time an ecclesiastical artifact was declared a national cultural treasure.[14]

Miraculous claims and apparition

According to local legend, a Spanish carabinero Soldier on sentry duty on the Rosario isthmus one stormy night saw a halo of bright light amongst storm clouds above Canacao Bay. Thinking the light to be coming from Islamic pirates intent on sacking Cavite, the sentry shouted a challenge to the lights as they approached him. When the light did not stop, he again called out. A calm and soothing voice replied from the light:[15]

"Soldadito, ¿por qué el alto me das en noche tan fría? Dame paso. ¿No conoces a María?"
(Soldier boy, why challenge me on a night so cold? Let me pass. Don't you recognize Mary?)

The soldier, struck with awe and confusion, replied:[15]

"Perdóname, Virgen María, Reina de mi devoción; pues solo soy un soldado que cumplo mi obligación!"
(Forgive me, my Virgin, Queen of my heart; for I am a poor sentinel abiding by his duty.")

The morning followed the stormy night. The early risers, mostly fishermen and workers at the Cavite Royal Arsenal usually passed through the Porta Vaga gate in entering the puerto. Along the beach of Cañacao Bay, they found a framed image of the Virgen de la Soledad lying on the sandy shore. It was close to the spot where the Virgin appeared the previous night. Others claimed it came with the debris of a Spanish galleon that sank during the fierce typhoon. They brought the image to the parish priest, who temporarily installed it in the parish church. Later, a small chapel was built near the Porta Vaga walls and for three centuries it became the shrine of the Virgen de la Soledad.[15]

An inscription was found at the back of the painting, "A doze de Abril 1692 años Juan de Oliba puso esta Stsma. Ymagen Haqui." This inscription says that "this sacred image was placed here on April 12, 1692 by Juan Oliva" but it does not clearly tells us the exact date of the Virgin's arrival. It is possible that it is the date when the Virgin was enthroned at the altar of the Ermita de Porta Vaga in the 17th century. Devotees of the Virgen de la Soledad were not satisfied in placing her in one of the seven churches of Cavite Puerto. They decided to build for her the Ermita de Porta Vaga, a small chapel near the gate of the Porta Vaga, the fortlet guarding the entrance to the Puerto de Cavite. For three centuries, it became the shrine of the Virgin.[15]

Philippine writer Genoveva Edroza Matute claims that the grandiose celebration of the fiesta of San Diego in Rizal's Noli Me Tangere was based on the fiesta celebration of Cavite. Thus, the Virgen de la Soledad was called the "Queen and Patroness" of province of Cavite.[16]

Theft and return

National cultural treasure

Canonical coronation

The Pontifical coronation of the image by Apostolic Nuncio Gabriele Giordano Caccia and Reynaldo G. Evangelista
The notarized decree of canonical coronation of the image. From the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments, c. 2018

List of religious devotions

The Marian image is celebrated every second and third Sunday of November in Cavite. An annual Lenten rites and the All Saints-All Souls Day observances where she is alluded to in Tagalog as "Ináng Mágkakandila" (Mother Candlemaker).

Main fiesta

The Fiesta of the Soledad lasts for almost two and a half weeks.

Candles offered at a makeshift altar or "kubol" by the bay at the 2018 "Soleda" Festival Sta. Margarita, Calbayog, Samar

Soleda festival in Samar

The Soleda festival is a less popular but a more traditional celebration of residents from Sta. Margarita and Barangay Matobato in Calbayog Samar about merry dancing at the shores bearing the image of Nuestra Senora de Porta Vaga, more popularly known as "Soleda". This festival is specially pursued and initiated by the descendants of the early settlers in the community called "Tagalugan" referring to Tagalog speaking migrants from Cavite City during the Spanish era. The celebration is prominently highlighted by the presence of "kubol" or sea-shanties made up of bamboo and coconut palm leaves. The devotees dance their way from the local Chapel as they bring out the image and pass by the different "kubols" until reaching the main "kubol" where a simple ceremony is conducted. The date of celebration though is not very prominent because of the confusion of the actual festival day which falls every second Sunday of November.

Procesión del Silencio (Procession of Silence)

On Good Friday a silent procession marks the faithful who wear black garments and walk barefooted accompanies the sorrowing icon.

As one final salvo to the celebrations of Good Friday, devotees of the Virgen de la Soledad come out after the traditional Santo Sepulcro Procession for a time of profound penance and prayer for the Procession del Silencio de la Virgen de la Soledad. Devotees, mostly clad in black, barefoot and silently praying with their candles in hand, accompany the age-old icon of the Virgen de la Soledad on a short route to symbolize the Virgin's lonely walk back home after bringing Christ's body to the Holy Sepulchre. This procession brings out the grief believers have in giving consolation to our Lady in Her time of bereavement. As devotees remember, the icon of the Virgen de la Soledad is a depiction of the Blessed Virgin Mary on the night of the first Good Friday, where She spent time alone in solitude, in quiet prayer and meditation, pondering over the great sufferings that Her Son has endured, thus the evening procession is to them a reminder of Her fervent presence in the hearts of the faithful.[23]

Novena

Novenario Consagrado a la Piadosa Vrigen de la Soledad llamada de Puerta Vaga printed by the Real Colegio de Sto. Tomas, Manila

The origin of the novena claim that some of its prayers may have been taken from a 1742 religious booklet titled "Soledad patrocinante de Maria. Oracion evangelica de Nuestra Señora de la Soledad, appelida de la Puerta Vaga" (English: Under the patronage of the Mary of Solitude, with the prayers of propagation of Our Lady of Solitude, under the name of the Open Gate); preached in 1741 by the Dominican priest Juan de la Cruz, a Christian missionary in China.

In the 19th century, a Tagalog translation of this Novena was made by Juan Dilag, a chaplain of the Ermita. On 31 August 1861, the chancellor of the Archdiocese of Manila, Don Candido Ureta de Manzares approved the Tagalog translation with the following decree:

"We attach herewith to act as Imprimatur to print in the Tagalog language manuscript entitled Pagsisiyam sa mapagpalang Ina, na ang pamagat Nuestra Senora de la Soledad. (English: Novena to the Blessed Mother, under the title of Our Lady of Solitude), in response to that as reported by the Censor that our Order has examined such, not contain anything against the dogma and morality, but rather deemed highly desirable for the pious reading of the faithful. Recorded for the Secretariat in testimony of this decree and filed the original subject".

— Archbishop Gregory

Indulgences

Regalia

Silver frame

Silver Frame of Our Lady of Solitude of Porta Vaga

The current silver frame used on special occasions such as processions, is made of wood covered in pure silver, with the back made of bronze. The silver came from old coins donated by devotees, and Mexican silver given by Antonio José Sr, owner of a metal trading business. The original frame was destroyed during the Japanese Occupation.

Kamagóng frame

A wooden frame made of kamagóng (Diospyros discolor) with brass appliqué and silver rays was donated by the Roxas family matriarch. The frame is the icon's throne and used to hold the original image on her altar. Today it holds the "Viajera" or official replica on ordinary days. During the fiesta or on special occasions, it is used for the original icon.

Three Cross Crown

Pectoral cross of Cardinal Rufino Santos, modified into a crown for Our Lady of Solitude of Porta Vaga

A crown made of gold fashioned from the pectoral cross of the former Archbishop of Manila, Cardinal Rufino Santos, was donated as an ex voto during the 17 November 1978 coronation.

Auspice Maria Crown (1978)

The crown made of pure gold was donated by Don Arturo Mañalac and the auspice maria inlaid with precious gemstones funded from donations of devotees residing abroad. This crown was used for the 17 November 1978 coronation, and is used during the first fiesta on the second week of November.

Pontifical Crown (2018)

A crown made of gold and precious gems funded by various devotees mostly from its lay confraternity for the 2018 Canonical Coronation. The crown was manufactured by the jeweler "Fedesto" of Fort Bonifacio and YUG Jewelers in Kowloon, Hong Kong.

Holy Spirit

Ivory dove of Our Lady of Solitude of Porta Vaga

The original gold dove went missing in the late 1990s, and a new dove was made from ivory with rays of gold vermeil studded with cubic zirconia. The dove, which symbolizes the Holy Ghost, was given by a devotee for the 2018 Canonical Coronation.

Medallion Pins

Medallions were made in 2018 to commemorate various civil honours to Our Lady of Solitude of Porta Vaga. The pins were made of silver dipped in gold, and bear the various seals of the state and government institutions.

Gold Choker filigree Necklace and the Tambourine Necklace at the center

Various Ex Votos of the image, most notably:

Goldwork Cape or Mantle used on the 2018 Canonical Coronation

Hymns

Lyrics

Original Poem By
Fr. Tomás de Andrade, S.J.
Himno a la Virgén de Cavite
(Spanish)

Lyrics used by Julian Felipe
Reina de Cavite
(Kastila)

Lyrics translated by Herminia Victoriano
Reyna ng Kabite
(Tagalog)

Reina de Cavite
Por siempre seras;
Es prenda tu nombre
De jubilo y paz.

La nacion entera
Con culto filial
Tus glorias pregona
Tu imagen venera
Y en tu honor entona
Un himno triumphal.
Consuelo del justo
Luz del picador
Nuestras penas calma
Y en tu trono agusto
De piadosas almas
Oyes el clamor.
Como la heroina
Gozo de Israel,
Eres nuestra Gloria
Princesa Divina
Que das la victoria
A tu pueblo fiel.

Madre immaculada
Prez del Serafin
Luz de Filipinas
O virgin Sagrada
Haz que alla en el cielo
Te honreinos sin fin.

Reina de Cavite
per siempre seras:
Es prenda tu nombre
de jubilo y paz:

Reina de Cavite
por siempre seras;
Es prenda tu nombre
de jubilo y paz.

Madre Immaculada,
prez del serafin,
Luz de Filipinas,
protegenos sin fin:

Madre Immaculada,
prez del serafin,
Luz de Filipinas,
protegenos sin fin.

Luz de Filipinas,
protegenos sin fin!

Reyna ng Kabite
Laging tawag ng lahat
Kapayapaan at galak
Ngalan mo'y siyang pugad.

Reyna ng Kabite
Laging tawag ng lahat
Kapayapaan at galak
Sa iyo'y nagbubuhat

Inang kalinis-linisan
Mahal ng Serafin
Ilaw ka ng Pilipinas
Tunay kang tanglaw namin!

Inang kalinis-linisan
Mahal ng Serafin
Ilaw ka ng Pilipinas
Tunay kang tanglaw namin!

Ilaw ka ng Pilipinas
Ika'y tanglaw namin!

In 1991, in preparation for the celebration of the Tricentennial of the Enthronement of Our Lady of Port Vaga, the National Artist Lucio San Pedro made a four-voice arrangement of the hymn

In popular culture

List of religious organizations

The founding members of the Confraternity of the Virgin of Solitude of Porta Vaga
The Soldaditos de la Virgen during the cavite leg of the 2019 dalaw soledad

Replicas

Official Title Image Current Location Period Feast Day Description Ref
Nuestra Señora de la Soledad de Sulipan
Altar image
Christ the Eternal High Priest Parish, Sulipan, Apalit, Pampanga 1794 16 November This image of Our Lady of Solitude is based on the old Estampa of our lady of solitude of Porta Vaga and is venerated as the Patron of Sulipan, Apalit, Pampanga and is under the care of the Venerable Hermanidad de Nuestra Señora de la Soledad the oldest existing group of Devotees of Our Lady of Solitude that was founded on the year 1794. [29]
Nuestra Señora de la Soledad de Manila
Nuestra Señora de la Soledad Parish, Camba, Manila 1884 1 January Venerated in a little chapel in Recto Avenue of Manila is another version of image which tradition claiming a similar devotion since 1884. According to account, the Camba area has been inhabited by mostly residents from Cavite city that is why it has been called in the older days as Barrio Soledad. Her feastday is celebrated annually every 1 January through a translation going to the parish of Santo Niño de Tondo capped by a festive procession going back to its home in Camba Street, Manila. [30]
Nuestra Señora de la Soledad de Tambo
Nuestra Señora De La Soledad, Tambo, Buhi, Camarines Sur 1775 3 February This is one of the three carvings on the calpe tree on the Story of Our Lady of Salvacion. One was of San Antonio de Padua, three statuettes-Nuestra Señora de Salvacion, San Antonio de Padua, and Nuestra Señora de Soledad—now in Joroan of Tiwi, and Tambo, Buhi, respectively. [30]
Nuestra Señora de la Soledad de Nueva Ecija
Saint Isidore the Farmer Parish, San Isidro, Nueva Ecija 2nd Sunday of November Another copy of the image is venerated in Nueva Ecija. The icon has occupied a niche above a side altar of the town church and that it was honored in a fluvial procession on the Rio Grande de Pampanga. This tradition was held from the mid-19th century till the 1920s. In 1982, the image mysteriously vanished. It was thought to have been stolen but no police records exist to support this. Sometime after its disappearance, the image found its way to an antique dealer in Manila and was purchased by a private individual. After twenty years, was returned and venerated in San Isidro Labrador church. [30]
Nuestra Señora de la Soledad de Maquinaya
Immaculate Conception Parish, Barretto, Olongapo 1950's 2nd Saturday and Sunday of November An inherited devotion from migrant workers of Sangley Point, Cavite City who transferred to Subic Naval Base and have decided to reside in Maquinaya considering the same geographical set-up of their hometown. In March 1959, the Catholic Women's Association in Barrio Maquinaya was formed under the auspices of Saint Joseph Parish and its devotees later decided to choose a religious patron by means of draw lots. Five patronal choices were given: Senor Nazareno, Santo Nino, Virgen Soledad, Mother of Perpetual Help and Saint Jude Thaddeus. A child was chosen to cast the draw and resulted in the "Virgen Soledad", and so declared to be the patroness of the Barrio and have chosen the 2nd Sunday of November to celebrate the annual festivities. In 1961, Reverend Henry Byrne, former Bishop of Iba, Zambales donated ₽10,000.00 PHP to build a community church in Barrio Barretto. However, in 1986, the erected parish in Barrio Barretto was established under the patronage of the Immaculate Conception. Believers still celebrates the November festivity with fervent devotion. <ref>Official Narrative Based on the research of the Cofradia de La Virgen de la Soledad de Maquinaya 2019</ref>
Nuestra Señora de la Soledad
Tahanan ng Mabuting Pastol Diocesan Seminary, Tagaytay City, Cavite 1700's Last Sunday of November A replica copy of the image is venerated at the chapel of "Tahanan ng Mabuting Pastol", the Diocesan Seminary for Cavite. This image was formerly hung at the Jesuit College of Cavite. After the expulsion of the Jesuits in 1768, the image was kept in the Jesuit archives of Ateneo. The image was given to Bishop Perez as a gift on the occasion of the inauguration of the new seminary. On this replica image, an inscription says that the Spanish Archbishop of Manila, Don Basilio Sancho de Santa Justa y Rufina granted 80 days plenary indulgence for those who would say the novena. Bishop Mateo Rubio de Arevalo of Cebu granted 40 more days along with Archbishop Don Juan Antonio de Obrigo y Gallego granted indulgence just the same. [30]
Nuestra Señora de la Soledad de Navotas
Holy Cross Parish, Tanza, Navotas 2021 1st Sunday of November An image of Our Lady of Solitude was commissioned by the "Jovenes de la Soledad" Youth Prayer Group of Tanza, Navotas made by a local artist in Cavite City and enthroned at the side altar of the parish. [28]

Gallery

See also

References

  1. ^ National Museum Declaration and Resolution no. 2-2017: WHEREAS, written records verify and validate that the Nuestra Señora de la Soledad de Porta Vaga is the "oldest existing dated Marian painting in the Philippines";
  2. ^ Cavite before the Revolution (1571 - 1896) by. Prof. Isagani Medina. Our Lady of Porta Vaga being part of the "Sociocultural Structure" of the province of Cavite. p. 198 -199 Chapter 5
  3. ^ Vignettes of Philippine History by Teodoro Agoncillo p.41 ISBN 978-9718851074
  4. ^ History of Cavite : the mother ground of the Philippine Revolution, independence, flag, and national anthem by: Alfredo B Saulo; Esteban A De Ocampo; Cavite Historical Society. p. 22
  5. ^ In the message of His Excellency, Luis Antonio Cardinal Gokim-Tagle, Archbishop of Manila and former Parish priest of theparish of the Blessed Virgin Del Pilar, City of Imus and Bishop of the Diocese of Imus which covers the whole province of Cavite, he acknowledged indeed the Blessed Virginn Our Lady of Solitude of Porta Vaga is the Patron of the Province of Cavite.
    External image
    image icon Message of His Excellency
  6. ^ Aluit, Alphonso J. (1969). "The Galleon Guide to Philippine Festivals", p. 97. ASIN: B004CWODBO.
  7. ^ Panlilio, Erlinda Enriquez (2003). "Consuming passions: Philippine collectibles", pg. 70. Jaime C. Laya. ISBN 9712714004.
  8. ^ Cf. Virgilio Saenz Mendoza, Canticos de Amor para la Reina de Cavite (A Collection of Poems in Honor of the Virgen de la Soledad de Porta Vaga), Cavite City:2018, p. 2.
  9. ^ a b Romanillos, Emmanuel Luis A. (2006). "Chabacano studies: essays on Cavite's Chabacano language and literature", pg. 125. Cavite Historical Society.
  10. ^ a b Delos Reyes, Aloma Monte (1994). "Sto. Niǹo de Molino Bacoor, Canite 1984-1994: the making of a parish", pg. 139. Parish of Sto. Nino de Molino, Bacoor, Cavite.
  11. ^ Decree for the Canonical Coronation of Our Lady of Porta Vaga.
  12. ^ Canonical Coronation Ceremonies for Our Lady of Porta Vaga, on 18 November 2018.
  13. ^ Roque, Eurmajesty P. (December 7, 2018). "Cavite City's 300-Year Old Marian Painting now a National Cultural Treasure". National Museum of the Philippines. Retrieved June 14, 2019.
  14. ^ Gemma, Cruz Araneta (November 29, 2018). "Reina de Cavite y de Filipinas". Manila Bulletin. Retrieved June 14, 2019.
  15. ^ a b c d "El PORTA VAGA y la Aparición de la Virgen". PAGINA OFICIAL de la VIRGEN de la SOLEDAD. Retrieved 3 June 2020. Text was copied from this source, which is available under a Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Philippines (CC BY-SA 3.0 PH) license.
  16. ^ a b c d "MIRACLES OF THE VIRGIN". PAGINA OFICIAL de la VIRGEN de la SOLEDAD. Retrieved 4 June 2020. Text was copied from this source, which is available under a Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Philippines (CC BY-SA 3.0 PH) license.
  17. ^ Cavite: Cultura E Historia c.2002; Edited by Prof. Teresita P. Unabia article by: Fr. Virgilio Mendoza
  18. ^ a b Reina de Cavite y Luz de Filipinas Manila Bulletin Article by Gemma Cruz Araneta, November 29, 2019.
  19. ^ Cavite City's 300-year old Marian Painting now a National Cultural Treasure by the National Museum c. Dec. 2018.
  20. ^ National Museum Declaration No.02-2017 "Declaration of the Sacred Painting of the image of Nuestra Sra de la Soledad de Porta Vaga, Cavite City, Province of Cavite Including the Intangible Properties Intrinsic to the Cultural Significance of the Painting as National Cultural Treasure." Signed September 28, 2017
  21. ^ City Resolution No. 2017-071 A Resolution declaring the Original Image of La Virgen de la Soledad de Porta Vaga as Important Cultural Property of the people of Cavite City" signed 2017
  22. ^ Barcelona, Mary Anne.(2004) Ynang Maria: a celebration of the Blessed Virgin Mary in the Philippines. Ed. Consuelo B. Estampa, P.D. Pasig, Anvil Publishing Inc.
  23. ^ Saenz Mendoza, Virgilio (2017), La Virgen de la Soledad de Porta Vaga: Reina de Cavite, La Excelsa Patrona y La Celestial Guardiana y Protectora de la Provincia y la Ciudad de Cavite. Diocese of Imus, Imus, Cavite.
  24. ^ Cavite Studies Center-De La Salle University Dasmariñas. CAVITE Cultura e Historia. Edited by Teresita P. Unabia and Victor Immanuel R. Cuarto. Cavite: Cavite Historical Society, Inc., 2002
  25. ^ Cf. Virgilio Saenz Mendoza, Canticos de Amor para la Reina de Cavite (A Collection of Poems in Honor of the Virgen de la Soledad de Porta Vaga), Cavite City:2018, p. 5.
  26. ^ Cf. Virgilio Saenz Mendoza, Canticos de Amor para la Reina de Cavite (A Collection of Poems in Honor of the Virgen de la Soledad de Porta Vaga), Cavite City:2018, p. 4.
  27. ^ Interview with the Current Regent Elena Domingo Jose 2020
  28. ^ a b Narrative of the "Jovenes de la Soledad" Youth Prayer Group 2021
  29. ^ From the book VENERABLE Hermanidad de Ntra Sra DE LA SOLEDADD con la advocaio de su Patrocinio Patro na de este baririo de solipan 1794
  30. ^ a b c d "VIRGEN de la SOLEDAD in the PHILIPPINES". PAGINA OFICIAL de la VIRGEN de la SOLEDAD. Retrieved 3 June 2020. Text was copied from this source, which is available under a Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Philippines (CC BY-SA 3.0 PH) license.

Other references

Notes

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