Yellow
 
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Spectral coordinates
Wavelength575–585[1] nm
Frequency521–512 THz
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet#FFFF00
sRGBB (r, g, b)(255, 255, 0)
CMYKH (c, m, y, k)(0, 0, 100, 0)
HSV (h, s, v)(60°, 100%, 100%)
CIELChuv (L, C, h)(97, 107, 86°)
SourceHTML/CSS[2]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Yellow is the color between green and orange on the spectrum of light. It is evoked by light with a dominant wavelength of roughly 575–585 nm. It is a primary color in subtractive color systems, used in painting or color printing. In the RGB color model, used to create colors on television and computer screens, yellow is a secondary color made by combining red and green at equal intensity. Carotenoids give the characteristic yellow color to autumn leaves, corn, canaries, daffodils, and lemons, as well as egg yolks, buttercups, and bananas. They absorb light energy and protect plants from photo damage in some cases.[3] Sunlight has a slight yellowish hue when the Sun is near the horizon, due to atmospheric scattering of shorter wavelengths (green, blue, and violet).

Because it was widely available, yellow ochre pigment was one of the first colors used in art; the Lascaux cave in France has a painting of a yellow horse 17,000 years old. Ochre and orpiment pigments were used to represent gold and skin color in Egyptian tombs, then in the murals in Roman villas.[4] In the early Christian church, yellow was the color associated with the Pope and the golden keys of the Kingdom, but it was also associated with Judas Iscariot and used to mark heretics. In the 20th century, Jews in Nazi-occupied Europe were forced to wear a yellow star. In China, bright yellow was the color of the Middle Kingdom, and could be worn only by the emperor and his household; special guests were welcomed on a yellow carpet.[5]

According to surveys in Europe, Canada, the United States and elsewhere, yellow is the color people most often associate with amusement, gentleness, humor, happiness, and spontaneity, but also with duplicity, envy, jealousy, greed, and, in the U.S., cowardice.[6] In Iran it has connotations of pallor/sickness,[7] but also wisdom and connection.[8] In China and many Asian countries, it is seen as the color of happiness, glory, harmony and wisdom.[9]

Etymology

The word yellow is from the Old English geolu, geolwe (oblique case), meaning "yellow, and yellowish", derived from the Proto-Germanic word gelwaz "yellow". It has the same Indo-European base, gel-, as the words gold and yell; gʰel- means both bright and gleaming, and to cry out.[10]

The English term is related to other Germanic words for yellow, namely Scots yella, East Frisian jeel, West Frisian giel, Dutch geel, German gelb, and Swedish and Norwegian gul.[11] According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the oldest known use of this word in English is from The Epinal Glossary in 700.[12]

Science and nature

Optics, color printing, and computer screens

Process Yellow (subtractive primary)
 
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet#FFEF00
sRGBB (r, g, b)(255, 239, 0)
HSV (h, s, v)(56°, 100%, 100%)
CIELChuv (L, C, h)(93, 103, 80°)
Source[1] CMYK
ISCC–NBS descriptorVivid greenish yellow
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)

Yellow is found between green and red on the spectrum of visible light. It is the color the human eye sees when it looks at light with a dominant wavelength between 570 and 590 nanometers.

In color printing, yellow is one of the three subtractive primary colors of ink along with magenta and cyan. Together with black, they can be overlaid in the right combination to print any full color image. (See the CMYK color model). A particular yellow is used, called Process yellow (also known as "pigment yellow", "printer's yellow", and "canary yellow"). Process yellow is not an RGB color, and there is no fixed conversion from CMYK primaries to RGB. Different formulations are used for printer's ink, so there can be variations in the printed color that is pure yellow ink.

The yellow on a color television or computer screen is created in a completely different way; by combining green and red light at the right level of intensity. (See RGB color model).

Complementary colors

See also: Complementary colors

Complements of yellow have a dominant wavelength in the range 380 to 480 nm. The green lines show several possible pairs of complementary colors with respect to different blackbody color temperature neutrals, illustrated by the "Planckian locus".
Complements of yellow have a dominant wavelength in the range 380 to 480 nm. The green lines show several possible pairs of complementary colors with respect to different blackbody color temperature neutrals, illustrated by the "Planckian locus".

Traditionally, the complementary color of yellow is purple; the two colors are opposite each other on the color wheel long used by painters.[13] Vincent van Gogh, an avid student of color theory, used combinations of yellow and purple in several of his paintings for the maximum contrast and harmony.[14]

Hunt defines that "two colors are complementary when it is possible to reproduce the tristimulus values of a specified achromatic stimulus by an additive mixture of these two stimuli."[15] That is, when two colored lights can be mixed to match a specified white (achromatic, non-colored) light, the colors of those two lights are complementary. This definition, however, does not constrain what version of white will be specified. In the nineteenth century, the scientists Grassmann and Helmholtz did experiments in which they concluded that finding a good complement for spectral yellow was difficult, but that the result was indigo, that is, a wavelength that today's color scientists would call violet or purple. Helmholtz says "Yellow and indigo blue" are complements.[16] Grassmann reconstructs Newton's category boundaries in terms of wavelengths and says "This indigo therefore falls within the limits of color between which, according to Helmholtz, the complementary colors of yellow lie."[17]

Newton's own color circle has yellow directly opposite the boundary between indigo and violet. These results, that the complement of yellow is a wavelength shorter than 450 nm, are derivable from the modern CIE 1931 system of colorimetry if it is assumed that the yellow is about 580 nm or shorter wavelength, and the specified white is the color of a blackbody radiator of temperature 2800 K or lower (that is, the white of an ordinary incandescent light bulb). More typically, with a daylight-colored or around 5000 to 6000 K white, the complement of yellow will be in the blue wavelength range, which is the standard modern answer for the complement of yellow.

Because of the characteristics of paint pigments and use of different color wheels, painters traditionally regard the complement of yellow as the color indigo or blue-violet.

Lasers

Lasers emitting in the yellow part of the spectrum are less common and more expensive than most other colors.[18] In commercial products diode pumped solid state (DPSS) technology is employed to create the yellow light. An infrared laser diode at 808 nm is used to pump a crystal of neodymium-doped yttrium vanadium oxide (Nd:YVO4) or neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) and induces it to emit at two frequencies (281.76 THz and 223.39 THz: 1064 nm and 1342 nm wavelengths) simultaneously. This deeper infrared light is then passed through another crystal containing potassium, titanium and phosphorus (KTP), whose non-linear properties generate light at a frequency that is the sum of the two incident beams (505.15 THz); in this case corresponding to the wavelength of 593.5 nm ("yellow").[19] This wavelength is also available, though even more rarely, from a helium–neon laser. However, this not a true yellow, as it exceeds 590 nm. A variant of this same DPSS technology using slightly different starting frequencies was made available in 2010, producing a wavelength of 589 nm, which is considered a true yellow color.[20] The use of yellow lasers at 589 nm and 594 nm have recently become more widespread thanks to the field of optogenetics.[21]

Astronomy

See also: Astronomy

Stars of spectral classes F have color temperatures that make them look "yellowish".[22] The first astronomer to classify stars according to their color was F. G. W. Struve in 1827. One of his classifications was flavae, or yellow, and this roughly corresponded to stars in the modern spectral range F5 to K0.[23] The Strömgren photometric system for stellar classification includes a 'y' or yellow filter that is centered at a wavelength of 550 nm and has a bandwidth of 20–30 nm.[24][25]

Biology

Autumn leaves, yellow flowers, bananas, oranges and other yellow fruits all contain carotenoids, yellow and red organic pigments that are found in the chloroplasts and chromoplasts of plants and some other photosynthetic organisms like algae, some bacteria and some fungi. They serve two key roles in plants and algae: they absorb light energy for use in photosynthesis, and they protect the green chlorophyll from photodamage.[3]

In late summer, as daylight hours shorten and temperatures cool, the veins that carry fluids into and out of the leaf are gradually closed off. The water and mineral intake into the leaf is reduced, slowly at first, and then more rapidly. It is during this time that the chlorophyll begins to decrease. As the chlorophyll diminishes, the yellow and red carotenoids become more and more visible, creating the classic autumn leaf color.

Carotenoids are common in many living things; they give the characteristic color to carrots, maize, daffodils, rutabagas, buttercups and bananas. They are responsible for the red of cooked lobsters, the pink of flamingoes and salmon and the yellow of canaries and egg yolks.

Xanthophylls are the most common yellow pigments that form one of two major divisions of the carotenoid group. The name is from Greek xanthos (ξανθος, "yellow") + phyllon (φύλλον, "leaf"). Xanthophylls are most commonly found in the leaves of green plants, but they also find their way into animals through the food they eat. For example, the yellow color of chicken egg yolks, fat, and skin comes from the feed the chickens consume. Chicken farmers understand this, and often add xanthophylls, usually lutein, to make the egg yolks more yellow.

Bananas are green when they are picked because of the chlorophyll their skin contains. Once picked, they begin to ripen; hormones in the bananas convert amino acids into ethylene gas, which stimulates the production of several enzymes. These enzymes start to change the color, texture and flavor of the banana. The green chlorophyll supply is stopped and the yellow color of the carotenoids replaces it; eventually, as the enzymes continue their work, the cell walls break down and the bananas turn brown.

Fish

Insects

A yellow jacket wasp

Trees

American aspens, Populus tremuloides
American aspens, Populus tremuloides

History, art, and fashion

Prehistory

Yellow, in the form of yellow ochre pigment made from clay, was one of the first colors used in prehistoric cave art. The cave of Lascaux has an image of a horse colored with yellow estimated to be 17,300 years old.

Ancient history

In Ancient Egypt, yellow was associated with gold, which was considered to be imperishable, eternal and indestructible. The skin and bones of the gods were believed to be made of gold. The Egyptians used yellow extensively in tomb paintings; they usually used either yellow ochre or the brilliant orpiment, though it was made of arsenic and was highly toxic. A small paintbox with orpiment pigment was found in the tomb of King Tutankhamun. Men were always shown with brown faces, women with yellow ochre or gold faces.[4]

The ancient Romans used yellow in their paintings to represent gold and also in skin tones. It is found frequently in the murals of Pompeii.

Post-classical history

During the Post-Classical period, yellow became firmly established as the color of Judas Iscariot, the disciple who betrayed Jesus Christ, even though the Bible never describes his clothing. From this connection, yellow also took on associations with envy, jealousy and duplicity.

The tradition started in the Renaissance of marking non-Christian outsiders, such as Jews, with the color yellow. In 16th-century Spain, those accused of heresy and who refused to renounce their views were compelled to come before the Spanish Inquisition dressed in a yellow cape.[27]

The color yellow has been historically associated with moneylenders and finance. The National Pawnbrokers Association's logo depicts three golden spheres hanging from a bar, referencing the three bags of gold that the patron saint of pawnbroking, St. Nicholas, holds in his hands. Additionally, the symbol of three golden orbs is found in the coat of arms of the House of Medici, a famous fifteenth-century Italian dynasty of bankers and lenders.[28]

Modern history

18th and 19th centuries

See also: 18th century and 19th century

The 18th and 19th century saw the discovery and manufacture of synthetic pigments and dyes, which quickly replaced the traditional yellows made from arsenic, cow urine, and other substances.

Circa 1776, Jean-Honoré Fragonard painted A Young Girl Reading. She is dressed in a bright saffron yellow dress. This painting is "considered by many critics to be among Fragonard's most appealing and masterly".[29]

The 19th-century British painter J.M.W. Turner was one of the first in that century to use yellow to create moods and emotions, the way romantic composers were using music. His painting Rain, Steam, and Speed – the Great Central Railway was dominated by glowing yellow clouds.

Georges Seurat used the new synthetic colors in his experimental paintings composed of tiny points of primary colors, particularly in his famous Sunday Afternoon on the Isle de la Grand jatte (1884–86). He did not know that the new synthetic yellow pigment, zinc yellow or zinc chromate, which he used in the light green lawns, was highly unstable and would quickly turn brown.[30]

The painter Vincent van Gogh was a particular admirer of the color yellow, the color of sunshine. Writing to his sister from the south of France in 1888, he wrote, "Now we are having beautiful warm, windless weather that is very beneficial to me. The sun, a light that for lack of a better word I can only call yellow, bright sulfur yellow, pale lemon gold. How beautiful yellow is!" In Arles, Van Gogh painted sunflowers inside a small house he rented at 2 Place Lamartine, a house painted with a color that Van Gogh described as "buttery yellow". Van Gogh was one of the first artists to use commercially manufactured paints, rather than paints he made himself. He used the traditional yellow ochre, but also chrome yellow, first made in 1809; and cadmium yellow, first made in 1820.[31]

At the end of the 19th century, in 1895, a new popular art form began to appear in New York newspapers; the color comic strip. It took advantage of a new color printing process, which used color separation and three different colors of ink; magenta, cyan, and yellow, plus black, to create all the colors on the page. One of the first characters in the new comic strips was a humorous boy of the New York streets named Mickey Dugen, more commonly known as the Yellow Kid, from the yellow nightshirt he wore. He gave his name (and color) to the whole genre of popular, sensational journalism, which became known as "yellow journalism".

20th and 21st centuries

In the 20th century, yellow was revived as a symbol of exclusion, as it had been in the Middle Ages and Renaissance. Jews in Nazi Germany and German-occupied countries were required to sew yellow triangles with the star of David onto their clothing.

In the 20th century, modernist painters reduced painting to its simplest colors and geometric shapes. The Dutch modernist painter Piet Mondrian made a series of paintings which consisted of a pure white canvas with a grid of vertical and horizontal black lines and rectangles of yellow, red, and blue.

Yellow was particularly valued in the 20th century because of its high visibility. Because of its ability to be seen well from greater distances and at high speeds, yellow makes for the ideal color to be viewed from moving automobiles.[28] It often replaced red as the color of fire trucks and other emergency vehicles, and was popular in neon signs, especially in Las Vegas and in China, where yellow was the most esteemed color.

In the 1960s, Pickett Brand developed the "Eye Saver Yellow" slide rule, which was produced with a specific yellow color (Angstrom 5600) that reflects long-wavelength rays and promotes optimum eye-ease to help prevent eyestrain and improve visual accuracy.[28]

The 21st century saw the use of unusual materials and technologies to create new ways of experiencing the color yellow. One example was The weather project, by Danish-Icelandic artist Olafur Eliasson, which was installed in the open space of the Turbine Hall of London's Tate Modern in 2003.

Eliasson used humidifiers to create a fine mist in the air via a mixture of sugar and water, as well as a semi-circular disc made up of hundreds of monochromatic lamps which radiated yellow light. The ceiling of the hall was covered with a huge mirror, in which visitors could see themselves as tiny black shadows against a mass of light.[32]

Fruits, vegetables, and eggs

Many fruits are yellow when ripe, such as lemons and bananas, their color derived from carotenoid pigments. Egg yolks gain their color from xanthophylls, also a type of carotenoid pigment.

Flowers

Yellow is a common color of flowers.

Other plants

Minerals and chemistry

Structure of Titan yellow
Structure of Titan yellow

Pigments

Yellow ochre quarry in Roussillon, France
Yellow ochre quarry in Roussillon, France

Dyes

The color of saffron comes from crocin, a red variety of carotenoid natural pigment. The color of the dyed fabric varies from deep red to orange to yellow, depending upon the type of saffron and the process. Most saffron today comes from Iran, but it is also grown commercially in Spain, Italy and Kashmir in India, and as a boutique crop in New Zealand, the United Kingdom, France, Switzerland and other countries. In the United States, it has been cultivated by the Pennsylvania Dutch community since the early 18th century. Because of the high price of saffron, other similar dyes and spices are often sold under the name saffron; for instance, what is called Indian saffron is often really turmeric.

Food coloring

The most common yellow food coloring in use today is called Tartrazine. It is a synthetic lemon yellow azo dye.[54][55] It is also known as E number E102, C.I. 19140, FD&C yellow 5, acid yellow 23, food yellow 4, and trisodium 1-(4-sulfonatophenyl)-4-(4-sulfonatophenylazo)-5-pyrazolone-3-carboxylate.[56] It is the yellow most frequently used such processed food products as corn and potato chips, breakfast cereals such as corn flakes, candies, popcorn, mustard, jams and jellies, gelatin, soft drinks (notably Mountain Dew), energy and sports drinks, and pastries. It is also widely used in liquid and bar soap, shampoo, cosmetics and medicines. Sometimes it is mixed with blue dyes to color processed products green.

It is typically labelled on food packages as "color", "tartrazine", or "E102". In the United States, because of concerns about possible health problems related to intolerance to tartrazine, its presence must be declared on food and drug product labels.[57]

Another popular synthetic yellow coloring is Sunset Yellow FCF (also known as orange yellow S, FD&C yellow 6 and C.I. 15985) It is manufactured from aromatic hydrocarbons from petroleum. When added to foods sold in Europe, it is denoted by E number E110.[58]

Symbolism and associations

In the west, yellow is not a well-loved color; in a 2000 survey, only six percent of respondents in Europe and America named it as their favorite color. compared with 45 percent for blue, 15 percent for green, 12 percent for red, and 10 percent for black. For seven percent of respondents, it was their least favorite color.[59] Yellow is the color of ambivalence and contradiction; the color associated with optimism and amusement; but also with betrayal, duplicity, and jealousy.[59] But in China and other parts of Asia, yellow is a color of virtue and nobility.

In China

Yellow has strong historical and cultural associations in China, where it is the color of happiness, glory, and wisdom. In China, there are five directions of the compass; north, south, east, west, and the middle, each with a symbolic color. Yellow signifies the middle. China is called the Middle Kingdom; the palace of the Emperor was considered to be in the exact center of the world.[60]

The legendary first emperor of China was called the Yellow Emperor. The last emperor of China, Puyi (1906–67), described in his memoirs how every object which surrounded him as a child was yellow. "It made me understand from my most tender age that I was of a unique essence, and it instilled in me the consciousness of my 'celestial nature' which made me different from every other human."[61][5]

The Chinese Emperor was literally considered the child of heaven, with both a political and religious role, both symbolized by yellow. After the Song dynasty, bright yellow color can only be worn by the emperor. Distinguished visitors were honored with a yellow, not a red, carpet.

In Chinese symbolism, yellow, red and green are masculine colors, while black and white are considered feminine. In the traditional symbolism of the two opposites which complement each other, the yin and yang, the masculine yang is traditionally represented by yellow. Just as there are five elements, five directions and five colors in the Chinese world-view, there are also five seasons; summer, winter, fall, spring, and the end of summer, symbolized by yellow leaves.[60]

In current Chinese pop culture, the term "yellow movie" (黃色電影) refers to films and other cultural items of a pornographic nature and is analogous to the English term "blue movie".[62] In 2007, this became the basis of the 'very erotic very violent' (literally, 'very yellow very violent') controversy in mainland China.

Light and reason

Yellow, as the color of sunlight when sun is near the horizon, is commonly associated with warmth. Yellow combined with red symbolized heat and energy. A room painted yellow feels warmer than a room painted white, and a lamp with yellow light seems more natural than a lamp with white light.

As the color of light, yellow is also associated with knowledge and wisdom. In English and many other languages, "brilliant" and "bright" mean intelligent. In Islam, the yellow color of gold symbolizes wisdom. In medieval European symbolism, red symbolized passion, blue symbolized the spiritual, and yellow symbolized reason. In many European universities, yellow gowns and caps are worn by members of the faculty of physical and natural sciences, as yellow is the color of reason and research.[63]

Gold and blond

Gold coin, Aureus, Auguste, Lyon.
Gold coin, Aureus, Auguste, Lyon.

In ancient Greece and Rome, the gods were often depicted with yellow, or blonde hair, which was described in literature as 'golden'. The color yellow was associated with the sun gods Helios and Apollo. It was fashionable in ancient Greece for men and women to dye their hair yellow, or to spend time in the sun to bleach it.[64] In ancient Rome, prostitutes were required to bleach their hair, to be easily identified, but it also became a fashionable hair color for aristocratic women, influenced by the exotic blonde hair of many of the newly conquered slaves from Gaul, Britain, and Germany.[65] However, in medieval Europe and later, the word yellow often had negative connotations; associated with betrayal, so yellow hair was more poetically called 'blond,' 'light', 'fair,' or most often "golden".[64]

Visibility and caution

Yellow is the most visible color from a distance, so it is often used for objects that need to be seen, such as fire engines, road maintenance equipment, school buses and taxicabs. It is also often used for warning signs, since yellow traditionally signals caution, rather than danger. Safety yellow is often used for safety and accident prevention information. A yellow light on a traffic signal means slow down, but not stop. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) uses Pantone 116 (a yellow hue) as their standard color implying "general warning", while the Federal Highway Administration similarly uses yellow to communicate warning or caution on highway signage.[28] A yellow penalty card in a soccer match means warning, but not expulsion.

Optimism and pleasure

Yellow is the color most associated with optimism and pleasure; it is a color designed to attract attention, and is used for amusement. Yellow dresses in fashion are rare, but always associated with gaiety and celebration.

Mayan and Italian

The ancient Maya associated the color yellow with the direction South. The Maya glyph for "yellow" (k'an) also means "precious" or "ripe".[66]

"Giallo", in Italian, refers to crime stories, both fictional and real. This association began in about 1930, when the first series of crime novels published in Italy had yellow covers.

Music

Politics

"Yellow vests" protest in France, November 2018
"Yellow vests" protest in France, November 2018

Selected national and international flags

Three of the five most populous countries in the world (China and Brazil) have yellow or gold in their flag, representing about half of the world's population. While many flags use yellow, their symbolism varies widely, from civic virtue to golden treasure, golden fields, the desert, royalty, the keys to Heaven and the leadership of the Communist Party. In classic European heraldry, yellow, along with white, is one of the two metals (called gold and silver) and therefore flags following heraldic design rules must use either yellow or white to separate any of their other colors (see the rule of tincture and insignia).

Defunct flags

Religion

New Age Spiritual Metaphysics

Sports

Bradley Wiggins wears the yellow jersey in the 2012 Tour de France.
Bradley Wiggins wears the yellow jersey in the 2012 Tour de France.
Eurocopter EC135P1 of Western Power Distribution, used for electricity line inspection
Eurocopter EC135P1 of Western Power Distribution, used for electricity line inspection

Transportation

Maritime signaling

Idioms and expressions

See also

Notes

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  2. ^ "CSS Color Module Level 3". 19 June 2018.
  3. ^ a b Armstrong, G.A.; Hearst, J.E. (1996). "Carotenoids 2: Genetics and molecular biology of carotenoid pigment biosynthesis". FASEB J. 10 (2): 228–37. doi:10.1096/fasebj.10.2.8641556. PMID 8641556. S2CID 22385652.
  4. ^ a b "Pigments through the Ages – Antiquity".
  5. ^ a b Cited in Eva Heller (2000), Psychologie de la couleur – effets et symboliques, p. 82.
  6. ^ Eva Heller (2000), Psychologie de la couleur – effets et symboliques, pp. 69–86.
  7. ^ "Culture of Iran: Festival of Fire". www.iranchamber.com.
  8. ^ "Shades of doubt and shapes of hope: Colors in Iranian culture". www.payvand.com.
  9. ^ Eva Heller (2000), Psychologie de la couleur – effets et symboliques, pp. 69–86
  10. ^ Webster's New World Dictionary of American English, Third College Edition, (1988)
  11. ^ "Online Etymology Dictionary".
  12. ^ "yellow, adj. and n". Oxford English Dictionary. OUP. Retrieved 21 April 2011.
  13. ^ Roelofs, Isabelle; Petillion, Fabien (2012). La couleur expliquée aux artistes. Paris: Eyrolles. ISBN 978-2-212-13486-5.
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  15. ^ Hunt, J. W. G. (1980). Measuring Color. Ellis Horwood Ltd. ISBN 978-0-7458-0125-4.
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  17. ^ Grassmann, Hermann Günter (1854). "Theory of Compound Colors". Philosophical Magazine. 4: 254–64.
  18. ^ "Laserglow – Blue, Red, Yellow, Green Lasers". Laserglow.com. Retrieved 27 March 2009. described as an "extremely rare yellow".
  19. ^ Johnson, Craig (22 March 2009). "Yellow (593.5 nm) DPSS Laser Module". The LED Museum. Retrieved 27 March 2009.
  20. ^ "Laserglow – Blue, Red, Yellow, Green Lasers". Laserglow.com. Retrieved 12 August 2011.
  21. ^ "Laserglow – Blue, Red, Yellow, Green Lasers". Laserglow.com. Retrieved 20 September 2011.
  22. ^ Miller, Ron (2005). Stars and Galaxies. Twenty-First Century Books. p. 22. ISBN 978-0-7613-3466-8.
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  27. ^ Eva Heller (2000). Psychologie de la couleur -effets et symboliques, p. 82.
  28. ^ a b c d Lewis, Karen (2010). "Yellowtown: Urban Signage, Class, and Race". Design and Culture. 2 (2): 183–198. doi:10.2752/175470710X12696138525668. S2CID 143685043.
  29. ^ Walker, John (1975). National Gallery of Art, Washington. New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc. ISBN 978-0-8109-0336-4.
  30. ^ John Gage, (1993), Colour and Culture – Practice and Meaning from Antiquity to Abstraction, p. 220.
  31. ^ Stefano Zuffi (2012), Color in Art, pp. 96–97.
  32. ^ Cynthia Zarin (13 November 2006), Seeing Things. The art of Olafur Eliasson New Yorker.
  33. ^ "Titan Yellow". Nile Chemicals. 26 July 2008. Retrieved 28 March 2009.
  34. ^ Heaton, F.W. (July 1960). "Determination of magnesium by the Titan yellow and ammonium phosphate methods". Journal of Clinical Pathology. 13 (4): 358–60. doi:10.1136/jcp.13.4.358. PMC 480095. PMID 14400446.
  35. ^ "para-Dimethylaminobenzene". IARC – Summaries & Evaluations. 8: 125. 1975. Retrieved 8 April 2009.
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  37. ^ "Health & Safety in the Arts". City of Tucson. Archived from the original on 10 May 2009. Retrieved 28 March 2009.
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  39. ^ Harley, Rosamond Drusilla (2001). Artists' Pigments c1600-1835 (2 ed.). London: Archetype Publications. p. 117. ISBN 978-1-873132-91-3. OCLC 47823825. Retrieved 30 March 2009.
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  41. ^ "Pigments through the ages: Cadmium yellow". WebExhibits. Retrieved 5 April 2009.
  42. ^ "Pigments through the ages: Chrome yellow". WebExhibits. Retrieved 5 April 2009.
  43. ^ "LBNL Pigment Database: (Y10) Nickel Antimony Titanium Yellow Rutile (iii)". Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. 14 February 2005. Retrieved 5 April 2009.
  44. ^ "gamboge (gum resin)". Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Retrieved 7 April 2009.
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  46. ^ Field, George (1869). Salter, Thomas (ed.). Field's Chromatography or Treatise on Colours and Pigments as Used by Artists. London: Winsor and Newton.
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References