The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. You may improve this article, discuss the issue on the talk page, or create a new article, as appropriate. (May 2021) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

This timeline describes major events in the history of animal welfare and animal rights.

Overview

Period Description
c.14000–1000 BCE The domestication of animals began with dogs. From 8500 to 1000 BCE, cats, sheep, goats, cows, pigs, chickens, donkeys, horses, silkworms, camels, bees, ducks, and reindeer were domesticated by various civilizations.[1]
1000 BCE–700 CE Hinduism, Jainism, and Buddhism started teaching ahimsa, nonviolence toward all living beings. Many adherents of these religions began foregoing meat-eating and animal sacrifice, and, in the case of Jainism, taking great precautions to avoid injuring animals. The earliest known reference to the idea of non-violence to animals (pashu-ahimsa), apparently in a moral sense, has been found in the Kapisthala Katha Samhita of the Yajurveda (KapS 31.11), written about the 8th century BCE.[2] Judaism, Christianity, and Islam began less comprehensive in their concern for animals, but included some provisions for humane treatment.[3] A number of ancient Greek and Roman philosophers advocated for vegetarianism and kindness toward animals.[4] The ancient Indian philosopher Thiruvalluvar (between 1st century BCE and 5th century CE) wrote an exclusive chapter on moral vegetarianism in his work Tirukkural, insisting strictly on a plant-based diet, with separate chapters on ahimsa (or non-harming) and non-killing.[5][6] Vivisection for scientific and medical purposes began in ancient Greece.[7] Under the influence of Buddhism, a ban on meat-eating was instated in Japan.[8]
1600–1800 Enlightenment philosophers took up the question of animals and their treatment, some arguing that they were sentient beings who deserved protection.[9][10][11] The first modern animal protection laws were passed in Ireland and the Massachusetts Bay Colony.[12]
1800–1914 British Parliament passed the first national animal protection legislation, and the first animal protection and vegetarian organizations formed in the U.S. and U.K.[13] The American and British anti-vivisection movements grew in the late 19th century, led by Frances Power Cobbe in Britain and culminating in the Brown Dog affair, then declining sharply thereafter.[14] The Japanese taboo against meat-eating died out under the Meiji Restoration.[citation needed]
1914–1966 The use of animals grew tremendously with the beginning of intensive animal agriculture in the 1920s[15] and the increasing role of animal experimentation in science and cosmetics.[16] Media coverage of animal abuses spurred concern over animal welfare in the U.S. and U.K., and helped bring about the first federal animal welfare legislation in the U.S.[17][18] The theoretical possibility of in vitro animal products was recognized.[19]
1966– Consumption of intensively farmed animal products boomed worldwide, with global meat production rising from approximately 78 million tons in 1963 to 308 million tons in 2014.[20] In the US and Europe, books, documentaries, and media coverage of controversies surrounding animal cruelty boosted the animal rights and welfare movements,[21][22][23][24] while destructive direct actions by groups like the Animal Liberation Front draw public rebuke and government crackdown.[25][26] Research on in vitro animal products gained traction,[19] resulting in the first in vitro meats.[27][28] Beginning in the late 1980s, Europe took the lead in animal welfare reform.[25] In the West and some other countries, public interest in animal welfare, animal rights, and plant-based diets increased significantly.[29][30][31][32]

Detailed timeline

Year Event Country
or region
c. 530 BCE Greek philosopher Pythagoras was the first in a line of several Greek and Roman philosophers to teach that animals had souls, and to advocate for vegetarianism.[4]
Flag of Greece
c. 269–c. 232 BCE Indian emperor Ashoka converted to Buddhism and issued edicts advocating vegetarianism and offering protections to wild and domestic animals.[33]
Flag of India
100s Greek medical researcher and philosopher Galen's experiments on live animals helped establish vivisection as a widely used scientific tool.[7]
Flag of Greece
675 Japanese Emperor Tenmu, a devout Buddhist, banned eating meat (with exceptions for fish and wild animals).[8]
Flag of Japan
973–1057 Syrian writer and philosopher Al-Ma'arri at some point in his life stopped using any animal products,[34][35] making him the first documented vegan.
Flag of Japan
Early 1600s Philosopher and scientist René Descartes argued that animals were machines without feeling, and performed biological experiments on living animals.[9]
Flag of France
1635 The Parliament of Ireland passed "An Act against Plowing by the Tayle, and pulling the Wooll off living Sheep", one of the first known pieces of animal protection legislation.[12]
Flag of Ireland
1641 Regulations against "Tirranny or Crueltie" toward domestic animals were included in the Massachusetts Body of Liberties.[12]
Flag of the United States
1687 The Japanese ban on eating meat, which had waned with the arrival of Portuguese and Dutch missionaries, was reintroduced by the Tokugawa shogunate. Killing animals was also prohibited.[8]
Flag of Japan
1780 In An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation philosopher Jeremy Bentham argued for better treatment of animals on the basis of their ability to feel pleasure and pain, famously writing, "The question is not, Can they reason? nor, Can they talk? but, Can they suffer?"[11]
Flag of the United Kingdom
1822 Led by Richard Martin, British Parliament passed the "Act to Prevent the Cruel and Improper Treatment of Cattle".[36]
Flag of the United Kingdom
1824 Richard Martin, along with Reverend Arthur Broome and abolitionist Member of Parliament William Wilberforce, founded the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (now the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, RSPCA), the world's first animal protection organization.[36]
Flag of the United Kingdom
1824 Early vegan and anti-vivisectionist Lewis Gompertz published Moral Inquiries on the Situation of Man and of Brutes, one of the first books advocating for animal rights.[37]
Flag of the United Kingdom
1830s Lewis Gompertz left the SPCA to found the Animals' Friend Society, opposing all uses of animals which were not for their benefit.[37]
Flag of the United Kingdom
1835 Britain passed its first Cruelty to Animal Act after lobbying from the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, expanding existing legislation to protect bulls, dogs, bears, and sheep, and prohibit bear-baiting and cock-fighting.[citation needed]
Flag of the United Kingdom
1847 The term "vegetarian" was coined and the Vegetarian Society was founded in Britain.[38]
Flag of the United Kingdom
1859 Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species was published, demonstrating that humans are the evolutionary descendants of non-human animals.[39]
Flag of the United Kingdom
1863 Frances Power Cobbe published her first article on animal rights, The Rights of Man and the Claims of Brutes, which included a moral case for the regulation of the scientific use of animals in experiments (vivisection).
1866 The American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals was established.[17]
Flag of the United States
1866 onwards Under the Meiji Restoration and renewed contact with the West, the Japanese taboo against meat-eating was actively discouraged by the government. Meat-eating soon became the norm.[citation needed]
Flag of Japan
1875 Frances Power Cobbe founded the National Anti-Vivisection Society in Britain, the world's first anti-vivisection organization.[14]
Flag of the United Kingdom
1876 After lobbying from anti-vivisectionists, Britain passed the Cruelty to Animals Act of 1876, the first piece of national legislation to regulate animal experimentation.[18]
Flag of the United Kingdom
1877 Anna Sewell's Black Beauty, one of the first English novels to be written from the perspective of a non-human animal, spurred concern for the welfare of horses.[14]
Flag of the United Kingdom
1892 Social reformer Henry Stephens Salt published Animals' Rights: Considered in Relation to Social Progress, an early exposition of the philosophy of animal rights.[13]
Flag of the United Kingdom
1902 On 19 March, the International Convention on the Protection of Birds Useful to Agriculture was signed in Paris.[40]
Flag of France
1903 The Brown Dog affair brought anti-vivisection to the forefront of public debate in Britain; the debate lasted till 1910.[14]
Flag of the United Kingdom
1906 J. Howard Moore published The Universal Kinship, which advocated for the ethical consideration and treatment of all sentient beings, based on Darwinian principle of shared evolutionary kinship and a universal application of the Golden Rule.[41]
Flag of the United States
1923 Intensive animal farming began when Celia Steele raised her first flock of chickens for meat.[15]
Flag of the United States
1933 Nazi Germany introduced the law Reichstierschutzgesetz (Reich Animal Protection Act).[citation needed]
Flag of Nazi Germany
1944 Donald Watson coined the word "vegan" and founded The Vegan Society in Britain.[38]
Flag of the United Kingdom
1950 On 18 October, the International Convention on the Protection of Birds was signed in Paris.[40]
Flag of France
Early 1950s Willem van Eelen recognized the possibility of generating meat from tissue culture.[19]
Flag of the Netherlands
1955 The Society for Animal Protective Legislation (SAPL), the first organization to lobby for humane slaughter legislation in the US, was founded.[17]
Flag of the United States
1958 The American Humane Slaughter Act was passed.[17]
Flag of the United States
1960 Indian parliament passed its first national animal welfare legislation, Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act.[42]
Flag of India
1964 The Hunt Saboteurs Association was founded in England to sabotage hunts and oppose bloodsports.[43]
Flag of the United Kingdom
1964 Ruth Harrison's Animal Machines, which documented the conditions of animals on industrial farms, helped to galvanize the animal movement in Britain.[25]
Flag of the United Kingdom
1964 Largely due to the outcry following Animal Machines, British Parliament formed the Brambell Committee to investigate animal welfare. The Committee concluded that animals should be afforded the Five Freedoms, which consisted of the animal's freedom to "have sufficient freedom of movement to be able without difficulty to turn around, groom itself, get up, lie down, [and] stretch its limbs."[25][44]
Flag of the United Kingdom
1966 Following public outcry over the cases of Pepper and other mistreated animals, the American Animal Welfare Act was passed. This legislation set minimum standards for handling, sale, and transport of dogs, cats, nonhuman primates, rabbits, hamsters, and guinea pigs, and instated conservative regulations on animal experimentation.[18]
Flag of the United States
1968 The original European Convention for the Protection of Animals during International Transport, establishing minimal ethical standards for livestock transportation in Europe, was adopted by the Council of Europe.[45][46]: 58 
Flag of Europe
1970 Animal rights activist Richard Ryder coined the term "speciesism" to describe the devaluing of nonhuman animals on the basis of species alone.[47]
Flag of the United Kingdom
1971 The United States Department of Agriculture excluded birds, mice, and rats – which make up the vast majority of animals used in research – from protection under the Animal Welfare Act.[48][49]
Flag of the United States
1971 Animals, Men and Morals is published which argued explicitly in favour of animal liberation/animal rights.[50]
Flag of the United Kingdom
1973 On 3 March, the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) was adopted in Washington, D.C..[51]
Photograph of the Earth from space
1974 Ronnie Lee and Cliff Goodman of the Band of Mercy, a militant group founded by former members of the Hunt Saboteurs Association, were jailed for firebombing a British animal research center.[52]
Flag of the United Kingdom
1974 The Council of Europe passed a directive requiring that animals be rendered unconscious before slaughter.[25]
Flag of Europe
1974 Henry Spira founded Animal Rights International after attending a course on animal liberation given by Peter Singer.[53]
Flag of the United States
1975 Peter Singer published Animal Liberation, whose depictions of the conditions of animals on farms and in laboratories and utilitarian arguments for animal liberation were to have a major influence on the animal movement.[21]
Flag of the United States
1976 The European Convention for the Protection of Animals kept for Farming Purposes, which mandated that animals be kept in conditions meeting their "physiological and ethological needs", was adopted by the Council of Europe.[25]
Flag of Europe
1976 Released from prison, Ronnie Lee founded the Animal Liberation Front in Britain, which soon spread to the US.[52]
Flag of the United Kingdom
1976–1977 Under the leadership of Henry Spira, Animal Rights International led a successful campaign to end harmful experiments performed on cats at the American Museum of Natural History.[54]
Flag of the United States
1979 On 10 May, the European Convention for the Protection of Animals for Slaughter, seeking 'to help harmonise methods of slaughter in Europe and make them more humane', was adopted by the Council of Europe.[55]
Flag of Europe
1979 On 19 September, the Berne Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats was adopted by the Council of Europe in Bern.[56]
Flag of Europe
1979 On 20 December, the Convention for the Conservation and Management of the Vicuña was signed between Bolivia, Chile, Ecuador and Peru, in 1981 joined by Argentina, based on an earlier treaty signed on 16 August 1969 in La Paz.[57]
Parties to the 1979 Vicuña Convention
1980 A campaign by Animal Rights International opposing Draize tests performed on rabbits by the cosmetics company Revlon resulted in Revlon making a $250,000 grant to Rockefeller University to research alternatives to animal experimentation. Several other major cosmetics companies soon followed suit.[22]
Flag of the United States
1980 In March, Ingrid Newkirk and Alex Pacheco founded People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA).[58]
Flag of the United States
1981–1983 The Silver Spring monkey controversy began when Alex Pacheco's undercover investigation of Edward Taub's monkey research laboratory resulted in Taub's arrest for animal cruelty. Taub was later convicted on six counts of inadequate veterinary care, which was then overturned on the grounds that state animal welfare laws did not apply to federally-funded experiments.[23]
Flag of the United States
1982 The International Whaling Commission (IWC) banned commercial whaling by a 1982 moratorium, effective from 1986.[59]
Photograph of the Earth from space
1983 Tom Regan published The Case for Animal Rights, a highly influential philosophical argument that animals had rights (as opposed to Peter Singer's utilitarian case for animal liberation).[60]
Flag of the United States
1986 The European Convention for the Protection of Vertebrate Animals used for Experimental and other Scientific Purposes to regulate the treatment and protection of test animals was adopted by the Council of Europe.[46] Simultaneously and in close coordination with the Council of Europe, Directive 86/609/EEC (later replaced by Directive 2010/63/EU) was developed and adopted by the European Communities.[46]
Flag of Europe
1987 The European Convention for the Protection of Pet Animals promote the welfare of pets and ensure minimum standards for their treatment and protection was adopted by the Council of Europe.[61]
Flag of Europe
1989 Gary Francione became the first academic to teach animal rights theory in an American law school, at Rutgers Law School.[citation needed]
Flag of the United States
1990 PETA and the Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine ended their highly publicized legal battle over the Silver Spring monkeys, failing to gain custody of the animals.[23]
Flag of the United States
1992 Switzerland became the first country to include protections for animals in its constitution.[25]
Flag of Switzerland
1995 Publication of Gary Francione's Animals, Property, and the Law (1995), arguing that because animals are the property of humans, laws that supposedly require their "humane" treatment and prohibit the infliction of "unnecessary" harm do not provide a significant level of protection for animal interests.[62]
Flag of the United States
1996 Publication of Gary Francione's Rain Without Thunder: The Ideology of the Animal Rights Movement, arguing that there are significant theoretical and practical differences between the messaging of the animal rights advocacy, which he maintains requires the abolition of animal exploitation, and the messaging of animal welfare advocates, which seeks to regulate exploitation to continue the exploitation while making it (appear as) less painful and more humane (as in laboratory IACUCs and regulated cattle ranching).[citation needed]
Flag of the United States
1997 The European Union's Protocol on Animal Protection was annexed to the treaty establishing the European Community. The Protocol recognized animals as "sentient beings" (rather than mere property) and required countries to pay "full regard to the welfare requirements of animals" when making laws regarding their use.[25]
Flag of Europe
1998 The EU passed the Council Directive 98/58/EC Concerning the Protection of Animals Kept for Farming Purposes, which was based on a revised Five Freedoms: freedom from hunger and thirst; from discomfort; from pain, injury, and disease; from fear and distress; and to express normal behavior.[25]
Flag of Europe
1999 Willem van Eelen secured the first patent for in vitro meat.[19]
Flag of the Netherlands
1999 European Union Council Directive 1999/74/EC[63] was legislation passed by the European Union on the minimum standards for keeping egg laying hens which effectively banned conventional battery cages.
Flag of Europe
2000–2009 Bans on fur farming were instituted in the United Kingdom, Austria, Netherlands, Switzerland, Croatia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina.[25][64]
Flag of Europe
2001 The European Court of Justice issued a conservative interpretation of the 1997 Protocol on Animal Protection in the Jippes case, stating that the law did not create new protections for animals but only codified existing ones.[25]
Flag of Europe
2003 The revised European Convention for the Protection of Animals during International Transport, establishing more detailed ethical standards for livestock transportation in Europe than the original 1968 convention, was adopted by the Council of Europe.[45][46]: 60–61 
Flag of Europe
2006 Veal crates became illegal in the EU.[25]
Flag of Europe
2008 Spain passed a non-legislative measure to grant non-human primates the right to life, liberty, and freedom from use in experiments. However, this required further action by the government to become formal law, which was not taken.[25]
Flag of Spain
2008 California passed a ballot measure requiring that a chicken "be able to extend its limbs fully and turn around freely". This has been described as a ban on battery cages, but battery cages giving 116 square inches per hen were allowed under the law.[65][66]
Flag of the United States
2009 In 2009, Bolivia became the first country to ban all animal use in circuses.[67]
Flag of Bolivia
2009 After a similar 1991 ban in the Canary Islands, the Catalan Parliament adopted a ban on bullfighting in Catalonia in December 2009, effective January 2012. However, it was overturned by the Spanish Constitutional Court in October 2016.[68]
Flag of Spain
2010 Gary Yourofsky's YouTube lecture on veganism and factory farming entitled "Best Speech You Will Ever Hear" was translated into Hebrew, and went viral in Israel. The speech helped drive a surge in Israeli interest in veganism and animal rights.[69][70]
Flag of Israel
2010 EU Directive 2010/63/EU[71] was the EU legislation "on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes" and became one of the most stringent ethical and welfare standards worldwide.[72]
Flag of Europe
2011–2016 After undercover investigations sparked public outrage over animal abuse on industrial farms, several American states introduced "ag-gag" laws in an effort to criminalize such investigations.[73]
Flag of the United States
2012 The EU's ban on battery cages went into effect. Furnished cages were still allowed, however.[25]
Flag of Europe
2012 A group of prominent scientists issued the Cambridge Declaration on Consciousness, which stated that "the weight of evidence indicates that humans are not unique in possessing the neurological substrates that generate consciousness. Nonhuman animals, including all mammals and birds, and many other creatures, including insects and octopuses, also possess these neurological substrates."[74]
Flag of the United Kingdom
2013
Hanni Rützler tests the world

The world's first cultured meat product (a hamburger), developed by the Maastricht University team of Mark Post (mostly sponsored by Sergey Brin), was publicly tested by Hanni Rützler in London.[75]

Photograph of the Earth from space
2013 The EU banned testing cosmetics on animals.[29]
Flag of Europe
2013 The Nonhuman Rights Project filed the first-ever lawsuits on behalf of chimpanzees, demanding courts grant them the right to bodily liberty via a writ of habeas corpus.[76] The petitions were denied and the cases moved on to appellate courts.[77]
Flag of the United States
2013 The UK legislation to protect animals in research, The Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act 1986, was amended to protect "...all living vertebrates, other than man, and any living cephalopod." Previously, the only protected invertebrate was the common octopus.[citation needed]
Flag of the United Kingdom
2014 The American Animal Cruelty Investigations School was established in the United States with the mission to provide law enforcement and animal care and control professionals training in the area of animal cruelty investigations.[78]
Flag of the United States
2014 India became the first country in Asia to ban testing cosmetics on animals as well as imports of animal-tested cosmetics.[79]
Flag of India
2015 In a survey of Israelis, 8% of respondents identified as vegetarian and 5% as vegan (up from 2.5% vegetarians in 2010),[80] making Israel the country with the highest percentage of vegans.[81]
Flag of Israel
2015 New Zealand passes the Animal Welfare Amendment Bill, stating animals like humans are sentient beings.[82]
Flag of New Zealand
2015–2016 Following major public backlash prompted by the 2013 film Blackfish, SeaWorld announced it would end its controversial orca shows and breeding program.[83]
Flag of the United States
2015–2016 In the U.S., a number of major egg buyers and producers switched from battery-cage to cage-free eggs.[84][85][86]
Flag of the United States
2016 Cellular agriculture company Memphis Meats announced the creation of the first in vitro meatball.[28]
Flag of the United States
2018 On December 20, 2018, the federal Dog and Cat Meat Trade Prohibition Act was signed into law as part of the 2018 Farm Bill, making it illegal to slaughter a dog or cat for food in the United States, with exceptions for ritual slaughter.[87]
Flag of the United States
2019 A proposal to ban factory farming in Switzerland achieved 100,000 signatures, forcing a nationwide ballot on the issue.[88]
Flag of Switzerland
2019 On June 13, 2019,[89] the Federal Administrative Court in Leipzig, Germany, ruled that the current way of killing unwanted chicks "violates the country's laws against killing animals without a justifiable reason."[90]
Flag of Germany
2019 On October 12, 2019, California banned the sale and manufacture of most animal fur, with some exceptions such as for cowhide or religious observances, effective January 1, 2023.[91]
Flag of the United States
2020 In January 2020, an employment tribunal in Britain ruled that ethical veganism is a "philosophical belief" and therefore is protected in law. This was the first time an employment tribunal in Britain ruled this. This was in regards to vegan Jordi Casamitjana, who stated he was fired by the League Against Cruel Sports due to his ethical veganism.[92]
Flag of the United Kingdom
2020 On July 2, 2020, a referendum launched on improving legislation for animals in France, organized through the collaboration of 25 French animal rights and welfare organizations, including L214 and CIWF.[93]
Flag of France
2020 In December 2020, the first cultured meat product in the world entered the market after being approved by the Singapore Food Agency.[94]
Flag of Singapore
2020 In December 2020, the European Court of Justice ruled that member states of the European Union may require a reversible pre-cut stunning procedure during ritual slaughter in order to promote animal welfare.[95]
Flag of Europe
2021 The UK passed legislation formally recognizing animals as sentient beings.[96]
Flag of the United Kingdom
2021 In a US court, animals were recognized as "interested persons" for the first time.[97]
Flag of the United States
2021 Octopuses, crabs and lobsters were recognized under UK law as sentient beings.[98]
Flag of the United Kingdom
2021 In December 2021, Spain approved a law recognizing animals as sentient beings.[99]
Flag of Spain
2022 Per 1 January 2022, Germany and France jointly became the first countries in the world to prohibit all chick culling, as they called on other EU member states to do the same.[100]
Flag of France and Germany
2022 In February 2022, the electorate in Basel-Stadt in northern Switzerland got to vote on enshrining the basic rights of all non-human primates in the cantonal constitution. While the ballot initiative fell through, it was the first time in history that such a vote had taken place.[101]
Flag of Switzerland

See also

References

  1. ^ "History of Animal Domestication". March 11, 2012. Retrieved April 21, 2016.
  2. ^ Tähtinen, Unto (1976). Ahimsa. Non-Violence in Indian Tradition. London. pp. 2–3 (English translation: Schmidt p. 631). ISBN 0-09-123340-2.
  3. ^ E. Szűcs; R Geers; E. N. Sossidou; D. M. Broom (November 2012). "Animal Welfare in Different Human Cultures, Traditions and Religious Faiths". Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences. 25 (11): 1499–1506. doi:10.5713/ajas.2012.r.02. PMC 4093044. PMID 25049508.
  4. ^ a b Nathan Morgan (August 10, 2010). "The Hidden History of Greco-Roman Vegetarianism". Retrieved April 19, 2016.
  5. ^ Kamil Zvelebil (1973). The smile of Murugan on Tamil literature of South India. BRILL. pp. 156–. ISBN 978-90-04-03591-1. Retrieved December 11, 2010.
  6. ^ Pope, GU (1886). Thirukkural English Translation and Commentary (PDF). W.H. Allen, & Co. p. 160.
  7. ^ a b Richard R. Sharp. "Ethical Issues in the Use of Animals in Biomedical Research". Retrieved April 23, 2016.
  8. ^ a b c Zenjiro Watanabe. "Removal of the Ban on Meat" (PDF). Retrieved May 6, 2016.
  9. ^ a b "Animal Consciousness". Retrieved April 20, 2016.
  10. ^ Raymond Giraud. "Rousseau and Voltaire: The Enlightenment and Animal Rights". Retrieved April 21, 2016.
  11. ^ a b Jeremy Bentham. "An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation" (PDF). Retrieved April 20, 2016.
  12. ^ a b c Belden C. Lane (April 21, 2011). Ravished by Beauty: The Surprising Legacy of Reformed Spirituality. ISBN 9780199831685. Retrieved April 19, 2016.
  13. ^ a b "History of the Movement" (PDF). Retrieved April 19, 2016.
  14. ^ a b c d "A History of Antivivisection from the 1800s to the Present: Part 1 (mid-1800s to 1914)". June 10, 2009. Retrieved April 19, 2016.
  15. ^ a b Jonathan Safran Foer (2009). Eating Animals. Little, Brown and Company. ISBN 9780316069908.
  16. ^ "A History of Antivivisection from 1800s to Present: Part 2 (1914-1970)". June 10, 2009. Retrieved April 23, 2016.
  17. ^ a b c d "Animal Rights Movement" (PDF). Retrieved April 20, 2016.
  18. ^ a b c Benjamin Adams; Jean Larson. "Legislative History of the Animal Welfare Act: Introduction". Retrieved April 20, 2016.
  19. ^ a b c d Zuhaib Fayaz Bhat; Hina Fayaz (April 2011). "Prospectus of cultured meat—advancing meat alternatives". Journal of Food Science and Technology. 48 (2): 125–140. doi:10.1007/s13197-010-0198-7. PMC 3551074.
  20. ^ "Meat and Animal Feed". Retrieved April 21, 2013.
  21. ^ a b "Peter Singer". January 29, 2007. Retrieved April 21, 2016.
  22. ^ a b Henry Spira (1985). "Fighting to Win". In Peter Singer (ed.). In Defense of Animals. Basil Blackwell. Retrieved April 21, 2016.
  23. ^ a b c Peter Carlson (February 24, 1991). "The Great Silver Spring Monkey Debate". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 21, 2016.
  24. ^ Vivian Kuo; Martin Savidge (February 9, 2014). "Months after 'Blackfish' airs, debate over orcas continues". CNN. Retrieved April 23, 2016.
  25. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Nicholas K. Pedersen. "Detailed Discussion of European Animal Welfare Laws 2003 to Present: Explaining the Downturn". Retrieved April 20, 2016.
  26. ^ Will Potter (2011). Green is the New Red: An Insider's Account of a Social Movement Under Siege. City Lights Publishers.
  27. ^ Henry Fountain (August 5, 2013). "A Lab-Grown Burger Gets a Taste Test". The New York Times. Retrieved April 24, 2016.
  28. ^ a b Hilary Hanson (February 2, 2016). "'World's First' Lab-Grown Meatball Looks Pretty Damn Tasty". HuffPost. Retrieved April 24, 2016.
  29. ^ a b Rebecca Rifkin (May 18, 2015). "In U.S., More Say Animals Should Have Same Rights as People". Retrieved April 23, 2016.
  30. ^ "Vegan Diets Become More Popular, More Mainstream". CBS News. January 5, 2011. Retrieved April 23, 2016.
  31. ^ Daphne Rousseau (October 22, 2014). "Israel, the promised land for vegans". The Times of Israel. Retrieved April 23, 2016.
  32. ^ "Global Polls Reveal Consumers Worldwide Want an End to Animal Testing for Cosmetics". January 27, 2016. Retrieved April 23, 2016.
  33. ^ Ven. S. Dhammika. "The Edicts of King Asoka" (PDF). Retrieved April 19, 2016.
  34. ^ Geert Jan van Gelder, Gregor Schoeler, "Introduction", in Abu l-Ala al-Maarri, The Epistle of Forgiveness Or A Pardon to Enter the Garden, Volume 2, New York and London: New York University Press, 2016, xxvii.
  35. ^ "Al Ma'arri". November 27, 2016. Archived from the original on November 27, 2016. Retrieved November 13, 2020.
  36. ^ a b "Animal Welfare". Retrieved April 20, 2016.
  37. ^ a b Hannah Renier. "An Early Vegan: Lewis Gompertz". London Historians. Retrieved April 20, 2016.
  38. ^ a b "History of Vegetarianism: Origins of Some Words". Archived from the original on June 30, 2008. Retrieved April 20, 2016.((cite web)): CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  39. ^ R. B. Freeman. "On the Origin of Species". Retrieved April 20, 2016.
  40. ^ a b Haas, Peter M. (2017). International Environmental Governance. Routledge. p. 12. ISBN 9781351562423. Retrieved February 15, 2022.
  41. ^ Magel, Charles R. (1989). Keyguide to information sources in animal rights. Mansell Pub. ISBN 9780899504056.
  42. ^ "The Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act, 1960". Retrieved April 20, 2016.
  43. ^ Steven Best, ed. (2004). Terrorists or Freedom Fighters?. Lantern Books.
  44. ^ Amy Mosel. "What About Wilbur? Proposing a Federal Statute to Provide Minimum Humane Living Conditions for Farm Animals Raised for Food Production". Retrieved April 21, 2016.
  45. ^ a b Algers, B. (2016). "Applied ethology in the EU: development of animal welfare standards and actions". Animals and us: 50 years and more of applied ethology. Wageningen: Wageningen Academic Publishers. pp. 158–159. ISBN 9789086868285. Retrieved May 10, 2021.
  46. ^ a b c d Ausems, Egbert (2006). "The Council of Europe and animal welfare". Ethical Eye – Animal Welfare. Strasbourg: Council of Europe Publishing. pp. 58–64. ISBN 9789287160164. Retrieved May 12, 2021.
  47. ^ Richard D. Ryder. "Speciesism Again: the original leaflet" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on June 4, 2016. Retrieved April 21, 2016.
  48. ^ Joanne Zurlo; Deborah Rudacille; Alan M. Goldberg. "Animals and Alternatives in Testing: History, Science, and Ethics". Retrieved April 23, 2016.
  49. ^ "Rats, Mice & Birds". Retrieved April 23, 2016.
  50. ^ "Animals Men and Morals". Voice for Ethical Research at Oxford. Retrieved October 12, 2019.
  51. ^ cites.org
  52. ^ a b "US Domestic Terrorism: Animal Liberation Front". Retrieved April 21, 2016.
  53. ^ "Animal Rights International - Animal Rights - Henry Spira - ARI". December 16, 2014. Archived from the original on December 16, 2014. Retrieved November 2, 2019.
  54. ^ Barnaby Feder (September 15, 1998). "Henry Spira, 71, Animal Rights Crusader". The New York Times. Retrieved April 21, 2016.
  55. ^ "Details of Treaty No.102. European Convention for the Protection of Animals for Slaughter". coe.int. Council of Europe. May 10, 1979. Retrieved May 11, 2021.
  56. ^ "Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats (ETS No. 104)". Council of Europe. Retrieved February 19, 2022.
  57. ^ McNeill, Desmond; Lichtenstein, Gabriela; Renaudeau d' Arc, Nadine. "Chapter 6: International Policies and National Legislation Concernign Vicuña Conservation and Exploitation". The Vicuña: The Theory and Practice of Community Based Wildlife Management. p. 63–64. Retrieved February 15, 2022.
  58. ^ Phelps, Norm. The longest struggle: animal advocacy from Pythagoras to PETA. Lantern Books, 2007, p. 229.
  59. ^ Alice Tidey (December 26, 2018). "Japan to restart commercial whaling in 2019". Euronews. Retrieved February 19, 2022.
  60. ^ Lawrence Finsen; Susan Finsen (1994). The Animal Rights Movement in America: From Compassion to Respect. Twayne Publishers. ISBN 9780805738841.
  61. ^ "Chart of signatures and ratifications of Treaty 125. European Convention for the Protection of Pet Animals". Council of Europe. Retrieved June 4, 2020.
  62. ^ "Four-Footed Clients and Futile Cases;A Rutgers Law Professor Fights to Expand the Animal Kingdom's Rights". The New York Times. November 11, 1995.
  63. ^ "European Union Council Directive 1999/74/EC". Retrieved November 15, 2011.
  64. ^ Cecilia Mille; Eva Frejadotter Diesen. "The best animal welfare in the world? An investigation into the myth about Sweden" (PDF). Translated by Niki Woods. Retrieved April 21, 2016.
  65. ^ "California Proposition 2, Standards for Confining Farm Animals (2008)". Retrieved April 30, 2016.
  66. ^ Bradley Miller (February 10, 2015). "Flawed ballot measure is coming home to roost". Retrieved April 30, 2016.
  67. ^ "The perfect storm: How the Bolivian Ban on Animal Circuses was won". Animal Defenders International. Retrieved November 4, 2019.
  68. ^ "El Constitucional anula la prohibición de los toros en Cataluña". Retrieved January 21, 2017.
  69. ^ Erica Chernofsky (January 25, 2016). "Israeli veganism takes root in land of milk and honey". BBC News. Retrieved May 17, 2016.
  70. ^ Sarah Toth Stub (February 16, 2016). "Life After Brisket". Retrieved May 17, 2016.
  71. ^ "Directive 2010/63/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council". Official Journal of the European Union. Retrieved April 17, 2016.
  72. ^ "EuroScience supports Directive 2010/63/EU on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes". EuroScience. 2015. Retrieved May 18, 2016.
  73. ^ Alicia Prygoski (2015). "Detailed Discussion of Ag-gag Laws". Retrieved April 23, 2016.
  74. ^ "The Cambridge Declaration on Consciousness" (PDF). Retrieved April 21, 2016.
  75. ^ "World's first lab-grown burger is eaten in London". BBC News. August 5, 2013. Retrieved February 2, 2016.
  76. ^ "First-Ever Lawsuits Filed on Behalf of Captive Chimpanzees". December 2, 2013. Retrieved April 21, 2016.
  77. ^ Michael Mountain (December 10, 2013). "New York Cases – Judges' Decisions and Next Steps". Retrieved April 23, 2016.
  78. ^ Doug Eddins (March 2, 2016). "American Animal Cruelty Investigations School". Retrieved January 30, 2021.
  79. ^ Melissa Cronin (October 14, 2014). "This is the First Country in Asia to Ban All Cosmetics Tested on Animals". Retrieved April 24, 2016.
  80. ^ Tova Cohen (July 21, 2015). "In the land of milk and honey, Israelis turn vegan". Reuters. Retrieved May 17, 2016.
  81. ^ Ben Sales (October 15, 2014). "Israelis growing hungry for vegan diet". Retrieved May 24, 2016.
  82. ^ "New Zealand Legally Recognises Animals as 'Sentient' Beings". Animal Equality UK. May 12, 2015. Retrieved October 12, 2019.
  83. ^ Brian Clark Howard (March 17, 2016). "SeaWorld to End Controversial Orca Shows and Breeding".
  84. ^ Eliza Barclay (December 30, 2015). "The Year In Eggs: Everyone's Going Cage-Free, Except Supermarkets". NPR. Retrieved April 24, 2016.
  85. ^ Dan Charles (January 15, 2016). "Most U.S. Egg Producers Are Now Choosing Cage-Free Houses". NPR.org. Retrieved April 24, 2016.
  86. ^ John Kell (April 5, 2016). "Walmart Is the Latest Retailer to Make a Cage-Free Egg Vow". Retrieved April 24, 2016.
  87. ^ Piper, Kelsey (December 18, 2018). "Dog and cat meat are now, finally, illegal". Vox. Retrieved November 2, 2019.
  88. ^ "Swiss to vote on banning factory farming". Swissinfo. Retrieved October 12, 2019.
  89. ^ "German court rules mass-killing of male chicks legal". BBC News. June 13, 2019. Retrieved May 21, 2020.
  90. ^ Vogel, Gretchen (August 14, 2019). "'Ethical' eggs could save male chicks from mass slaughter". Science Magazine. Archived from the original on December 19, 2019. Retrieved August 26, 2019.
  91. ^ "Assembly Bill No. 44". California Legislative Information. October 14, 2019. Retrieved May 14, 2020.
  92. ^ "Ethical veganism is philosophical belief, tribunal rules". BBC News. January 3, 2020.
  93. ^ "Referendum for animals launched today in France". Euro Group for Animals. July 2, 2020. Retrieved July 3, 2020.
  94. ^ Damian Carrington (December 2, 2020). "No-kill, lab-grown meat to go on sale for first time". The Guardian. Retrieved December 2, 2020.
  95. ^ European Court of Justice (December 17, 2020). "Judgment in Case C-336/19" (PDF). Press release. Retrieved December 17, 2020.
  96. ^ Harvey, Fiona (May 12, 2021). "Animals to be formally recognised as sentient beings in UK law". The Guardian. Retrieved May 15, 2021.
  97. ^ "Animals Recognized as Legal Persons for the First Time in U.S. Court". Animal Legal Defense Fund. October 20, 2021. Retrieved October 22, 2021.
  98. ^ "Octopuses, crabs and lobsters to be recognised as sentient beings under UK law following LSE report findings". London School of Economics and Political Science. November 19, 2021. Retrieved November 22, 2021.
  99. ^ Hermida, Xosé; Sánchez, Esther (December 3, 2021). "Spain approves new law recognizing animals as 'sentient beings'". EL PAÍS English Edition. Retrieved December 5, 2021.
  100. ^ Julia Dahm & Magdalena Pistorius (July 21, 2021). "Germany, France call on EU countries to also ban culling of male chicks". Euractiv. Retrieved July 25, 2021.
  101. ^ Keystone-SDA/ts. "Voters decline to give limited rights to non-human primates". SWI swissinfo.ch. Retrieved April 22, 2022.