WWBX
Logo-boston-Mix1041.png
Broadcast areaGreater Boston
Frequency104.1 MHz (HD Radio)
BrandingMix 104.1
Programming
Language(s)English
FormatHot adult contemporary
SubchannelsHD2: "WAAF" (active rock)
HD3: New CHR
Ownership
Owner
History
First air date
May 1958 (1958-05)[1]
Former call signs
WBCN (1958–2009)
WBMX (2009–17)
Call sign meaning
"Boston's Mix"
Technical information
Licensing authority
FCC
Facility ID26897
ClassB
ERP21,000 watts
HAAT235 meters (771 ft)
Transmitter coordinates
42°20′50″N 71°4′59″W / 42.34722°N 71.08306°W / 42.34722; -71.08306 (WWBX)
Links
Public license information
WebcastListen live (via Audacy)
Listen live (HD2)
Websitewww.audacy.com/mix1041
www.audacy.com/waaf (HD2)

WWBX (104.1 FM, Mix 104.1) is a radio station with a hot adult contemporary format in Boston, Massachusetts. The format started at 98.5 FM on February 9, 1991, and moved to 104.1 FM, replacing WBCN on August 12, 2009, to allow for the launch of WBZ-FM at 98.5 the next day. Its studios are located in Brighton, and its transmitter is on the upper FM mast of the Prudential Tower.

From February 26, 1991 to December 3, 2017, the "Mix" format in Boston used the callsign WBMX. On December 4, 2017, the call letters changed to WWBX, after the call letters were transferred to a sister station in Chicago.[2]

The 104.1 MHz facility went on the air in 1958 as WBCN. A classical music station in its first ten years on the air, beginning in 1968, WBCN featured a rock format for 41 years. WBCN became a legend in the rock music industry for breaking many bands, most notably U2.[3] WBCN was a modern rock/active rock station that mixed music that has been popular in the modern rock, alternative rock and classic rock genres. Known as "The Rock of Boston", its three main Boston-area competitors as of 2009 were Album Oriented Rock/active rock WAAF and alternative music stations WBOS and WFNX.

The station switched to digital only on August 12, 2009, with two digital-only automated streams, one on the HD2 channel of WBZ-FM continuing the modern rock format, the other Free Form BCN, airing an eclectic mix of rock, related genres, and a lot of new music - essentially the WBCN of 1968 to 1988, brought into the 21st Century. The station's battle of the bands' competition, the Rock 'n' Roll Rumble, survived the station's demise. WBCN's celebrated local music specialty show, Boston Emissions—along with The Rumble—moved to former sister station WZLX, now owned by iHeartMedia, in 2009. Boston DJ Anngelle Wood[4] remains the host and music director of both the radio show and The Rumble—these are the last remaining ties to the original 104.1 WBCN programming.[5]

"Free Form BCN" began airing live freeform shows in September 2009 on WZLX-HD3 and at wbcn.com. While still digital and largely automated, the online stream was live Monday through Friday during the day. WBCN's first rock program director, Sam Kopper, was Program Director of WBCN Free Form Rock until being discontinued on January 29, 2016.

History

WBMX/WWBX has been based out of this studio building in Brighton, shared with CBS' other Boston FM stations (and built for former sister station WSBK in an antebellum style favored by that stations' then-owner, Storer Broadcasting) since 2009. The building also housed WBCN's studios starting in 2005.
WBMX/WWBX has been based out of this studio building in Brighton, shared with CBS' other Boston FM stations (and built for former sister station WSBK in an antebellum style favored by that stations' then-owner, Storer Broadcasting) since 2009. The building also housed WBCN's studios starting in 2005.

WBCN

In May 1958, 104.1 FM officially signed on as WBCN, airing classical music. The call sign stood for the Boston Concert Network (along with Hartford's WHCN, New York City's WNCN, and Providence's WXCN). One of the on-air personalities at that time was Ron Della Chiesa, who also served as the music host and program director. Della Chiesa is still active in classical music broadcasting on WCRB. In 1965, Nathaniel Johnson was appointed Music Director of WBCN by station program director Don Otto. Johnson remained with the station until 1967, just prior to the changeover from classical to easy-listening, and then to rock. Johnson then left WBCN to assume a new position at WGBH.[6]

The station slowly began to change to an "underground" progressive rock format on the night of March 15, 1968. BCN's first rock announcer, "Mississippi Harold Wilson" (Joe Rogers), used the station's first slogan, "The American Revolution" and played the very first song "I Feel Free" by the rock group Cream. At first, the new "American Revolution" format was only heard during the late-evening and overnight hours, but in mid-May, the station expanded the rock programming to 24 hours a day. By June 1968, the station's air staff included Mississippi, Peter Wolf (who was just starting with the J. Geils Band), Tommy Hadges, Jim Parry, Al Perry, and Sam Kopper was joined by Steven "The Seagull" Segal. Segal's arrival was critical to the station's early development since he came in from Los Angeles and San Francisco, where he had been mentored by the legendary West Coast DJ Tom Donahue, who was credited with starting the very first underground rock FM station at KMPX the year before. Segal's West Coast radical radio consciousness infused the early 'BCN. In the summer of 1968, Kopper was made the station's first program director. That fall, Segal and Kopper hired J.J. Jackson as a disc jockey. Twelve years later, JJ would become one of MTV's first VJs. In December 1968, Peter Wolf left to take the J. Geils Band full-time and, introduced to the station by Jim Parry, Charles Laquidara was hired to take over the 10:00 p.m. to 2:00 a.m. air shift. Between late 1968 and early 1971, as program director, Kopper sought out and hired Norm Winer, recently graduated from Brandeis; Andy Beaubien, recently graduated from URI; and Maxanne Sartori, who came in from her DJ position at KOL-FM in Seattle.

WBCN began supporting non-mainstream investigative reporting and alternative news coverage, including reports from demonstrations and highly produced montage news reports. The news department was initially headed by Norm Winer, who later became program director. For a brief period during that transition, Charles Laquidara, who was acting program director hired Robert "Bo" Burlingham as news director. Bo resigned shortly thereafter when his name appeared on a UPI news wire as one of several people being indicted by then-Attorney General John Mitchell—a charge which was later dropped. Danny Schechter replaced Bo Burlingham and immediately billed himself as "the News Dissector". Along with Andrew Kopkind, John Scagliotti, Bill Lichtenstein, and Marsha Steinberg, the news department evolved radically, introducing such novel concepts as a show oriented toward prison inmates, health warnings about the hazards of street drugs, a lost pet-finding service called the Cat and Dog Report, a travelers' aid service called the Travelers' Friend, live updates on the traffic problems at Woodstock, and by 1970, live-to-air concert broadcasts. WBCN's programming in 1971-72 bore little relationship to the Billboard Hot 100 or any other conventional programming. Classical music, jazz, or anything else might be played, as long as the skillful DJs could make it work. For the first time, the owners of the station began to make a profit. However, there was always tension between the artistic expression of the DJs, and management's need to run a business, resulting in the unionization of the station with the United Electrical Workers in 1971.

Popular legend holds that WBCN was sent a promotional copy of The Beatles' unreleased Get Back album and played it on the air before the release of the album was cancelled. The "album" had been compiled out of material the Beatles recorded in London in January 1969, the same sessions that would be used to create the Beatles' Let It Be album which was released in May 1970. While the existence of the promotional album is apocryphal, the truth behind the broadcast, though less dramatic, is equally as fascinating. In late summer of 1969, WBCN somehow obtained a reel-to-reel tape of a reference acetate of a potential album song lineup prepared by Beatles' engineer Glyn Johns on March 10, 1969. WBCN aired the tape on September 22, 1969. Although WBCN was not the only radio station, or even the first station, to air material from the Get Back sessions — WKBW in Buffalo was the first, and the tapes also aired on WEBN in Cincinnati, WBAI in New York City, and KCOK in St. Louis — WBCN's broadcast of the tapes has been immortalized because it was preserved on a high-quality reel, which spawned several widely circulated Beatles bootlegs.

By 1975, WBCN had gradually evolved from the underground/progressive format of the 1960s to the more mainstream album oriented rock format popular in the 1970s. Unlike most rock stations of the era, WBCN still allowed a degree of individual DJ control of the music. Their playlist in general was more varied than many of their competitors, there was some focus on local music (also see the WBCN Rock & Roll Rumble), and the station was known nationwide for breaking acts (The Cars, 'Til Tuesday, U2) and setting trends. Oedipus (who had the first punk rock show in the country while at MIT's college station, WTBS) was hired first as a DJ in 1977, and then installed as program director in 1981, and helped to break The Ramones, The Clash, The Police, and countless punk and new wave bands out of Boston.

In the period around 1975, John Garabedian, now recognized for the nationally syndicated "Open House Party" (which was once heard locally on WXKS-FM), was an afternoon DJ on WBCN.

In 1979, the station was purchased by Hemisphere Broadcasting, who let go several longtime employees who they determined "non-essential." This set off a local controversy in Boston that resulted in the entire airstaff walking off the air striking in protest. During the walkout, WBCN stayed on the air with substitute DJs imported from several out-of-town Hemisphere sister stations. The protest got local media coverage and the attention of several well-known Boston-based music acts, including The Cars, Aerosmith, and Boston, who got behind the protest. When several large advertisers pulled spots, and the union filed a challenge to Hemisphere's license (pointing out that by forcing the staff out on strike, Hemisphere had created a situation where it couldn't provide the public service it was required to), Hemisphere relented, the fired staffers were rehired and the DJs went back on the air. (It was also rumored that Hemisphere's FCC lawyers had vetoed the course of action advised by Hemisphere's labor lawyers). Charles Laquidara played Superman by The Kinks back to back for an entire show in celebration.

By the mid-1980s, WBCN had successfully fended off a number of challengers (the hard rocking but tightly formatted WCOZ, Top 40 Hitradio WHTT, classic rock WZLX, among others) to become/remain the region's top rock station. Many of the DJs, particularly morning "Big Mattress" host Charles Laquidara, were now local quasi-celebrities. Laquidara had Billy West on the show on a daily basis, as well as Karlos, the first computer-generated (using Digital Equipment's DECtalk) on-air personality in radio history. Legendary Boston stripper Princess Cheyenne hosted a Sunday night sex advice show that eventually led to one of her appearances in Playboy Magazine in April 1986. The station was more commercial and "programmed" by this point, but still retained some of its progressive energy and edge.

By the 1990s, WBCN was at a crossroads. With its audience aging, it risked becoming a classic rock-focused station and losing its currency as an outlet for new music. For a long time, WBCN successfully balanced new and old music (featuring the slogan "Classic to Cutting Edge"). In the early 1990s, the station began airing the nationally syndicated Howard Stern Show, but aired it in the evenings on tape delay instead of during morning drive. This allowed them to retain their "Big Mattress" morning show along with its large and loyal audience.

Active rock era

In early 1994, WBCN made its first major format adjustment since 1968. The old DJs, station IDs, and classic rock were gutted, replaced by an alternative music format featuring new, younger jocks. On April 1, 1996, the Stern show was moved to mornings. The station lost some of its longtime listeners (who migrated to the now co-owned WZLX, where former WBCN DJs Laquidara and Carter Alan had gone), but quickly gained credibility among many younger people.

In the summer of 1999, WBCN moved its format away from strictly alternative music and more towards an active rock-leaning modern rock format. The station by this time was playing some hard rock and Nu metal acts such as Godsmack, Korn, Limp Bizkit, and Linkin Park. By the fall of 2002, certain classic artists, such as Aerosmith, Led Zeppelin, and Ozzy Osbourne, were added back in the station's playlist rotation.

Much of the station's programming focused on syndicated talk shows (former WAAF personalities Opie & Anthony replacing David Lee Roth, who had previously replaced Howard Stern in morning drive time). During the autumn months, WBCN became more focused on sports as the station broadcast the games of the NFL's New England Patriots beginning in 1995.

In early 2006, with the Howard Stern morning drive time show gone due to Stern moving to Sirius Satellite Radio, WBCN experienced a plummet in Arbitron ratings that the station had not observed since the late 1970s and early 1980s, when it fell behind then rock format competitor WCOZ. The station started to air the syndicated Opie & Anthony during the morning drive. WBCN also launched The Toucher and Rich Show, a new locally produced comedy-based afternoon drive time show starring Fred Toettcher and Rich Shertenlieb. The duo formerly worked together at Atlanta alternative station WNNX.

In 2007, the station was nominated for the Top 25 Markets Alternative Station of the Year Award by Radio & Records magazine. Other nominees included KROQ-FM in Los Angeles, KTBZ-FM in Houston, KITS, in San Francisco, KNDD in Seattle, and WWDC in Washington, D.C.[7]

In December 2008, the station ceased airing Opie & Anthony in morning drive and moved "Toucher and Rich" from afternoons.[8] During the following months, industry insiders, local media, and even WBCN's on air staff speculated that, in a matter of time, WBCN could see a format change, especially after the Boston Herald ran an article in the March 30, 2009 issue about WBCN's future, and the station airing a Top 40 format for a few hours the following day (April Fool's Day).

From 1995 to 2008, WBCN was the flagship station of the Patriots Rock Radio Network, which broadcast games of the New England Patriots. Gil Santos, former WBZ sports reporter, did play-by-play, while Gino Cappelletti, former Patriots star, provided color commentary. With WBCN's dissolution as an analog station, the Patriots flagship station became WBCN's sister station WBZ-FM on August 13, 2009.

WBCN going digital-only

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On July 14, 2009, CBS Radio announced that WBCN would sign off the 104.1 MHz frequency the following month.[9][10][11]

WBCN's last four days on analog radio were celebration and retrospective shows highlighting WBCN's history. Bradley Jay (later, he became host of the weekday overnight talk show, "Jay Talking", on AM sister station WBZ[12]) was the last DJ. The first song of that last hour was Cream's "I Feel Free," the first rock song played on WBCN in 1968, and the last song played was Pink Floyd's "Shine On You Crazy Diamond," followed by a much-used collage of songs with the line "They're really Rockin' in Boston..." and station bits and ID spots used over the years, which then slowed to a halt. The final words were from the late Darrell Martinie, the Cosmic Muffin, saying his tag line, "Over and Out." At 12:05 a.m. on August 12, 2009, the station went into a static-like sound, and after a few moments, a voice read the new station identification: "WBMX, WBMX-HD1, Boston" over the "static." The static was broadcast on 104.1 until 2:00 a.m. At that time, "Mix 98.5" officially moved to 104.1, playing "Use Somebody" by Kings of Leon as their first song after the move. That song was in heavy rotation on WBCN during the months leading up to CBS Radio's announcement of the station's demise, and continued until the four-day farewell began.

HD Radio substations on the FM frequencies changed as well:

This was done to make room for an all-sports talk format at the 98.5 FM frequency, known as 98.5 The Sports Hub WBZ-FM. WBCN's Toucher and Rich morning show began broadcasting on WBZ-FM on August 14, 2009. WBCN's afternoon DJ Rob Poole, known on air as "Hardy," announced on his final WBCN show that he will co-host a sports-themed show on WBZ-FM on Saturday mornings.

WBCN (in WBZ-FM-HD2 form) formerly transmitted from the tower known locally as "FM-128" in Newton. It shared a master antenna with WJMN (94.5 Boston), WKLB-FM (102.5 Waltham), along with backup transmitters for WBOS, WBQT, WROR-FM, WMJX, and WXKS-FM.[13]

In order to keep the intellectual property of WBCN intact, without another station in Boston making claim to it, CBS Radio parked the WBCN call letters on WFNA, a station located at 1660 AM in Charlotte, North Carolina. The Charlotte station was a semi-satellite of WFNZ 610 AM, known then as "The Franchise," an all sports talk station. The FCC approved the transfer in the spring of 2009. As part of the switch, the WBMX call letters were parked on 1660 AM in Charlotte from July 29, 2009 until WBCN signed off for the last time at 104.1 in Boston on August 12, 2009. On September 14, 2009, WBCN (AM) split from WFNZ and became "America's Talk," a conservative-leaning talk station. It returned to sports programming in 2013 as a full-time satellite of CBS Sports Radio.

WBCN Free Form Rock

WBCN Free Form Rock (originally WBCN Free Form 104, then Free Form BCN) was a digital-only radio station broadcasting on the Internet and in the Boston radio market on WZLX 100.7 HD3. The station, programmed by BCN's original 1969 program director, Sam Kopper, began airing in February 2009 as WBCN Free Form 104, airing, until the demise of the original WBCN, on 104.1 HD2. Since WBCN's change to digital-only, the station was known as Free Form BCN and then WBCN Free Form Rock by late September 2009. WBCN Free Form Rock was formatted essentially the same as WBCN's 104.1 FM's 1968-88 incarnation (a great deal of Rock and Rock's related genres, plus a great deal of new music), and was different from the modern rock format that was carried on 98.5-HD2. "WBCN Free Form Rock" was formatted to play multiple music genres (including rock, jazz, the blues, and country). WBCN Free Form Rock was advertised to be a replica of the original WBCN format circa 1968 to the early 1990s, playing any song it wants, including rock and relative genres. In late 2009, the station begun to increase its DJ'd programming. While it was automated most of the time, it was increasing its live weekdays, and hinting about the potential for more programming as listenership increased.

However, on January 29, 2016, "WBCN Free Form Rock" was dropped from WZLX-HD3 and flipped to adult standards as "The Lounge."

On December 19, 2017, the HD3 channel was removed.

End of WBCN

On February 2, 2017, CBS announced that they will be selling their radio division to Entercom, which could have indirectly made what was WBCN (on WBZ-FM HD2 form) a sister station to long-time rival WAAF.[14][15] However, the combined company would have to shed some of its Boston stations in order to satisfy Federal Communications Commission and Department of Justice requirements.[16] On October 10, 2017, CBS disclosed that as part of the process of obtaining regulatory approval of the merger, WBZ-FM would be one of sixteen stations that would be divested by Entercom, along with sister stations WBZ and WZLX, and Entercom stations WRKO and WKAF, with Entercom retaining WEEI AM and FM, WBMX, WODS and WAAF.[17] On November 1, 2017, Beasley Media Group announced that it would trade WMJX to Entercom, in exchange for WBZ-FM (WBZ, WZLX, WRKO, and WKAF were acquired by iHeartMedia).[18][19][20] The merger was approved on November 9, 2017, and was consummated on the 17th. Beasley took complete ownership of the station on December 20, 2017.[21][22] Shortly after the transfer to Beasley was completed, WBCN was replaced with "Hubcast," a replay of segments and podcasts from air personalities from "The Sports Hub."

Mix 104.1

For the history of the "Mix" branding in Boston prior to its move to the 104.1 frequency, see WBZ-FM § WBMX (1991-2009).

On July 14, 2009, CBS Radio announced that WBMX would move from 98.5 FM to 104.1 FM, replacing WBCN; these moves were made to launch a sports talk station, WBZ-FM, at the 98.5 frequency.[23][1] As a result, the station added the "-FM" suffix on July 29, 2009, allowing CBS to temporarily place the WBMX call letters on the former WFNA (1660 AM) in Charlotte, North Carolina; additionally, during "Mix"'s final week on 98.5, it used the WBZ-FM call letters intended for the new station.[23] WBCN's rock format moved to 98.5's HD2 subcarrier. WBCN's programming on 104.1 ended after midnight on August 12, 2009, WBMX then moved to 104.1 two hours later (the WBCN call letters were then transferred to the Charlotte station), with WBZ-FM launching the next day.[23] The final song "Mix" played on 98.5 was "Move Along" by The All-American Rejects,[24] while the first song "Mix" played on 104.1 was "Use Somebody" by Kings of Leon.[25]

On February 2, 2017, CBS Radio announced it would merge with Entercom (which locally owned WEEI, WEEI-FM, WRKO, WKAF, and WAAF).[26] WBMX, WODS, and WAAF were retained by Entercom, while sister stations WBZ and WZLX, as well as WKAF and WRKO, were spun off to iHeartMedia (WBZ-FM would be traded to Beasley Broadcast Group in exchange for WMJX, making WBMX and WMJX sister stations.)[20][19] The merger was approved on November 9, 2017, and was consummated on the 17th.[21][22] Entercom applied to move the WBMX callsign to their sister-owned station in Chicago;[27] 104.1 picked up the new callsign WWBX on December 4, 2017.[2]

Alumni

Awards

Mix 104.1 (and the previous Mix 98.5) is one of the most honored radio stations in the country, and has earned more major radio awards than any other Hot AC station in history. The station was named "Hot AC Station of The Year" 9 times from 1997 through 2009. Former Program Director Greg Strassell was named "Hot AC Program Director of The Year" 9 times. Long time Music Director Mike Mullaney earned "Hot AC Music Director Of The Year" 5 times, in 2010, new morning team Karson & Kennedy were named "Hot AC Morning Show of The Year" of 2009 by FMQB magazine.

HD radio subchannels

Subchannel Branding Format Notes
1 Mix 104.1 Hot adult contemporary Simulcasts the main analog signal.
2 WAAF Mainstream rock
3 Tomorrow's Hits Today New CHR

WWBX-HD1

WWBX-HD1 simulcasts the analog signal of WWBX as Mix 104.1.

WWBX-HD2

Active rock accounts for all regular programming on the HD2 digital subchannel. Branded as "WAAF," WWBX-HD2 also simulcasts over the HD2 digital subchannel of WEEI-FM and is available online via Audacy; both subchannels previously simulcast the analog signal of WAAF (107.3 FM) until that station was divested to the Educational Media Foundation on February 22, 2020.[30]

WWBX-HD3

WWBX-HD3 airs "Tomorrow's Hits Today," a CHR format that focuses on the very latest hits prior to their ascension to the top of the charts.

Current DJs

References

  1. ^ a b "The Boston Radio Dial: WBMX(FM)". The Archives @ BostonRadio.org. Retrieved January 14, 2012.
  2. ^ a b "WBMX (Mix 104.1)/Boston Morphs Into WWBX". All Access. December 4, 2017. Retrieved December 5, 2017.
  3. ^ Alan, Carter (2013). Radio Free Boston: The Rise and Fall of WBCN. Northeastern. ISBN 978-1555537296.
  4. ^ [1][dead link]
  5. ^ [2][dead link]
  6. ^ "National Leader in Sports, News Radio". Entercom Communications.
  7. ^ "2007 Industry Achievement Awards". Radio and Records. September 28, 2008. Archived from the original on May 11, 2008.
  8. ^ [3][dead link]
  9. ^ [4][dead link]
  10. ^ "Rock of Boston goes off the air". Universal Hub.
  11. ^ Rodman, Sarah (2009-07-14). "Rock of Boston to cease rocking on the FM dial: WBCN goes digital-only in August". The Boston Globe. Retrieved 2009-07-14.
  12. ^ "Jay Talking 2013 Abstract Foliage Photo Number 1". Boston.cbslocal.copm. October 10, 2013.
  13. ^ "42°18'28.4"N 71°13'25.0"W". 42°18'28.4"N 71°13'25.0"W.
  14. ^ "CBS Sets Radio Division Merger With Entercom". Variety. 2 February 2017. Retrieved 2 February 2017.
  15. ^ "CBS and Entercom Are Merging Their Radio Stations". Fortune. Retrieved 2017-02-02.
  16. ^ Villani, Chris (February 2, 2017). "WEEI parent company buys CBS' Sports Hub, WBZ in massive merger". The Boston Herald. Retrieved April 29, 2017.
  17. ^ Venta, Lance (October 10, 2017). "Entercom Narrows Down 16 Stations To Be Divested To Complete CBS Radio Merger". RadioInsight. Retrieved October 11, 2017.
  18. ^ Johnson, Ted (November 1, 2017). "Entercom to Divest 13 Stations in Exchange for Justice Department's Approval of CBS Radio Acquisition". Variety.com.
  19. ^ a b "Entercom Swaps 98.5 The Sports Hub Boston To Beasley For Magic 106.7". Radioinsight.com. Retrieved 7 November 2021.
  20. ^ a b "Entercom Trades Boston & Seattle Spin-Offs To iHeartMedia For Richmond & Chattanooga". Radioinsight.com. Retrieved 7 November 2021.
  21. ^ a b "Entercom Receives FCC Approval for Merger with CBS Radio". Entercom. November 9, 2017. Retrieved November 17, 2017.
  22. ^ a b Venta, Lance (November 17, 2017). "Entercom Completes CBS Radio Merger". Radio Insight. Retrieved November 17, 2017.
  23. ^ a b c "The Boston Radio Dial: WBZ-FM". The Archives @ BostonRadio.org. Retrieved January 14, 2012.
  24. ^ "Audio file". Audio.bostonradio.org. Retrieved November 7, 2021.
  25. ^ "Audio file" (MP3). Tophour.com. Retrieved November 7, 2021.
  26. ^ "CBS Radio To Merge With Entercom". Radioinsight.com. Retrieved 7 November 2021.
  27. ^ Feder, Robert (November 29, 2017). "Robservations: Bruce Dumont retiring broadcast museum". robertfeder.com. Retrieved December 5, 2017.
  28. ^ a b c Gilsdorf, Ethan (29 July 2014). "WBCN: An Oral History". Boston Magazine. Retrieved 31 March 2019.
  29. ^ "RIP Danny Schechter: Media Pioneer Who Covered Apartheid South Africa, Occupy & Kissinger". DemocracyNow.org. New York: Democracy Now!. 23 March 1915. Retrieved 23 March 2015.
  30. ^ "Entercom Sells WAAF Boston To Educational Media Foundation" from Radio Insight (February 18, 2020)

Other sources