This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in Portuguese. (August 2012) Click [show] for important translation instructions. Machine translation like DeepL or Google Translate is a useful starting point for translations, but translators must revise errors as necessary and confirm that the translation is accurate, rather than simply copy-pasting machine-translated text into the English Wikipedia. Consider adding a topic to this template: there are already 1,359 articles in the main category, and specifying|topic= will aid in categorization. Do not translate text that appears unreliable or low-quality. If possible, verify the text with references provided in the foreign-language article. You must provide copyright attribution in the edit summary accompanying your translation by providing an interlanguage link to the source of your translation. A model attribution edit summary is Content in this edit is translated from the existing Portuguese Wikipedia article at [[]]; see its history for attribution. You should also add the template ((Translated|pt|.br)) to the talk page. For more guidance, see Wikipedia:Translation.
DotBr logo.svg
Introduced18 April 1989
TLD typeCountry code top-level domain (ccTLD)
Intended useEntities connected with  Brazil
Actual useVery popular in Brazil (largest Portuguese language Web presence)[1]
Registered domains4,837,316 (18 August 2021)[2]
Registration restrictionsVarying restrictions based on which second-level name registration is within. In all cases the registrant must have either a CPF or CNPJ, documents usually granted only to Brazilian residents or recognized companies
  • Registrations at third level beneath various categories (but is still much more popular than others);
  • Second-level registrations were allowed for institutions of higher education until 2000

.br is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Brazil. It was administered by the Brazilian Internet Steering Committee (Comitê Gestor da Internet no Brasil) until 2005 when it started being administered by Brazilian Network Information Center (Núcleo de Informação e Coordenação do Ponto br). A local contact is required for any registration. Registrations of domain names with Portuguese characters are also accepted.

With the exception of universities, the second-level domain is fixed and selected from a list that defines the category. For example, is in the art (music, folklore etc.) category, and is in the non-governmental organization category. Institutions of tertiary education were allowed to use the ccSLD, although some use and others (mainly public universities) use .br. There are also some other few exceptions that were allowed to use the second level domain until the end of 2000. As of April 2010, most domain registrations ignore categories and register in the domain, which has over 90% of all registered domains. The (Judiciary), and (banks) domains have mandatory DNSSEC use.


Created and delegated to Brazil in 1989[3] by Jon Postel,[4] initially the domain was operated manually by and administered by the Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP). Originally, only researchers and institutions to which they belonged had the interest and ability to adopt the new system and register domains under .br.

At the time, networks prevalent in the Brazilian academic setting were the BITNET ("Because It's Time NETwork"), the HEPnet ("High Energy Physics Network") and the UUCP ("Unix-to-Unix Copy Program"). As such, even before Brazil officially connected to the Internet in 1991, the .br domain was used to identify the machines participating in networks already in use by academics.

In 1995 the Brazilian Internet Steering Committee (Portuguese: Comitê Gestor da Internet no Brasil, or simply was created with an objective to coordinate the allocation of Internet addresses (IPs) and the registration of .br domain names. There were 851 domains registered with the Brazilian DNS by the beginning of 1996, thereafter experiencing rapid growth with the mass arrival of companies, Internet providers and media onto the Internet. The registration system was automated in 1997 and was developed using open source software.

In 2005, created his own executive arm, the Brazilian Network Information Center (Portuguese: Núcleo de Informação e Coordenação do Ponto BR, or simply,[5] which currently serves in both administrative and operational capacity for the registry.

In 2017, accounts associated with DNS records of Brazilian banks were hacked. Kaspersky's researchers pointed out to a vulnerability in's website and suggested its infrastructure had been compromised. NIC's director at the time, Frederico Neves, denied that was "hacked", although admitted the vulnerability.[6]

Domain registry

To register any domains under .br, it is necessary to enter into contact with Entities legally established in Brazil as a company ("pessoa jurídica") or a physical person ("profissional liberal" and "pessoas físicas") that has a contact within Brazil can register domains. Foreign companies that have a power-of-attorney legally established in Brazil can also do it by following specific rules.

The registration of domains with special Portuguese characters (à, á, â, ã, é, ê, í, ó, ô, õ, ú, ü and ç) is accepted since 2005.[7]

Syntactic rules for .br domains

Note: Specifically for the domain .NOM.BR, it is necessary to choose two names, i.e.: NAME1.NAME2.NOM.BR.

Usage statistics

.br is the most common Portuguese language Web site suffix,[1] surpassing all other Portuguese-speaking countries' TLDs as well as .com in popularity.

Second-level domains

Direct registration

In 1991, it was decided that universities and research institutes would be allowed second-level .br domains directly. For example: Federal University of Rio de Janeiro got; University of São Paulo got; National Institute for Space Research got; and so on.[8]

In late 2000, the Brazilian Internet Steering Committee ( reported abuse in this system, and called for all institutions directly under .br to be moved to – so, for example, would become During a meeting in early 2001, however, the Committee decided it would be of public interest to not move every second-level domain as to avoid confusion, but instead established rules regarding their registration:[9]

As of August 2021, reports 1207 domains registered directly under .br.[2]

Predefined domains

As of August 2021, there are 140 different second-level domains of .br under which custom domains can be registered, and they are divided into six categories: "Generic", "Cities", "Universities", "Professionals", "Natural persons" and "Legal persons".[10] They are the following:

"Generic" second-level .br domains
Domain Intended use Apps Arts: music, painting, folklore Commercial activities Developers and development platforms Eco- or environment focused activities Small and micro-enterprises Transport and logistics Commercial activities Non-governmental organizations Security Technology
"Universities" second-level .br domains
Domain Intended use Higher education institutions
"Natural persons" second-level .br domains
Domain Intended use Web logs Photo logs Natural persons Video logs Wiki-like pages
"Legal persons" second-level .br domains
Domain Intended use Agriculture- or farm-related companies Sport in general Companies that do not fit into other categories Pharmacies and drugstores Real estate agencies Industries Media and information (radios, newspapers, libraries, ...) "Companies wishing to transmit audio through the network" Recreational activities, games Work for hire Temporary events, such as fairs and expos Tourism-related companies "Internet transmission of sounds and images"
Domain Intended use Radio companies Cooperatives Radio companies Primary or secondary schools (K–12 equivalent) Federal government institutions Brazilian Armed Forces Not-for-profit non-governmental organizations Internet service providers
DNSSEC required
Domain Intended use Banks Public defenders Judiciary institutions Legislative institutions Public Ministry institutions Tribunal de Contas da União
"Professionals" second-level .br domains
Domain Intended use Administrators Lawyers Architecture Actors Librarians and library scientists Biologists Biomedical scientists Realtors Scenographers Accountants Gastronomists Designers and illustrators Detectives and private investigator Economists Nurses Engineers IT professionals Speech–language pathologist Photographers Physical therapistss Geologists Geography professionals Journalists Auctioneers Mathematicians and statisticians Medical doctors Musicians Notaries Nutritionists Dentists Publicists and marketeers Teachers and professors Psychologists Amateur radio operators Commercial representatives Sociologists Taxi drivers Theologists Translators Veterinarians Zoologists
"Cities" second-level .br domains
Domain Intended use Nova Iguaçu, Rio de Janeiro ABC Region, São Paulo Aracaju, Sergipe Ananindeua, Pará Aparecida, São Paulo Barueri, São Paulo Belém, Pará Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais Boa Vista, Roraima Brasília, Federal District Campina Grande, Paraíba Campinas, São Paulo Duque de Caxias, Rio de Janeiro[11] Contagem, Minas Gerais Cuiabá, Mato Grosso Curitiba, Paraná Feira de Santana, Bahia Florianópolis, Santa Catarina Fortaleza, Ceará Foz do Iguaçu, Paraná Goiânia, Goiás Guarulhos, São Paulo Jaboatão dos Guararapes, Pernambuco João Pessoa, Paraíba Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais Joinville, Santa Catarina Londrina, Paraná Macapá, Amapá Maceió, Alagoas Manaus, Amazonas Maringá, Paraná Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul Natal, Rio Grande do Norte Niterói, Rio de Janeiro Osasco, São Paulo Palmas, Tocantins Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul Porto Velho, Rondônia Recife, Pernambuco Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo[12] Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro Rio Branco, Acre São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo Salvador, Bahia São Paulo, São Paulo Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul Santo André, São Paulo São Bernardo do Campo, São Paulo São Gonçalo, Rio de Janeiro São José dos Campos, São Paulo São Luís, Maranhão Sorocaba, São Paulo Teresina, Piauí Uberlândia, Minas Gerais Vitória, Espírito Santo

Special second-level domains

From 2000 until 2009, during election cycles, electoral candidates could register domains under, with the format [name][number] – where the name is the registered candidate name, and the number is the identification number for that candidate in the election (related to the party's identification number).[13][14] The second-level domain was in a category of its own, called "natural persons, special".[15]

As an example, during the 2004 elections for mayor of Aracaju:[16]

Domains were free for registered candidates. Additionally, domains were automatically cancelled at the end of the first round if the candidate lost, and remaining ones were cancelled after the end of the second round.[13]

No new domains have been registered since 2009.[17]


There are multiple agencies registered directly under .br, as second-level domains, that aren't higher education or research institutions. The following list might not be exhaustive:

Agencies on second-level .br domains
Domain Domain meaning Description Acronym for "Comitê Gestor da Internet" (lit.'Internet Administration Committee') The Committee establishes strategic directives related to the use and development of the internet in Brazil, directives for the registration of domain names, IP allocation and administration regarding the .br TLD Acronym for Network Information Center Created to implement decisions and projects of the Committee ( (old)
IX: Acronym for Internet eXchange
PTT: Acronym for "Ponto de Troca de Tráfego" (lit.'Traffic Exchange Point')
Handles the internet exchange point system of Brazil Portuguese for "registration" .br registry Acronym for "CEntro de Tecnologias de Informação e Comunicação" (lit.'Center of Information and Communications Technology') Officially called "Centro Regional de Estudos para o Desenvolvimento da Sociedade da Informação", it monitors the adoption of information and communications technology in Brazil Acronym for "Centro de Estudos e Pesquisas em Tecnologia de Redes e Operações" (lit.'Center for Studies and Research in Network Technology and Operations') Responsible for initiatives and projects that support or perfect the internet infrastructure in Brazil Acronym for Computer Emergency Response Team Has the mission to increase the security levels and incident handling capabilities regarding networks connected to Brazil's internet Acronym for "Centro de Estudos sobre Tecnologias Web" (lit.'Center for Studies on Web Technologies') Has the mission to enable the participation of the Brazilian community in the global development of the web W3C Brazilian branch of the World Wide Web Consortium Acronym for Network Time Protocol Provides the legal, standard time for Brazil IPv6 Promote and disseminate IPv6 usage in Brazil Anti-spam Has the mission to inform users and network administrators about spam, its implications and forms of protection and combat Portuguese for "Safe Internet" Has the mission to incentivize the safe use of the internet Named after Portugal's now defunct, managed by the FCCN Has the mission to be a free service for the aggregation and distribution of audiovisual scientific, educational, artistic and cultural content in Portuguese

Most of these agencies are subsidiaries of and, as such, they follow a similar corporate identity. The "logos" are combinations of the names of the agencies with the logo for .br, all of which are simply typed out with Brandon Schoech (Tepid Monkey)'s freeware font "Qhytsdakx":


There are multiple networks registered directly under .br, usually of academic nature. Again, this list may not be exhaustive:

Networks on second-level .br domains
Domain Domain meaning Description Acronym for "Rede Nacional de ensino e Pesquisa" (lit.'National Network of Education and Research') An academic backbone of Brazilian internet "Rede Rio" (lit.'Rio Network') Academic network for the state of Rio de Janeiro (old)
Acronym for "Research and EDucation NEtwork at São Paulo" Academic network for the state of São Paulo "Rede Tchê" (lit.'Tchê Network'), named after the interjection common in the South of Brazil, tchê Academic network of the South Region of Brazil

See also


  1. ^ a b As of 18 August 2021, Google showed 2.76 billion pages for site: .br, 351 million for site: .pt (Portugal) and 6.16 million for site: .ao (Angola). Portuguese pages in the .com domain were 2.19 billion.
  2. ^ a b "Estatísticas" [Statistics]. (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 18 August 2021.
  3. ^ IANA - Informações sobre a delegação do .br
  4. ^ - comemora os 20 anos do ".br"
  5. ^ "Comunicado ao Público". 14 February 2006. Retrieved 18 August 2021.
  6. ^ Andy Greenberg (4 April 2017). "How Hackers Hijacked a Bank's Entire Online Operation". Wired. Kaspersky believes the attackers compromised (...) Kaspersky points to a January blog post from that admitted to a vulnerability in its website (...) [Frederico Neves] denied that had been "hacked." But he conceded that accounts may have been altered
  7. ^ a b - Tips and Rules
  8. ^ Getschko, Demi (1 April 2006). "Nomes de domínio na internet". Pesquisa sobre o uso das tecnologias da informação e da comunicação 2005 (in Brazilian Portuguese). São Paulo: 21–24. Retrieved 18 August 2021.
  9. ^ "Nota de Esclarecimento sobre utilização do DPN .edu". (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 18 August 2021.
  10. ^ "Categorias de domínios .br" [Categories of .br domains]. (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 17 August 2021.
  11. ^ "Duque de Caxias terá domínios ''" [Duque de Caxias will have '' domains]. (in Brazilian Portuguese). 1 September 2017. Retrieved 18 August 2021.
  12. ^ Santos, Leonardo (22 September 2017). "Ribeirão Preto ganha próprio domínio de internet" [Ribeirão Preto gets its own internet domain]. (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 18 August 2021.
  13. ^ a b Januário, Larissa (24 March 2008). "Eleições 2008: candidatos terão domínio" [2008 Elections: candidates will have domain]. (in Brazilian Portuguese). Archived from the original on 19 August 2021. Retrieved 18 August 2021.
  14. ^ "Ata da Reunião de 28 de fevereiro de 2002" (in Brazilian Portuguese). 28 February 2002. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 18 August 2021.
  15. ^ "Resolução". (in Brazilian Portuguese). 28 November 2008. Archived from the original on 21 April 2014. Retrieved 18 August 2021.
  16. ^ Franciscato, Carlos Eduardo (11 September 2004). "Como a Internet está ajudando eleitores e candidatos". Infonet (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 18 August 2021.
  17. ^ " - 31/12/1995 a 17/08/2021". (in Brazilian Portuguese). Archived from the original on 19 August 2021. Retrieved 18 August 2021.