• King of the sea
  • God of the sea, storms, earthquakes, and horses
Member of the Twelve Olympians
The Poseidon of Melos, a statue of Poseidon found in Milos in 1877
AbodeMount Olympus, or the sea
SymbolTrident, fish, dolphin, horse, bull
Personal information
ParentsCronus and Rhea
SiblingsHades, Demeter, Hestia, Hera, Zeus; Chiron (half)
ConsortAmphitrite, Aphrodite, Demeter, various others
ChildrenTheseus, Triton, Polyphemus, Orion, Belus, Agenor, Neleus, Atlas, Pegasus, Chrysaor, Kymopoleia, Bellerophon
Roman equivalentNeptune
Poseidon (Neptune) and Amymone, fresco in Stabiae, Italy, 1st century

Poseidon (/pəˈsdən, pɒ-, p-/;[1] Greek: Ποσειδῶν) is one of the Twelve Olympians in ancient Greek religion and mythology, presiding over the sea, storms, earthquakes and horses.[2] He was the protector of seafarers and the guardian of many Hellenic cities and colonies. In pre-Olympian Bronze Age Greece, Poseidon was venerated as a chief deity at Pylos and Thebes, with the cult title "earth shaker";[2] in the myths of isolated Arcadia, he is related to Demeter and Persephone and was venerated as a horse, and as a god of the waters.[3] Poseidon maintained both associations among most Greeks: He was regarded as the tamer or father of horses,[2] who, with a strike of his trident, created springs (in the Greek language, the terms for both are related).[4] His Roman equivalent is Neptune.

Homer and Hesiod suggest that Poseidon became lord of the sea when, following the overthrow of his father Cronus, the world was divided by lot among Cronus' three sons; Zeus was given the sky, Hades the underworld, and Poseidon the sea, with the Earth and Mount Olympus belonging to all three.[2][5] In Homer's Iliad, Poseidon supports the Greeks against the Trojans during the Trojan War; in the Odyssey, during the sea-voyage from Troy back home to Ithaca, the Greek hero Odysseus provokes Poseidon's fury by blinding his son, the Cyclops Polyphemus, resulting in Poseidon punishing him with storms, causing the complete loss of his ship and companions, and delaying his return by ten years. Poseidon is also the subject of a Homeric hymn. In Plato's Timaeus and Critias, the legendary island of Atlantis was Poseidon's domain.[6][7][8]

According to legend, Athena became the patron goddess of the city of Athens after a competition with Poseidon, though he remained on the Acropolis in the form of his surrogate, Erechtheus. After the fight, Poseidon sent a monstrous flood to the Attic plain to punish the Athenians for not choosing him.[9]


Poseidon In Copenhagen port

The earliest attested occurrence of the name, written in Linear B, is 𐀡𐀮𐀅𐀃 Po-se-da-o or 𐀡𐀮𐀅𐀺𐀚 Po-se-da-wo-ne, [10] which correspond to Ποσειδάων (Poseidaōn) and Ποσειδάϝονος (Poseidawonos) in Mycenean Greek; in Homeric Greek it appears as Ποσειδάων (Poseidaōn); in Aeolic as Ποτειδάων (Poteidaōn); and in Doric as Ποτειδάν (Poteidan), Ποτειδάων (Poteidaōn), and Ποτειδᾶς (Poteidas).[11] The form Ποτειδάϝων (Poteidawon) appears in Corinth.[12] A cult title of Poseidon in Linear B is E-ne-si-da-o-ne, "earth-shaker".

The origins of the name "Poseidon" are unclear. One theory breaks it down into an element meaning "husband" or "lord" (Greek πόσις (posis), from PIE *pótis) and another element meaning "earth" (δᾶ (da), Doric for γῆ ()), producing something like lord or spouse of Da, i.e. of the earth; this would link him with Demeter, "Earth-mother".[13] Walter Burkert finds that "the second element δᾶ- remains hopelessly ambiguous" and finds a "husband of Earth" reading "quite impossible to prove".[2] According to Robert S. P. Beekes in Etymological Dictionary of Greek, "there is no indication that δᾶ means 'earth'",[14] although the root da appears in the Linear B inscription E-ne-si-da-o-ne, "earth-shaker".[15][16] Another, more plausible, theory interprets the second element as related to the (presumed) Doric word *δᾶϝον dâwon, "water", Proto-Indo-European *dah₂- "water" or *dʰenh₂- "to run, flow", Sanskrit दन् dā́-nu- "fluid, drop, dew" and names of rivers such as Danube (< *Danuvius) or Don. This would make *Posei-dawōn into the master of waters.[17] It seems that Poseidon was originally a god of the waters.[18] There is also the possibility that the word has Pre-Greek origin.[19] Plato in his dialogue Cratylus gives two traditional etymologies: either the sea restrained Poseidon when walking as a "foot-bond" (ποσίδεσμον), or he "knew many things" (πολλά εἰδότος or πολλά εἰδῶν).[20]

At least a few sources deem Poseidon as a "prehellenic" (i.e. Pelasgian) word, considering an Indo-European etymology "quite pointless".[21][citation needed]

Bronze Age Greece

Linear B (Mycenean Greek) inscriptions

If surviving Linear B clay tablets can be trusted, the name po-se-da-wo-ne ("Poseidon") occurs with greater frequency than does di-u-ja ("Zeus"). A feminine variant, po-se-de-ia, is also found, indicating a lost consort goddess, in effect the precursor of Amphitrite. Poseidon carries frequently the title wa-na-ka (wanax), meaning "king" in Linear B inscriptions.

The chthonic nature of Poseidon-Wanax is also indicated by his title E-ne-si-da-o-ne in Mycenean Knossos and Pylos,[22] a powerful attribute (earthquakes had accompanied the collapse of the Minoan palace-culture). In the cave of Amnisos (Crete) Enesidaon is related with the cult of Eileithyia, the goddess of childbirth.[23]

She was related with the annual birth of the divine child.[24] During the Bronze Age, a goddess of nature, dominated both in Minoan and Mycenean cult, and Wanax (wa-na-ka) was her male companion (paredros) in Mycenean cult.[25]

It is possible that Demeter appears as Da-ma-te in a Linear B inscription (PN EN 609), however the interpretation is still under dispute.[26]

In Linear B inscriptions found at Pylos, E-ne-si-da-o-ne is related with Poseidon, and Si-to Po-tini-ja is probably related with Demeter.[27] Tablets from Pylos record sacrificial goods destined for "the Two Queens and Poseidon" ("to the Two Queens and the King": wa-na-soi, wa-na-ka-te). Wa-na-soi (the "Two Queens") usually appear in plural. The dual number is a common feature in Indoeuropean grammar. [28] These may be related with Demeter and Persephone, or their precursors, goddesses who were not associated with Poseidon in later periods. [29]

Arcadian myths

The illuminating exception is the archaic and localised myth of the stallion Poseidon and mare Demeter at Phigalia in isolated and conservative Arcadia, noted by Pausanias (2nd century AD) as having fallen into desuetude; the stallion Poseidon pursues the mare-Demeter, and from the union she bears the horse Arion, and a daughter (Despoina), who obviously had the shape of a mare too. The violated Demeter was Demeter Erinys (furious).[30] In Arcadia, Demeter's mare-form was worshiped into historical times. Her xoanon of Phigaleia shows how the local cult interpreted her, as goddess of nature. A Medusa type with a horse's head with snaky hair, holding a dove and a dolphin, probably representing her power over air and water.[31]


Poseidon statue, Prado Museum, Madrid

It seems that the Arcadian myth is related to the first Greek-speaking people who entered the region during the Bronze Age. (Linear B represents an archaic Greek dialect). Their religious beliefs were mixed with the beliefs of the indigenous population. It is possible that the Greeks did not bring with them other gods except Zeus, Eos, and the Dioskouroi. The horse (numina) was related with the liquid element, and with the underworld. Poseidon appears as a beast (horse), which is the river spirit of the underworld, as it usually happens in northern-European folklore, [32][33] and not unusually in Greece. The river god Acheloos is represented as a bull.[34] Poseidon "Wanax", is the male companion (paredros) of the goddess of nature. In the relative Minoan myth, Pasiphaë is mating with the white bull, and she bears the hybrid creature Minotaur.[35] The Bull was the old pre-Olympian Poseidon.[36] The goddess of nature and her paredros survived in the Eleusinian cult, where the following words were uttered: "Mighty Potnia bore a strong son".[37]

In the heavily sea-dependent Mycenaean culture, there is not sufficient evidence that Poseidon was connected with the sea; it is unclear whether "Posedeia" was a sea-goddess. Homer and Hesiod suggest that Poseidon became lord of the sea following the defeat of his father Cronus, when the world was divided by lot among his three sons; Zeus was given the sky, Hades the underworld, and Poseidon the sea, with the Earth and Mount Olympus belonging to all three.[2][5] Walter Burkert suggests that the Hellene cult worship of Poseidon as a horse god may be connected to the introduction of the horse and war-chariot from Anatolia to Greece around 1600 BC.[2]

Poseidon was the god of all Greeks and he was once worshipped as a horse, in his cult in Peloponnese. Nilsson suggests that from the existing evidence Poseidon was originally the "god of the waters".

Roman mosaic in the house of Poseidon-Neptune and Amphitrite, Herculaneum, Italy

The Greeks believed that the cause of the earthquakes was the erosion of the rocks by the waters, by the rivers in Peloponnese which they saw to disappear into the earth and then to burst out again. The god of the waters became the "earthshaker".[38][39] This is what the natural philosophers Thales [40] Anaximenes and Aristotle[41] believed and was surely similar to the folk belief.[42] [38] In the legend of Arethusa, she was transformed by Artemis into a stream, traversed underground and appeared at Ortygia, thus providing water for the city.[43] [44] [45] In a passage of Pausanias the meaning of his story probably would be to the effect that this was an invention, to account for the disappearance of the Alphaus in the sea and its reappearance at the mythical island Ortygia. [46]

In any case, the early importance of Poseidon can still be glimpsed in Homer's Odyssey, where Poseidon rather than Zeus is the major mover of events. In Homer, Poseidon is the master of the sea.[47]

Worship of Poseidon

Cameo showing Poseidon as gymnasiarch of the Isthmian Games (Kunsthistorisches Museum)

Poseidon was a major civic god of several cities: in Athens, he was second only to Athena in importance, while in Corinth and many cities of Magna Graecia he was the chief god of the polis.[2]

In his benign aspect, Poseidon was seen as creating new islands and offering calm seas. When offended or ignored, he supposedly struck the ground with his trident and caused chaotic springs, earthquakes, drownings and shipwrecks.

Sailors prayed to Poseidon for a safe voyage, sometimes drowning horses as a sacrifice; in this way, according to a fragmentary papyrus, Alexander the Great paused at the Syrian seashore before the climactic battle of Issus, and resorted to prayers, "invoking Poseidon the sea-god, for whom he ordered a four-horse chariot to be cast into the waves".[48]

Indo-Greek stone palette with Poseidon/Neptune. Dated 2nd-1st century BCE. Ancient Orient Museum

According to Pausanias, Poseidon was one of the caretakers of the oracle at Delphi before Olympian Apollo took it over. Apollo and Poseidon worked closely in many realms: in colonization, for example, Delphic Apollo provided the authorization to go out and settle, while Poseidon watched over the colonists on their way, and provided the lustral water for the foundation-sacrifice.

Xenophon's Anabasis describes a group of Spartan soldiers in 400–399 BC singing to Poseidon a paean—a kind of hymn normally sung for Apollo. Like Dionysus, who inflamed the maenads, Poseidon also caused certain forms of mental disturbance. A Hippocratic text of ca 400 BC, On the Sacred Disease[49] says that he was blamed for certain types of epilepsy.

Poseidon is still worshipped today in modern Hellenic religion, among other Greek gods. The worship of Greek gods has been recognized by the Greek government since 2017.[50][51]

Epithets and attributes

Poseidon Epoptes

Poseidon had a variety of roles, duties and attributes. He is a separate deity from the oldest Greek god of the sea Pontus. In Athens his name is superimposed οn the name of the non-Greek god Erechtheus Ἑρεχθεύς (Poseidon Erechtheus).[52][53] In the Iliad, he is the lord of the sea and his golden palace is built in Aegai, in the depth of the sea.[54] His significance is indicated by his titles Eurykreion (Εὐρυκρείων) "wide-ruling", an epithet also applied to Agamemnon[55][56] and Helikonios anax (Ἑλικώνιος ἂναξ), "lord of Helicon or Helike" [57] In Helike of Achaia he was specially honoured.[58] Anax is identified in Mycenaean Greek (Linear B) as wa-na-ka, a title of Poseidon as king of the underworld.[29] Aeschylus uses also the epithet anax [59] and Pindar the epithet Eurymedon (Εὐρυμέδων) "widely ruling".[60]

See caption
Mosaic of Neptune (Regional Archeological Museum Antonio Salinas, Palermo)

Some of the epithets (or adjectives) applied to him like Enosigaios (Ἐνοσίγαιος), Enosichthon (Ἐνοσίχθων) (Homer) and Ennosidas (Ἐννοσίδας) (Pindar), mean "earth shaker". [61] These epithets indicate his chthonic nature, and have an older evidence of use, as it is identified in Linear B, as 𐀁𐀚𐀯𐀅𐀃𐀚, E-ne-si-da-o-ne.[22] Other epithets that relate him with the earthquakes are Gaieochos (Γαιήοχος) [62] and Seisichthon (Σεισίχθων) [63] The god who causes the earthquakes is also the protector against them, and he had the epithets Themeliouchos (Θεμελιούχος) "upholding the foundations",[64] Asphaleios (Ἀσφάλειος) "securer, protector" [65] with a temple at Tainaron.[66] Pausanias describes a sanctuary of Poseidon near Sparta beside the shrine of Alcon, where he had the surname Domatites (Δωματίτης), "of the house"[67][68]

Black-figure bail amphora Etruscan, Triton bull, 500-475 BC

Homer uses for Poseidon the title Kyanochaites (Κυανοχαίτης), "dark-haired, dark blue of the sea".[69][70] Epithets like Pelagios (Πελάγιος) "of the open sea",[71][72] Aegeus (Αἰγαίος), "of the high sea" [73] in the town of Aegae in Euboea, where he had a magnificent temple upon a hill,[74][75][76] Pontomedon (Ποντομέδων),[77]" lord of the sea" (Pindar, Aeschylus) and Kymothales (Κυμοθαλής), "abounding with waves",[78] indicate that Poseidon was regarded as holding sway over the sea.[79] Other epithets that relate him with the sea are, Porthmios (Πόρθμιος), "of strait, narrow sea" at Karpathos,[80] Epactaeus (Ἐπακταῖος) "god worshipped on the coast", in Samos.,[81] Alidoupos, (Ἀλίδουπος) "sea resounding".[82]

His symbol is the trident and he has the epithet Eutriaina (Εὐτρίαινα), "with goodly trident" (Pindar).[83] The god of the sea is also the god of fishing, and tuna was his attribute. At Lampsacus they offered fishes to Poseidon and he had the epithet phytalmios (φυτάλμιος) [84] His epithet Phykios (Φύκιος), "god of seaweeds" at Mykonos,[85] seems to be related with fishing. He had a fest where women were not allowed, with special offers also to Poseidon Temenites (Τεμενίτης) "related to an official domain ".[86] At the same day they made offers to Demeter Chloe therefore Poseidon was the promotor of vegetation. He had the epithet phytalmios (φυτάλμιος) at Myconos, Troizen, Megara and Rhodes, comparable with Ptorthios (Πτόρθιος) at Chalcis.[84][87][88]

Poseidon carrying a trident. Korinthian plate 550-525 BC.

Poseidon had a close association with horses. He is known under the epithet Hippios (Ἳππειος), "of a horse or horses" [89] usually in Arcadia. He had temples at Lycosura, Mantineia, Methydrium, Pheneos, Pallandion.[90] At Lycosura he is related with the cult of Despoina.[91] The modern sanctuary near Mantineia was built by Emperor Hadrian.[92] In Athens on the hill of horses there was the altar of Poseidon Hippios and Athena Hippia. The temple of Poseidon was destroyed by Antigonus when he attacked Attica.[93] He is usually the tamer of horses (Damaios,Δαμαίος at Corinth),[94] and the tender of horses Hippokourios Ἱπποκούριος) at Sparta, where he had a sanctuary near the sanctuary of Artemis Aiginea.[95][96] In some myths he is the father of horses, either by spilling his seed upon a rock or by mating with a creature who then gave birth to the first horse.[2] In Thessaly he had the title Petraios Πετραἵος, "of the rocks".[97] He hit a rock and the first horse "Skyphios" appeared.[98] He was closely related with the springs, and with the strike of his trident, he created springs. He had the epithets Krenouchos (Κρηνούχος), "ruling over springs",[99] and nymphagetes (Νυμφαγέτης) "leader of the nymphs" [100] On the Acropolis of Athens he created the saltspring Sea of Erechtheus (Ἐρεχθηίς θάλασσα).[101] Many springs like Hippocrene and Aganippe in Helikon are related with the word horse (hippos). (also Glukippe, Hyperippe). He is the father of Pegasus, whose name is derived from πηγή, (pēgē) "spring".[102]

Epithets like Genesios Γενέσιος at Lerna[103][104] Genethlios (Γενέθλιος) "of the race or family" [105] Phratrios (Φράτριος) "of the brotherhood",[106] and Patrigenios (Πατριγένειος) [107] indicate his relation with the genealogy trees and the brotherhood.

Chariot racing on a black-figure hydria from Attica, ca. 510 BC

Other epithets of Poseidon in local cults are Epoptes (Ἐπόπτης), "overseer, watcher" at Megalopolis,[108] Empylios (Ἑμπύλιος), "at the gate " at Thebes.,[109] Kronios (Κρόνιος)[110] (Pindar) and semnos (σεμνός), "august, holy" [111] (Sophocles).

The cult of Poseidon is often related with festivals. At Corinth the Isthmian games was an athletic and music festival to honour the god who had the epithet Isthmios (Ἴσθμιος). The Amphictiony of Kalaureia belonged to him. At Tainaron he had a famous temple and festival. Other games which belonged to him are the Pohoidaia (Ποhοίδαια) in Helos and Thuria and the race in Gaiaochō (ἐν Γαιαόχω) [112][113] Poseidon Gaieochos (Γαιήοχος) had a temple near Sparta beside a Hippodrome.[114] Τhe epithet probably means " the one who moves under the earth" '[115] and therefore shakes the earth. This seem to relate Poseidon with the rivers at Peloponnesus that seem to disappear and then flow under the earth.[113] At Ephesus there was a fest "Tavria" and he had the epithet Tavreios (Tαύρειος), "related with the bull".[116][117]

Temples of Poseidon

Temples of Poseidon

Archaic Temple of Poseidon at Isthmia, Greece (Assumed reconstruction)

The Corinthians are considered to be the inventors of the Doric order. However Corinth was completely destroyed and rebuilt and there is not sufficient evidence for the existence of earliest Doric Greek temples in the city. [118] A building constructed in early 7th century BC c.690-650 BC at Isthmia near Corinth which was later dedicated to Poseidon, is considered a pioneering building featuring Doric architecture. [119]It seems that the first temple with pure Doric elements was built with the aid of Corinthians at Thermon in Aetolia in the middle of 7th century BC century. c.640-630 BC. It was a peripteral narrow wooden structure dedicated to Apollo,[120] It measured 12.13 X38.23 m at the stylobate and the number of pteron columns was 5X15. [121]

In the earlier temples the peripteral colonade is treated with a freedom unknown to later Doric architects. This is in part an especially western feature (in Italy) because the hexastyle sceme was adopted [122] as in the temple of Poseidon at Taranto and the second temple of Hera at Paestum (traditionally named temple of Poseidon). In the earlier temples where the number of the columns in the porch is odd, so are the columns of the pteron facade. In such temples the side ptera are approximately the width of one or two intercolumniations.[123]In the hexastyle scheme like the temple of Poseidon at Sounion, there are normally two or four columns in the porch and the side ptera are approximately the width of one intercolumniation. [124] In Doric early work the distance between column and column differs on the fronts and on the flanks [125] and this can be observed in the temple of Poseidon at Kalaureia and in Basilica at Paestum. After the 6th century the rule in Doric is an approximate equality of intercolumniations [125] and it can be observed in the temple of Poseidon at Sounion, where there is a slight difference.

Plan of the second temple of Hera,Paestum (traditionally temple of Poseidon)
Sounionplan-Temple of Poseidon
Architectural Terracotta Sanctuary of Poseidon Kalaureia
Temple of Poseidon, Hermione



Musee-romanite-fontaine Poseidon-Neptune

In the standard version, Poseidon was born to the Titans Cronus and Rhea, the fifth child out of six, born after Hestia, Demeter, Hera and Hades in that order.[139] Because Poseidon's father was afraid that one of his children would overthrow him like he had done to his own father, Cronus devoured each infant as soon as they were born. Poseidon was the last one to suffer this fate before Rhea decided to deceive Cronus and whisk the sixth child, Zeus, away to safety, after offering Cronus a rock wrapped in a blanket to eat.[140] Once Zeus was grown, he gave his father a powerful emetic that made him gorge up the children he had eaten. The five children emerged from their father's belly in reverse order, making Poseidon both the second youngest child and the second oldest at the same time. Armed with a trident forged for him by the Cyclopes, Poseidon with his siblings and other divine allies defeated the Titans and became rulers in their place.[141] According to Homer and Apollodorus, Zeus, Poseidon and the third brother Hades then divided the world between them by drawing lots; Zeus got the sky, Poseidon the sea, and Hades the Underworld.[142]

Andrea Doria as Neptune, by Angelo Bronzino.

In a rarer - and later- version, Poseidon avoided being devoured by his father as his mother Rhea saved him in the same manner she did Zeus, by offering Cronus a foal instead, claiming she had given birth to a horse instead of a god, while she had actually laid the child in a flock.[143] Rhea entrusted her infant to a spring nymph. When Cronus demanded the child, the nymph Arne[144] denied having him, and her spring thereafter was called Arne (which bears resemblance to the Greek word for 'deny').[145] In another tale, Rhea gave Poseidon to the Telchines, ancient inhabitants of the island of Rhodes;[146] Capheira, an Oceanid nymph, became the young god's nurse.[147] As Poseidon grew, he fell in love with Halia, the beautiful sister of the Telchines, and fathered six sons and one daughter, Rhodos, on her.[148][147] By that time Aphrodite, the goddess of love, had been born and risen from the sea, and attempted to make a stop at Rhodes on her way to Cyprus. Poseidon and Halia's sons denied her hospitality, so Aphrodite cursed them to fall in love and rape Halia. After they had done so, Poseidon made them sink below the sea.[148]

In Homer's Odyssey, Poseidon has a home in Aegae.[149]

City patronage

Foundation of Athens

Poseidon (right) and Athena depicted on a figure vase painting (C6th B.C.)
The Dispute of Minerva and Neptune by René-Antoine Houasse (circa 1689 or 1706)

Athena became the patron goddess of the city of Athens after a competition with Poseidon. Yet Poseidon remained a numinous presence on the Acropolis in the form of his surrogate, Erechtheus.[2] At the dissolution festival at the end of the year in the Athenian calendar, the Skira, the priests of Athena and the priest of Poseidon would process under canopies to Eleusis.[150] They agreed that each would give the Athenians one gift and the Athenians would choose whichever gift they preferred. Poseidon struck the ground with his trident and a spring sprang up; the water was salty and not very useful, whereas Athena offered them an olive tree.

The Athenians or their king, Cecrops, accepted the olive tree and along with it Athena as their patron, for the olive tree brought wood, oil and food. After the fight, infuriated at his loss, Poseidon sent a monstrous flood to the Attic Plain, to punish the Athenians for not choosing him. The depression made by Poseidon's trident and filled with salt water was surrounded by the northern hall of the Erechtheum, remaining open to the air. "In cult, Poseidon was identified with Erechtheus", Walter Burkert noted; "the myth turns this into a temporal-causal sequence: in his anger at losing, Poseidon led his son Eumolpus against Athens and killed Erectheus."[9]

South-west view of the Erechtheion with olive tree

It was also said that Poseidon in his anger over his defeat sent one of his sons, Halirrhothius, to cut down Athena's tree gift. But as Halirrhothius swung his axe, he missed his aim and it fell in himself, killing him instantly. Poseidon in fury accused Ares of murder, and the matter was eventually settled on the Areopagus ("hill of Ares") in favour of Ares, which was thereafter named after the event.[151][152] In other versions, Halirrhothius raped Alcippe, Ares's daughter, so Ares slew him. Poseidon was enraged over the murder of his son, and Ares was thus held in hold, which eventually acquitted him.[153]

The contest of Athena and Poseidon was the subject of the reliefs on the western pediment of the Parthenon, the first sight that greeted the arriving visitor.

This myth is construed by Robert Graves and others as reflecting a clash between the inhabitants during Mycenaean times and newer immigrants. Athens at its height was a significant sea power, at one point defeating the Persian fleet at Salamis Island in a sea battle.


Poseidon and Amumone

The Corinthians had a similar story to the foundations of Athens, about their own city Corinth. According to the myth, Helios and Poseidon clashed, both desiring to make the city their own. Their dispute was brought to one of the Hecatoncheires, Briareos, an elder god, who was thus tasked to settle the fight between the two gods. Briareus decided to award the Acrocorinth to Helios, while to Poseidon he gave the isthmus of Corinth.[154] In this tale, Helios and Poseidon are supposed to represent fire versus water.[155] Helios, as the sun god, received the area that is closest to the sky, while Poseidon, who is the sea god, got the isthmus by the sea.[156]

At another time, Poseidon came to an agreement with another goddess, Leto, that he would give her the island of Delos in exchange for the island of Calauria; he also exchanged Delphi for Taenarum with Apollo. A temple of Poseidon stood at Calauria during ancient times.[157] Poseidon also came to dispute with his sister Hera over the city of Argos. A local king was chosen to settle the matter, Phoroneus, and he decided to award the city to Hera, who then became its patroness.[158] Poseidon was enraged, and sent a drought to plague the city. One day, as an Argive woman named Amymone went out in search of water, came upon a satyr who tried to rape her. Amymone prayed to Poseidon for help, and he scared the satyr away with his trident.[159] After Poseidon rescued Amymone from the lecherous satyr he fathered a child on her, Nauplius.[160]

Walls of Troy

Poseidon and Apollo, having offended Zeus by their rebellion in Hera's scheme, were temporarily stripped of their divine authority and sent to serve King Laomedon of Troy. He had them build huge walls around the city and promised to reward them with his immortal horses, a promise he then refused to fulfill. In vengeance, before the Trojan War, Poseidon sent a sea monster to attack Troy. The monster was later killed by Heracles.[161]


Theseus deeds centre, Minotaur; around, clockwise from top, Kerkyon, Prokrustes, Skiron, bull, Sinis, sow. Attic red-figured kylix, ca. 440-430 BC. From Vulci.

Poseidon fathered the hero Theseus with the Troezenian princess Aethra. Theseus was also said to be the son of Aegeus, the king of Athens, who slept with Aethra on the very same night. Thus Theseus's origins included both the human and the divine element.[162][163]

Meanwhile in Crete, Zeus's son Minos asked for Poseidon's help in order to certify his claim on the throne of Crete. Poseidon offered Minos a splendid white bull, with the understanding that he was to sacrifice the bull to Poseidon later. The Cretans were so impressed with the bull and the divine sign itself that Minos was declared king of Crete.[164][165] But wishing to keep the beautiful animal for himself, Minos instead sacrificed an ordinary bull to the sea-god instead of the agreed upon one.[165]

Poseidon, enraged, caused Minos's wife, Pasiphae, to fall in love with the bull; their coupling produced the Minotaur, a half-bull half-human creature who fed on human flesh.[164][165] Minos concealed him within the labyrinth built by Daedalus, and fed to him Athenian men and women he forced Aegeus to sent him over.[140]

Once Theseus was grown up and recognized by his father Aegeus in Athens, he decided to end the bloody tax Athens had to pay to Crete once and for all, and volunteered to set sail to Crete along with the other Athenian youths who had been chosen to be devoured by the Minotaur.[166]

Theseus and the Minotaur. Attic red-figured plate 520-510BC

Once he arrived in Crete, Minos insulted Theseus and insisted he was no son of Poseidon; to demonstrate so, he threw his own ring in to the sea, and commanded Theseus to retrieve it, expecting he would not be able to do so.[167] Theseus immediately dove in after it.

Dolphins then came as guides and escorted him to the halls of Poseidon and Amphitrite's palace, where he was warmly welcomed.[168] He received the ring, and in addition a purple wedding cloak and a crown from Amphitrite, to prove his words. Theseus then emerged from the sea and gave the ring to Minos.[169]

Theseus killed the Minotaur, and in time succeeded his father Aegeus as king of Athens. By an Amazon he had a son, Hippolytus, while his wife Phaedra (Minos' daughter) gave him two sons. At some point, Poseidon promised three favours to Theseus, and he called upon Poseidon to fulfill one of those when Phaedra falsely accused Hippolytus of forcing himself on her.[170] Theseus, not knowing the truth, asked his father to destroy Hippolytus; Poseidon granted his son's wish, and as Hippolytus was driving by the sea, Poseidon sent a terrifying sea monster to spook the man's horses, which then dragged him to his death.[170][171]

Consort, lovers, victims and children

Sea thiasos depicting the wedding of Poseidon and Amphitrite, from the Altar of Domitius Ahenobarbus in the Field of Mars, bas-relief, Roman Republic, 2nd century BC

Poseidon was said to have had many lovers of both sexes. His consort was Amphitrite, a nymph and ancient sea-goddess, daughter of Nereus and Doris. In one account, attributed to Eratosthenes, Poseidon wished to wed Amphitrite, but she fled from him and hid with Atlas. Poseidon sent out many to find her, and it was a dolphin who tracked her down. The dolphin persuaded Amphitrite to accept Poseidon as her husband, and eventually took charge of their wedding. Poseidon then put him among the stars as a reward for his good services.[172] Oppian says that the dolphin betrayed Amphitrite's whereabouts to Poseidon, and he carried off Amphitrite against her will to marry her.[173] Together they had a son named Triton, a merman.[174]

Poseidon was the father of many heroes. He is thought to have fathered the famed Theseus. Poseidon also had an affair with Alope, his granddaughter through Cercyon, his son and King of Eleusis, begetting the Attic hero Hippothoon. Cercyon had his daughter buried alive but Poseidon turned her into the spring, Alope, near Eleusis.[175]

Theseus fights Cercyon (kylix painted by Aison, 5th century BC)

A mortal woman named Cleito once lived on an isolated island; Poseidon fell in love with the human mortal and created a dwelling sanctuary at the top of a hill near the middle of the island and surrounded the dwelling with rings of water and land to protect her. She gave birth to five sets of twin boys; the firstborn, Atlas, became the first ruler of Atlantis.[6][7][8]

Not all of Poseidon's children were human. His other children include Polyphemus (the Cyclops) and, finally, Alebion and Bergion and Otos and Ephialtae (the giants).

Amycus was the son of Poseidon and the Bithynian nymph Melia. [176] The philosopher Plato was held by his fellow ancient Greeks to have traced his descent to the sea-God Poseidon through his father Ariston and his mythic predecessors the demigod kings Codrus and Melanthus.[177][178]

Defeated by Pollux, Amykos, king of the Bebryces (centre), is bound to a rock . Shoulder of a Lucanian red-figured hydria, 442BC

Poseidon also took the young Nerites, the son of Nereus and Doris (and thus brother to Amphitrite) as a lover. Nerites was also Poseidon's charioteer, and impressed all marine creatures with his speed. But one day the sun god, Helios, turned Nerites into a shellfish. Aelian, who recorded this tale as told by mariners, says it is not clear why Helios did this, but theorizes he might have been offended somehow, or that he and Poseidon were rivals in love, and Helios wanted Nerites to travel among the constellations instead of the sea-monsters. From the love between Poseidon and Nerites was born Anteros, mutual love.[179]

Other male lovers included Pelops and Patroclus.[180]

Rape and assault victims

Lakonian Black-Figure Kylix; Attributed to Boreads Painter (Greek (Lakonian); 570–565 B.C.

A mortal woman named Tyro was married to Cretheus (with whom she had one son, Aeson), but loved Enipeus, a river god. She pursued Enipeus, who refused her advances. One day, Poseidon, filled with lust for Tyro, disguised himself as Enipeus, and from their union were born the heroes Pelias and Neleus, twin boys.[181]

In an archaic myth, Poseidon once pursued Demeter. She spurned his advances, turning herself into a mare so that she could hide in a herd of horses; he saw through the deception and became a stallion, captured and raped her.[182] Their child was a horse, Arion, which was capable of human speech.[183] According to Hesiod's Theogony, Poseidon "lay down in a soft meadow among spring flowers" with the Gorgon Medusa and two offspring, the winged horse Pegasus and the warrior Chrysaor, were born when the hero Perseus cut off Medusa's head.[184]

Lattanzio Gambara (c. 1530-Brescia 1574) - Poseidon-Neptune and Caenis

Ovid however says that Medusa was originally a very beautiful maiden whom Poseidon raped inside the temple of Athena. Athena, furious over the sacrilege, changed the beautiful girl into a monster. [185] Elsewhere in the Metamorphoses, Ovid says that Poseidon seduced Medusa in the form of a bird.[186]

One day, Poseidon spotted Caenis walking by the seashore, caught her and raped her. Having enjoyed her greatly, he offered her a wish, any wish. Traumatized, Caenis wished to be transformed into a man, so that she would never experience assault again. Poseidon fulfilled her request and changed her into a male warrior, who then took the name Caeneus.[187]

Another time Poseidon once fell in love with a Phocian woman, Corone, the daughter of Coronaeus as she was walking along the shore. He attempted to court her, but she rejected him, and ran away. Poseidon then chased her down with the aim to rape her. Athena, witnessing all that, took pity in the girl and changed her into a crow.[188]

When Zeus fell in love and pursued the goddess Asteria, she transformed into a quail and flung herself into the sea to escape being raped by him. Poseidon then, equally rapacious, picked up the chase where Zeus had left it and chased Asteria with the aim to force himself on her, so Asteria had to transform for a second time to save herself, this time into a small rocky island named Delos.[189]

List of offspring and their mothers

Offspring Mother
Triton Amphitrite [190]
Benthesicyme [191]
Rhodos [192]
Antaeus Gaea [193]
Charybdis [194]
Laistryon [195]
Despoina Demeter [196]
Arion [197]
Rhodos Aphrodite [198]
Herophile [199]
Pegasus Medusa[200]
Ergiscus Aba [201]
Aethusa Alcyone [202]
Hyrieus [203]
Hyperenor [203]
Hyperes [204]
Anthas [205]
Abas Arethusa [206]
Halirrhothius Bathycleia[207] or Euryte[208]
Chrysomallus Bisalpis or Bisaltis or Theophane[209]
Minyas Callirhoe [210]
Lycus Celaeno[211]
Eurypylus (Eurytus)
Asopus (possibly) Kelousa[212] or Pero[213]
Parnassus Cleodora [214]
Eumolpus Chione [215]
Phaeax Corcyra [216]
Rhode (possibly) Halia[217]
six sons
Eirene Melantheia [218]
Amycus Melia[219]
Aspledon Mideia [220]
Astacus Olbia [221]
Cenchrias Peirene[222]
Euadne Pitane[223] or Lena
Phocus Pronoe [224]
Athos Rhodope [225]
Cychreus Salamis [226]
Taras Satyria of Taras [227]
Polyphemus Thoosa [228]
Chios a nymph of Chios [229]
Melas another nymph of Chios[229]
Dictys Agamede[206]
Theseus Aethra [230]
Ogyges Alistra [231]
Hippothoon Alope [232]
Erythras Amphimedusa [233]
Nauplius Amymone [234]
Busiris Anippe[235] or Lysianassa[236]
Idas Arene [237]
Aeolus Antiope[206] or Arne[238] or Melanippe[239]
Boeotus Melanippe [239]
Oeoclus Ascre [240]
Ancaeus Astypalaea [241]
Eurypylus [242]
Peratus Calchinia [243]
Cycnus Calyce[206] or Harpale[244] or Scamandrodice[245] or a Nereid[246]
Hopleus Canace[247]
Celaenus Celaeno [248]
Dictys Cerebia[249]
Byzas Ceroessa [250]
Chryses Chrysogeneia [251]
Minyas [252]
Phaunos Circe [253]
Atlas Cleito[254]
Eumelus (Gadeirus)
Scylla Crataeis [255]
Celaeno Ergea [248]
Euphemus Doris (Oris)[256] or Europa[257] or Mecionice[256] or Macionassa[258]
Orion Euryale [259]
Minyas Euryanassa[260] or Hermippe[261] or Tritogeneia[262]
Eleius Eurycyda[263] or Eurypyle[264]
Bellerophon Eurynome[265] or Eurymede[266]
Almops Helle [267]
Edonus (Paion) [268]
Taphius Hippothoe [269]
The Aloadae (Ephialtes and Otus) Iphimedeia [270]
Sciron [271][272]
Achaeus Larissa [273]
Althepus Leis [274]
Agenor Libya [275]
Belus [275]
Lelex [276]
Delphus Melantho [277]
Dyrrhachius Melissa [278]
Metus Melite [206]
The Molionides (Cteatus, Eurytus) Molione [279]
Myton Mytilene [280]
Megareus Oenope [206]
Sithon Ossa [281]
Nausithous Periboea [282]
Torone Phoenice[283]
Ialysus Rhode[284]
Chthonius Syme [285]
Leucon or Leuconoe Themisto [206]
Pelias Tyro[286]
Cercyon Daughter of Amphictyon [287]
Ialebion no mother mentioned [288]
Bergion [288]
Dicaeus [289]
Syleus [290]
Poltys [219]
Sarpedon of Ainos [291]
Amphimarus [292]
Amyrus [293]
Aon, eponym of Aonia [294]
Astraeus [295]
Alcippe [295]
Augeas [296]
Byzenus [246]
Calaurus [297]
Caucon or Glaucon [298]
Corynetes [299]
Cromus [300]
Cymopoleia [301]
Erginus of Caria [302]
Eryx [303]
Euseirus [304]
Geren [305]
Lamia [306]
Lamus [307]
Messapus [308]
Onchestus [309]
Palaestinus [310]
Paralus [citation needed]
Phineus [311]
Phorbas of Acarnania [312]
Procrustes [299]
Taenarus [313]
Thasus [314]
Thessalus [315]
Ourea (a nymph) [316]
Dorus [317]
Laocoön [318]
Telchines [319]


In literature and art

Poseidon and Amphitryte - Joseph Kuhn-Régnier

In Greek art, Poseidon rides a chariot that was pulled by a hippocampus or by horses that could ride on the sea. He was associated with dolphins and three-pronged fish spears (tridents). He lived in a palace on the ocean floor, made of coral and gems.

In the Iliad, Poseidon favors the Greeks, and on several occasion takes an active part in the battle against the Trojan forces. However, in Book XX he rescues Aeneas after the Trojan prince is laid low by Achilles.

In the Odyssey, Poseidon is notable for his hatred of Odysseus who blinded the god's son, the Cyclops Polyphemus. The enmity of Poseidon prevents Odysseus's return home to Ithaca for many years. Odysseus is even told, notwithstanding his ultimate safe return, that to placate the wrath of Poseidon will require one more voyage on his part.

Neptune and Amphitrite by Jacob de Gheyn II (late 1500s)

In the Aeneid, Neptune is still resentful of the wandering Trojans, but is not as vindictive as Juno, and in Book I he rescues the Trojan fleet from the goddess's attempts to wreck it, although his primary motivation for doing this is his annoyance at Juno's having intruded into his domain.

A hymn to Poseidon included among the Homeric Hymns is a brief invocation, a seven-line introduction that addresses the god as both "mover of the earth and barren sea, god of the deep who is also lord of Mount Helicon and wide Aegae,[326] and specifies his twofold nature as an Olympian: "a tamer of horses and a saviour of ships".

In modern culture

Poseidon as portrayed in the 1963 film Jason and the Argonauts

Due to his status as a Greek god, Poseidon has made multiple appearances in modern and popular culture.


Poseidon has appeared in modern literature, most notably in the Percy Jackson & the Olympians series, in which he plays a role as the titular character's father. Poseidon appears in Gareth Hinds' 2010 version of The Odyssey.[327]


Poseidon appeared in Rachel Smythe's 2018 comic Lore Olympus.[328][329]

Films and television

Poseidon has been very popular especially in god-related films. John Putch directed the 2005 film The Poseidon Adventure. Wolfgang Petersen also film adapted Paul Gallico's novel and directed the 2006 film Poseidon.[330] Poseidon appeared in the 1963 film Jason and the Argonauts.

Poseidon appears in Percy Jackson & the Olympians: The Lightning Thief and Percy Jackson: Sea of Monsters, the two film adaptations of the book series.[331][332] He also appears in the ABC television series Once Upon a Time as a supporting character in the second half of season four, played by Ernie Hudson.[333] In this version, Poseidon is portrayed as the father of the Sea Witch Ursula.

Video games

Poseidon has made multiple appearances in video games, such as in God of War 3 by Sony. In the game, Poseidon appears as a boss for the player to defeat.[334] He also appears in Smite as a playable character.[335] In the video game Hades, he is a character who will grant "boons".[336]


Neptune's fountain in Prešov, Slovakia.

List of all pre-modern retellings of myths relating to Poseidon:




See also


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  3. ^ Seneca quaest. Nat. VI 6 :Nilsson Vol I p.450
  4. ^ Nilsson Vol I p.450
  5. ^ a b Hesiod, Theogony 456.
  6. ^ a b Plato (1971). Timaeus and Critias. London, England: Penguin Books Ltd. pp. 167. ISBN 9780140442618.
  7. ^ a b Timaeus 24e–25a, R. G. Bury translation (Loeb Classical Library).
  8. ^ a b Also it has been interpreted that Plato or someone before him in the chain of the oral or written tradition of the report accidentally changed the very similar Greek words for "bigger than" ("meson") and "between" ("mezon") – Luce, J.V. (1969). The End of Atlantis – New Light on an Old Legend. London: Thames and Hudson. p. 224.
  9. ^ a b Burkert 1983, pp. 149, 157.
  10. ^ Mycenean Linear B po-se-da-o
  11. ^ Martin Nilsson (1967). Die Geschichte der Griechische Religion. Erster Band. Verlag C. H. Beck. p. 444.
  12. ^ Liddell & Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, Ποσειδῶν doc=Perseus:text:1999.04.0057:entry=*poseidw=n Archived 9 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
  13. ^ Pierre Chantraine Dictionnaire etymologique de la langue grecque Paris 1974–1980 4th s.v.; Lorenzo Rocci Vocabolario Greco-Italiano Milano, Roma, Napoli 1943 (1970) s.v.
  14. ^ R. S. P. Beekes. Etymological Dictionary of Greek, Brill, 2009, p. 324 (s.v. "Δημήτηρ")
  15. ^ Δημήτηρ. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; An Intermediate Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project.
  16. ^ Adams, John Paul, Mycenean divinities – List of handouts for California State University Classics 315. Retrieved 7 March 2011.
  17. ^ Martin Nilsson, p. 417, p. 445. Michael Janda, pp. 256–258.
  18. ^ "The Greeks believed that the cause of the earthquakes was the erosion of the rocks by the waters" : Seneca quaest. Nat. VI 6 :Nilsson Vol I p.450
  19. ^ Beekes, Etymological Dictionary of Greek, p. 324.
  20. ^ Plato, Cratylus, 402d–402e
  21. ^ van der Toorn, Karel; Becking, Bob; van der Horst, Pieter Willem (1999), Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible (second ed.), Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdman's Publishing Company, ISBN 0-8028-2491-9
  22. ^ a b Adams, John Paul. "Mycenaean Divinities". List of Handouts for Classics 315. Archived from the original on 1 October 2018. Retrieved 2 September 2006.
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  27. ^ George Mylonas (1966), Mycenae and the Mycenean world. p.159. Princeton University Press
  28. ^ A.B. Stallmith in GRBS 18(2008) p.119 (The name of Demeter Thesmophoros).
  29. ^ a b "Wa-na-ssoi, wa-na-ka-te, (to the two queens and the king). Wanax (Greek : Αναξ) is best suited to Poseidon, the special divinity of Pylos. The identity of the two divinities addressed as wanassoi, is uncertain ": George Mylonas (1966) Mycenae and the Mycenean age p. 159 .Princeton University Press
  30. ^ Pausanias, 8.25.5; Raymond Bloch "Quelques remarques sur Poseidon, Neptunus et Nethuns" in Comptes-rendus des séances de l' Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Letres 2 1981 p. 345.
  31. ^ L. H. Jeffery (1976). Archaic Greece: The Greek city states c.800-500 B.C (Ernest Benn Limited) p 23 ISBN 0-510-03271-0
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  42. ^ Seneca quest. nat. VI 6 ;10;20
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  95. ^ "Pausanias 3.14.2".
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  97. ^ "Πετραῖος".
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  103. ^ γενέσιος
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  105. ^ γενέθλιος
  106. ^ "φράτριος".
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  109. ^ "ἐμπύλιος".
  110. ^ "Κρόνιος".
  111. ^ "σεμνός".
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  133. ^ W. Burkert, Greek Religion (1987).
  134. ^ "KalaureiaKalaureia, Poros (1894 and 1997– ongoing) - Kalaureia, Poros (1894 and 1997– ongoing)". Swedish Institute at Athens. Retrieved 19 November 2021.
  135. ^ Pausanias 2.34.10
  136. ^ Swedish Institute p.446
  137. ^ Temple of Poseidon Tainaron
  138. ^ Temple of Poseidon Tinos
  139. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 453-455; Hard, p. 67.
  140. ^ a b Hard 2004, p. 68.
  141. ^ Grimal 1987, s.v. Cronus.
  142. ^ Homer, Iliad 15.184-93 doc=Perseus:text:1999.01.0134:book=15:card=184 Archived 11 May 2019 at the Wayback Machine)
  143. ^ In the 2nd century AD, a well with the name of Arne, the "lamb's well", in the neighbourhood of Mantineia in Arcadia, where old traditions lingered, was shown to Pausanias. (Pausanias, 8.8.2)
  144. ^ Tzetzes ad Lycophron 644
  145. ^ Kerenyi 1951, p. 182.
  146. ^ Diodorus Siculus, 5.55
  147. ^ a b Grimal 1987, pp. 387-388.
  148. ^ a b Kerenyi 1951, pp. 183-184.
  149. ^ Homer, Odyssey 5.380
  150. ^ Burkert 1983, pp. 143–149.
  151. ^ Servius On Virgil's Georgics 1.18; scholia on Aristophanes's Clouds 1005
  152. ^ Wunder 1855, p. note on verse 703.
  153. ^ Apollodorus, 3.14.2
  154. ^ Fowler 1988, p. 98 n. 5; Pausanias, 2.1.6 & 2.4.6
  155. ^ Dio Chrysostom, Discourses 37.11–12
  156. ^ Grummond and Ridgway, p. 69, "Helios' higher position would correspond to the sun's location in the sky versus Poseidon's lower venue in the sea, opposite Demeter on land."
  157. ^ Strabo, Geographica 8.6.14
  158. ^ O'Brien 1993, p. 144.
  159. ^ Grimal 1987, p. 40.
  160. ^ Hyginus, Fabulae 169.
  161. ^ Ogden, Daniel (2021). The Oxford Handbook of Heracles. Oxford University Press. p. 210. ISBN 978-0-19-065098-8.
  162. ^ Grimal 1987, p. 446.
  163. ^ Walker 1995, p. [1].
  164. ^ a b Grimal 1987, p. 291.
  165. ^ a b c Hard 2004, p. 67.
  166. ^ Rose 1974, p. 82.
  167. ^ Ogden 2017, p. 41.
  168. ^ Williams & Clare 2022, pp. 160-161.
  169. ^ Williams & Clare 2022, p. 162.
  170. ^ a b Williams & Clare 2022, p. 139.
  171. ^ Walker 1995, p. 114.
  172. ^ Hyginus, Astronomica 2.17.1
  173. ^ Oppian, Halieutica 1.38
  174. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 930–933
  175. ^ Hard, p. 344
  176. ^ Apollonius Rhodius, 2.1 ff. & 2.94 ff. with scholia
  177. ^ Great Books of the Western World, Plato's Dialogues. Biographical Note
  178. ^ Diogenes Laertius Plato 1
  179. ^ "Aelian : On Animals, 14". www.attalus.org. Retrieved 11 January 2023.
  180. ^ Ptolemy Hephaestion, New History, 1 in Photius, 190
  181. ^ Smith, s.v. Tyro
  182. ^ Pausanias, 8.25.5
  183. ^ Pausanias, 8.25.7
  184. ^ Theogony 270–281 (Most, pp. 24, 25), where Poseidon is referred to as the "dark-haired one".
  185. ^ Ovid, Metamorphoses 4.794–803
  186. ^ Ovid, Metamorphoses 6.134
  187. ^ Ovid, Metamorphoses 12.195-199; Apollodorus, Epitome.1.22
  188. ^ Ovid, Metamorphoses 2.569-88
  189. ^ Kramer Richards, Arlene; Spira, Lucille (2015). Myths of Mighty Women: Their Application in Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy. New York, NY: Karnac Books Ltd. p. 80. ISBN 9781782203049.
  190. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 930–933
  191. ^ Apollodorus, 3.15.4
  192. ^ Pindar, Olympian Odes 7.14
  193. ^ Apollodorus, 2.5.11
  194. ^ Servius, Commentary on Virgil's Aeneid 3.420
  195. ^ Hesiod, Ehoiai fr. 40a as cited in Oxyrhynchus Papyri 1358 fr. 2
  196. ^ Pausanias, 8.25.7 & 8.42.1
  197. ^ Apollodorus, 3.6.8; Pausanias, 8.25.5 & 8.25.7
  198. ^ Herodorus, fr. 62 Fowler (Fowler 2000, p. 253), apud schol. Pindar, Olympian Odes 7.24–5; Fowler 2013, p. 591
  199. ^ Giovanni Boccaccio's Famous Women translated by Virginia Brown 2001; Cambridge and London, Harvard University Press; ISBN 0-674-01130-9; p. 42
  200. ^ Apollodorus, 2.4.2
  201. ^ Suida, s.v. Ergiske
  202. ^ Apollodorus, 3.10.3.
  203. ^ a b Apollodorus, 3.10.1.
  204. ^ Pausanias, 2.30.7
  205. ^ Pausanias, 9.22.5
  206. ^ a b c d e f g Hyginus, Fabulae 157
  207. ^ Scholia on Pindar, Olympian Ode 10.83 quoted in Hesiod, Ehoiai fr. 64
  208. ^ Apollodorus, 3.14.2
  209. ^ Hyginus, Fabulae 188
  210. ^ Tzetzes on Lycophron, 875
  211. ^ also said to be the daughter of Ergeus
  212. ^ Pausanias, 2.12.4
  213. ^ Apollodorus, 3.12.6
  214. ^ Pausanias, 10.6.13
  215. ^ Apollodorus, 3.15.4
  216. ^ Diodorus Siculus, 4.72.3
  217. ^ Diodorus Siculus, 5.55
  218. ^ Plutarch, Quaestiones Graecae 19
  219. ^ a b Apollodorus, 2.5.9
  220. ^ Stephanus of Byzantium, s.v. Aspledon
  221. ^ Stephanus of Byzantium, s.v. Astakos, with a reference to Arrian
  222. ^ Pausanias, 2.2.2
  223. ^ Hyginus, Fabulae 175
  224. ^ Scholia on Homer, Iliad 2.517
  225. ^ Scholia on Theocritus, Idylls 7.76
  226. ^ Diodorus Siculus, 4.72.1–5
  227. ^ Probus on Virgil's Georgics 2.197
  228. ^ Homer, Odyssey 1.70–73
  229. ^ a b Pausanias, 7.4.8
  230. ^ Hyginus, Fabulae 14
  231. ^ Tzetzes on Lycophron, 1206
  232. ^ Hyginus, Fabulae 187
  233. ^ Scholia on Homer, Iliad 2.499
  234. ^ Apollodorus, 2.1.5, 2.7.4; Apollonius of Rhodes, Argonautica 1.133–139; Hyginus, Fabulae 14, 169.
  235. ^ Plutarch, Parallela minora 38
  236. ^ Apollodorus, 2.5.11.
  237. ^ Apollodorus, 3.10.3.
  238. ^ Diodorus Siculus, Bibliotheca historica 4.67.3–4
  239. ^ a b Hyginus, Fabulae 186
  240. ^ Pausanias, 9.29.1
  241. ^ Pausanias, 7.4.1
  242. ^ Apollodorus, 2.7.1.
  243. ^ Pausanias, 2.5.7
  244. ^ Scholia on Pindar, Olympian Ode 2.147
  245. ^ Tzetzes on Lycophron, 232
  246. ^ a b Murray, John (1833). A Classical Manual, being a Mythological, Historical and Geographical Commentary on Pope's Homer, and Dryden's Aeneid of Virgil with a Copious Index. Albemarle Street, London. p. 78.
  247. ^ Apollodorus, 1.7.4
  248. ^ a b Strabo, Geographica 12.8.18
  249. ^ Tzetzes on Lycophron, 838
  250. ^ Stephanus of Byzantium, Ethnica s.v. Byzantion
  251. ^ Pausanias, 9.36.4
  252. ^ Scholia on Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 3.1094
  253. ^ Nonnus, Dionysiaca 13.328 ff.
  254. ^ Plato, Critias 113d-144c
  255. ^ Eustathius on Homer, p. 1714
  256. ^ a b Tzetzes, Chiliades 2.43
  257. ^ Hyginus, Fabulae 14; Pindar, Pythian Ode 4.45
  258. ^ John Lempière, Argonautae
  259. ^ Apollodorus, 1.4.3.
  260. ^ Scholia on Homer, Odyssey 11.326 = Hesiod, fr. 62 (Loeb edition, 1914)
  261. ^ Scholia on Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 1.230-3b
  262. ^ Scholia on Pindar, Pythian Odes 4.122
  263. ^ Pausanias, 5.1.8
  264. ^ Conon, Narrations 14
  265. ^ Hesiod, Ehoiai fr. 7
  266. ^ Apollodorus, 1.9.3
  267. ^ Stephanus of Byzantium, s.v. Almopia
  268. ^ Pseudo-Eratosthenes, Catasterismi 19; Hyginus, Poeticon astronomicon 2.20
  269. ^ Apollodorus, 2.4.5
  270. ^ Homer, Odyssey 11.305–8
  271. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 1.2
  272. ^ Tripp, Edward. The Meridian Handbook of Classical Mythology. Meridian, 1970, p. 522.
  273. ^ Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Antiquitates Romanae 1.17.3
  274. ^ Pausanias, 2.30.5
  275. ^ a b Apollodorus, 2.1.4.
  276. ^ Pausanias, 1.44.3
  277. ^ Tzetzes on Lycophron, 208
  278. ^ Stephanus of Byzantium, s.v. Dyrrhakhion
  279. ^ Apollodorus, 2.7.2
  280. ^ Stephanus of Byzantium, s.v. Mytilene
  281. ^ Conon, Narrations 10
  282. ^ Homer, Odyssey 7.56–57
  283. ^ Stephanus of Byzantium, s.v. Torōnē
  284. ^ Tzetzes on Lycophron, 923
  285. ^ Diodorus Siculus, 5.53.1
  286. ^ Apollodorus, 4.68.3
  287. ^ Pausanias, 1.14.3
  288. ^ a b Apollodorus, Bibliotheca, 2.5.10.
  289. ^ eponym of Dicaea, a city in Thrace as cited in Stephanus of Byzantium, s.v. Dikaia
  290. ^ Conon, Narrations 17
  291. ^ Scholia on Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 1.216
  292. ^ Pausanias, 9.29.5
  293. ^ eponym of a river in Thessaly as cited in Scholia on Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 1.596
  294. ^ Scholia on Statius, Thebaid 1.34
  295. ^ a b Pseudo-Plutarch, De fluviis 21.1
  296. ^ Apollodorus, 2.88
  297. ^ Stephanus of Byzantium, s.v. Kalaureia
  298. ^ Aelian, Varia Historia 1.24
  299. ^ a b Hyginus, Fabulae, 38.
  300. ^ Pausanias, 2.1.3
  301. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 817–819
  302. ^ Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 1.185 & 2.896
  303. ^ Apollodorus, 2.5.10
  304. ^ Antoninus Liberalis, 22 Archived 2 October 2018 at the Wayback Machine
  305. ^ Stephanus of Byzantium, s.v. Gerēn
  306. ^ Pausanias, 10.12.1
  307. ^ Eustathius ad Homer, Odyssey p. 1649
  308. ^ Virgil, Aeneid 7.691
  309. ^ Pausanias, 9.26.5
  310. ^ Pseudo-Plutarch, De fluviis 11.1
  311. ^ Apollodorus, 1.9.21
  312. ^ Suda, s.v. Phorbanteion
  313. ^ Scholia on Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 1.179
  314. ^ Apollodorus, 3.1.1
  315. ^ Scholia on Pindar, Olympian Odes 14.5
  316. ^ Hyginus, Fabulae 161
  317. ^ Servius ad Virgil, Aeneid 2.27
  318. ^ Tzetzes ad Lycophron, 347
  319. ^ Nonnus, Dionysiaca 14.36 ff
  320. ^ This chart is based upon Hesiod's Theogony, unless otherwise noted.
  321. ^ According to Homer, Iliad 1.570–579, 14.338, Odyssey 8.312, Hephaestus was apparently the son of Hera and Zeus, see Gantz, p. 74.
  322. ^ According to Hesiod, Theogony 927–929 Archived 5 May 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Hephaestus was produced by Hera alone, with no father, see Gantz, p. 74.
  323. ^ According to Hesiod, Theogony 886–890 Archived 5 May 2016 at the Wayback Machine, of Zeus' children by his seven wives, Athena was the first to be conceived, but the last to be born; Zeus impregnated Metis then swallowed her, later Zeus himself gave birth to Athena "from his head", see Gantz, pp. 51–52, 83–84.
  324. ^ According to Hesiod, Theogony 183–200 Archived 5 May 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Aphrodite was born from Uranus' severed genitals, see Gantz, pp. 99–100.
  325. ^ According to Homer, Aphrodite was the daughter of Zeus (Iliad 3.374, 20.105 Archived 2 November 2018 at the Wayback Machine; Odyssey 8.308 Archived 2 November 2018 at the Wayback Machine, 320) and Dione (Iliad 5.370–71), see Gantz, pp. 99–100.
  326. ^ The ancient palace-city that was replaced by Vergina
  327. ^ "The Odyssey – Gareth Hinds Illustration". Retrieved 1 February 2023.
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