The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to culture:

Culture – a set of patterns of human activity within a community or social group and the symbolic structures that give significance to such activity. Customs, laws, dress, architectural style, social standards, and traditions are all examples of cultural elements. Since 2010, Culture is considered the Fourth Pillar of Sustainable Development by UNESCO.[1] More: Agenda 21 for Culture or in short Culture 21.

Cultural groups

Elements of culture

Types of cultures

Cultures by aspect

Cultural cross-sections



Types of cultures

Specific subcultures

Academic disciplines that study culture

Cultures of the world

Area studies

Area studies

Cultures of continents and major geopolitical regions

(non-continents are italicized)

Cultures by political divisions of the World

(arranged by continent or major geopolitical region)

Cultures of Africa

Culture of Africa

Culture of Antarctica

Cultures of Asia

Culture of Asia

Cultures of the Caucasus

(a region considered to be in both Asia and Europe or between them)

Cultures of Europe

Culture of Europe

Cultures of North America

Culture of North America

Cultures of Oceania

Culture of Oceania

Cultures of South America

Culture of South America

Cultures of the South America

History of culture

Main articles: Cultural history and Cultural-history archaeology

Cultural histories

By period

By region

By subject

Historical cultures

Politics of culture

Sociology of culture

Research fields

See also


  1. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-12-28. Retrieved 2017-12-28.((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  2. ^ Merriam-Webster "Gastronomy - Definition" Archived 2012-01-27 at the Wayback Machine
  3. ^ "wine". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Archived from the original on 17 June 2008. Retrieved 25 June 2008.
  4. ^ "Dance - performing arts". Archived from the original on 27 July 2008. Retrieved 24 April 2018.
  5. ^ Some definitions of opera: "dramatic performance or composition of which music is an essential part, a branch of art concerned with this" (Concise Oxford English Dictionary); "any dramatic work that can be sung (or at times declaimed or spoken) in a place for performance, set to original music for singers (usually in costume) and instrumentalists" (Amanda Holden, Viking Opera Guide); "musical work for the stage with singing characters, originated in early years of 17th century" (Pears Cyclopaedia, 1983 ed.).
  6. ^ Marg Gilks; Paula Fleming & Moira Allen (2003). "Science Fiction: The Literature of Ideas". Archived from the original on 2008-05-26.
  7. ^ "UNWTO technical manual: Collection of Tourism Expenditure Statistics" (PDF). World Tourism Organization. 1995. p. 10. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 September 2010. Retrieved 26 March 2009.
  8. ^ Manila Declaration on World Tourism (PDF). World Tourism Conference. Manila, Philippines. 10 October 1980. pp. 1–4. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 November 2012. Retrieved 14 May 2013.
  9. ^ "Primitive culture | Britannica".
  10. ^ Staggenborg, Suzanne; Eder, Donna; Sudderth, Lori (1993). "Women's Culture and Social Change: Evidence from the National Women's Music Festival". Berkeley Journal of Sociology. 38: 31–56. ISSN 0067-5830. JSTOR 41035465.
  11. ^ "Youth Culture |". Retrieved 2022-04-15.
  12. ^ Pinch, T. and Bijsterveld, K, 2004, Sound Studies: New Technologies and Music, in "Social Studies of Science", 34\5, pp. 635-648