Pesse canoe
Boomstamkano van Pesse, Drents Museum, 1955-VIII-2.jpg
The Pesse canoe
TypeDugout canoe
MaterialScots pine
Long298 centimetres (117 in)
Width44 centimetres (17 in)
Createdc. 8040–7510 BC
Discovered1955
village of Pesse
Present locationDrents Museum

The Pesse canoe is believed to be the world's oldest known boat, and certainly the oldest known canoe. Carbon dating indicates that the boat was constructed during the early mesolithic period between 8040 BC and 7510 BC.[1] It is now in the Drents Museum in Assen, Netherlands.

Description

The boat is a dugout-style canoe measuring 298 centimetres (117 in) long and 44 centimetres (17 in) wide.[2] It was formed from a single Scots pine log.[3] Marks are present in the cavity, likely formed from flint or antler tools.[3]

It was a suitable vehicle for inhabitants who spent much of their time hunting and fishing in a watery landscape of marshes, creeks and lakes. This is confirmed by another discovery in the region of great rivers Maas, Rhine and Wall : graves, dating back to between 5.500 and 5.000 BC. Judging by the food remains near the grave, the group lived on the safe heights of river dunes while using their canoes to catch pike in the river, in addition to using flint arrows to shoot birds while gathering fruits, vegetables and nuts.[4]

History

The Pesse canoe at the Drents Museum, 2019
The Pesse canoe at the Drents Museum, 2019

The boat was discovered in 1955 during the construction of the Dutch A28 motorway. The route passes south of the village of Pesse in Hoogeveen through what was a peat bog. To construct the roadbed, the peat needed to be removed, and during excavation, a crane operator came across what he believed to be a tree trunk 2 metres (6 ft 7 in) below the surface. Local farmer Hendrik Wanders noticed the log and took it for further inspection. He gave the boat to the University of Groningen, where it was examined and freeze dried for preservation. It was later transferred to the Drents Museum, located near the discovery site.[5][6]

Debate

A visiting Danish expert questioned whether such a small boat would be seaworthy. In 2001, a replica canoe was constructed by archaeologist Jaap Beuker and successfully paddled by a canoeist.[1]

Others theorized that the find could be another object, especially an animal feeder.[7] Beuker noted that animals were not kept by the people from the boat's era, so it could not have been a trough. The boat is also similar in construction to prehistoric canoes found in other countries.[2]

References

  1. ^ a b "Oudste bootje ter wereld kon werkelijk varen". Leeuwarder Courant (in Dutch). ANP. 12 April 2001. Retrieved December 4, 2011.
  2. ^ a b Wierenga, Jan (12 April 2001). "Kano Van Pesse Kon Echt Varen". Nieuwsblad van het Noorden (in Dutch). Retrieved December 4, 2011.
  3. ^ a b Beuker, J.R.; Niekus, M.J.L.Th. (1997). "De Kano Van Pesse - De Bijl Erin". De Nieuwe Drentse Volksalmanak (in Dutch). Retrieved December 4, 2011.
  4. ^ James C. Kennedy (2017) A Concise History of the Netherlands Cambridge : Cambridge University Press
  5. ^ Wanders, Rene. "Boot van Pesse" (in Dutch). Retrieved December 4, 2011.
  6. ^ "Boot van Pesse". Retrieved October 17, 2020.
  7. ^ Niekus, Marcel J.Th. (4 April 1998). "INGEZONDEN BRIEF (1)" [Letter to the Editor]. Nieuwsblad van het Noorden (in Dutch). Retrieved December 4, 2011.