1928 United States presidential election in Kentucky

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Herbert Hoover - NARA - 532049.tif
Unsuccessful 1928.jpg
Nominee Herbert Hoover Al Smith
Party Republican Democratic
Home state California New York
Running mate Charles Curtis Joseph T. Robinson
Electoral vote 13 0
Popular vote 558,734 381,070
Percentage 59.36% 40.48%

Kentucky Presidential Election Results 1928.svg
County Results

President before election

Calvin Coolidge
Republican

Elected President

Herbert Hoover
Republican

The 1928 United States presidential election in Kentucky took place on November 6, 1928 as part of the 1928 United States presidential election. Voters chose 13 representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

Background and vote

Ever since the Civil War, Kentucky had been shaped politically by divisions created by that war between secessionist, Democratic counties and Unionist, Republican ones,[1] although the state as a whole leaned Democratic throughout this era and the GOP carried the state only in 1896 and 1924.[2]

In 1928, as in all of the upland South, Kentucky's extremely stable Civil War partisan political pattern would become significantly disturbed due to the nomination, after all other prominent Democrats sat the election out due to the prevailing prosperity, of urban, anti-Prohibition Catholic Al Smith.[3] Once Smith was nominated – despite his attempt to dispel fears by nominating "dry" Southern Democrat Joseph T. Robinson as his running mate[4] – extreme fear ensued in the South, which had no experience of the Southern and Eastern European Catholic immigrants who were Smith's local constituency. Southern fundamentalist Protestants believed that Smith would allow papal and priestly leadership in the United States, which Protestantism was a reaction against.[5] In the east of the state where many communities were becoming sundown towns or counties[6] it was believed that Smith was unacceptable also because the Catholic Church officially opposed social and political segregation of the races.[7]

As with the former Confederate states, opposition to Smith in Kentucky was organised by the Protestant churches, led by James Cannon Jr. and Arthur J. Barton.[8] A major state paper, The Western Recorder had been heavily opposing Smith for over a year before the campaign began.[9] When the campaign did begin, Smith's religion was the overwhelming concern,[10] and at the beginning of October it appeared as though Republican nominee Herbert Hoover was likely to carry the state.[11] Although later in October there were thoughts Smith would challenge the GOP nominee,[12] in the end Hoover won the state by a margin of 18.88 percent against Al Smith gaining all thirteen of the state's electors as a result.[13] Traditional Democratic loyalties were maintained best in the Jackson Purchase, where racial issues were of greatest importance and there was opposition from memories of the 1927 Mississippi flood to Hoover's record on flood relief.[14]

Hoover became the first Republican nominee to exceed his national vote share in the Bluegrass State, with Kentucky voting 1.40 points more Republican than the nation at-large. He was the solitary Republican presidential candidate to carry Menifee County until George W. Bush in 2000, and also the first ever Republican victor in the following counties: Anderson, Barren, Boone, Bullitt, Daviess, Grant, Hardin, LaRue, Livingston, Mason, McCracken, McLean, Montgomery, Nicholas, Oldham, Powell, Robertson, Scott, Shelby and Spencer.[15]

This was the last time Kentucky voted Republican until Dwight Eisenhower won the state in his re-election bid in 1956.

Results

1928 United States presidential election in Kentucky
Party Candidate Running mate Popular vote Electoral vote
Count % Count %
Republican Herbert Hoover of California Charles Curtis of Kansas 558,734 59.36% 13 100%
Democratic Al Smith of New York Joseph Taylor Robinson of Arkansas 381,070 40.48% 0 0.00%
Socialist Norman Thomas of New York James Maurer of Pennsylvania 837 0.09% 0 0.00%
Socialist Labor Verne L. Reynolds of Michigan Jeremiah D. Crowley of New York 340 0.04% 0 0.00%
Communist William Z. Foster of Massachusetts Benjamin Gitlow of New York 293 0.03% 0 0.00%
Total 941,274 100% 13 100%

Results by county

County Herbert Clark Hoover
Republican
Alfred Emmanuel Smith
Democratic
Various candidates
Other parties
Margin Total votes cast[16]
# % # % # % # %
Adair 3,856 69.01% 1,732 30.99% 0 0.00% 2,124 38.01% 5,588
Allen 4,253 73.14% 1,562 26.86% 0 0.00% 2,691 46.28% 5,815
Anderson 1,859 51.96% 1,718 48.02% 1 0.03% 141 3.94% 3,578
Ballard 940 24.49% 2,896 75.44% 3 0.08% -1,956 -50.95% 3,839
Barren 5,101 59.07% 3,530 40.88% 5 0.06% 1,571 18.19% 8,636
Bath 2,223 54.74% 1,830 45.06% 8 0.20% 393 9.68% 4,061
Bell 6,570 71.84% 2,551 27.90% 24 0.26% 4,019 43.95% 9,145
Boone 2,604 58.31% 1,855 41.54% 7 0.16% 749 16.77% 4,466
Bourbon 4,512 58.34% 3,218 41.61% 4 0.05% 1,294 16.73% 7,734
Boyd 9,118 66.38% 4,611 33.57% 7 0.05% 4,507 32.81% 13,736
Boyle 3,517 54.01% 2,992 45.95% 3 0.05% 525 8.06% 6,512
Bracken 2,820 69.98% 1,201 29.80% 9 0.22% 1,619 40.17% 4,030
Breathitt 2,309 43.35% 3,017 56.65% 0 0.00% -708 -13.29% 5,326
Breckinridge 4,783 61.53% 2,987 38.43% 3 0.04% 1,796 23.11% 7,773
Bullitt 1,793 50.45% 1,758 49.47% 3 0.08% 35 0.98% 3,554
Butler 3,272 82.56% 684 17.26% 7 0.18% 2,588 65.30% 3,963
Caldwell 2,855 62.61% 1,695 37.17% 10 0.22% 1,160 25.44% 4,560
Calloway 1,557 31.13% 3,431 68.59% 14 0.28% -1,874 -37.47% 5,002
Campbell 17,317 54.25% 14,508 45.45% 95 0.30% 2,809 8.80% 31,920
Carlisle 787 28.28% 1,994 71.65% 2 0.07% -1,207 -43.37% 2,783
Carroll 1,649 46.91% 1,863 53.00% 3 0.09% -214 -6.09% 3,515
Carter 5,342 68.73% 2,392 30.77% 39 0.50% 2,950 37.95% 7,773
Casey 3,805 71.39% 1,519 28.50% 6 0.11% 2,286 42.89% 5,330
Christian 7,069 55.35% 5,702 44.65% 0 0.00% 1,367 10.70% 12,771
Clark 3,495 50.25% 3,460 49.75% 0 0.00% 35 0.50% 6,955
Clay 4,439 86.97% 651 12.75% 14 0.27% 3,788 74.22% 5,104
Clinton 2,580 88.81% 325 11.19% 0 0.00% 2,255 77.62% 2,905
Crittenden 3,000 68.46% 1,376 31.40% 6 0.14% 1,624 37.06% 4,382
Cumberland 2,593 82.79% 538 17.18% 1 0.03% 2,055 65.61% 3,132
Daviess 8,896 54.77% 7,332 45.14% 15 0.09% 1,564 9.63% 16,243
Edmonson 3,104 74.15% 1,076 25.70% 6 0.14% 2,028 48.45% 4,186
Elliott 601 31.33% 1,317 68.67% 0 0.00% -716 -37.33% 1,918
Estill 3,641 65.82% 1,886 34.09% 5 0.09% 1,755 31.72% 5,532
Fayette 16,988 65.11% 9,065 34.74% 39 0.15% 7,923 30.37% 26,092
Fleming 3,798 64.50% 2,086 35.43% 4 0.07% 1,712 29.08% 5,888
Floyd 5,109 47.17% 5,721 52.83% 0 0.00% -612 -5.65% 10,830
Franklin 3,485 47.45% 3,853 52.46% 7 0.10% -368 -5.01% 7,345
Fulton 1,366 30.34% 3,132 69.55% 5 0.11% -1,766 -39.22% 4,503
Gallatin 1,010 55.04% 823 44.85% 2 0.11% 187 10.19% 1,835
Garrard 2,862 62.34% 1,729 37.66% 0 0.00% 1,133 24.68% 4,591
Grant 2,448 59.48% 1,662 40.38% 6 0.15% 786 19.10% 4,116
Graves 3,223 33.98% 6,237 65.76% 24 0.25% -3,014 -31.78% 9,484
Grayson 3,937 63.07% 2,295 36.77% 10 0.16% 1,642 26.31% 6,242
Green 2,824 68.95% 1,272 31.05% 0 0.00% 1,552 37.89% 4,096
Greenup 4,410 64.43% 2,435 35.57% 0 0.00% 1,975 28.85% 6,845
Hancock 1,614 58.33% 1,151 41.60% 2 0.07% 463 16.73% 2,767
Hardin 4,624 58.92% 3,210 40.90% 14 0.18% 1,414 18.02% 7,848
Harlan 12,251 75.41% 3,958 24.36% 37 0.23% 8,293 51.05% 16,246
Harrison 2,909 47.86% 3,164 52.06% 5 0.08% -255 -4.20% 6,078
Hart 3,480 59.66% 2,339 40.10% 14 0.24% 1,141 19.56% 5,833
Henderson 5,443 57.03% 4,068 42.62% 33 0.35% 1,375 14.41% 9,544
Henry 2,334 44.29% 2,929 55.58% 7 0.13% -595 -11.29% 5,270
Hickman 767 26.12% 2,163 73.67% 6 0.20% -1,396 -47.55% 2,936
Hopkins 6,330 48.69% 6,640 51.08% 30 0.23% -310 -2.38% 13,000
Jackson 3,552 96.52% 123 3.34% 5 0.14% 3,429 93.18% 3,680
Jefferson 97,803 60.14% 64,472 39.65% 338 0.21% 33,331 20.50% 162,613
Jessamine 2,857 55.45% 2,295 44.55% 0 0.00% 562 10.91% 5,152
Johnson 5,339 73.98% 1,869 25.90% 9 0.12% 3,470 48.08% 7,217
Kenton 21,043 53.67% 18,165 46.33% 0 0.00% 2,878 7.34% 39,208
Knott 1,004 26.24% 2,822 73.76% 0 0.00% -1,818 -47.52% 3,826
Knox 5,928 79.76% 1,497 20.14% 7 0.09% 4,431 59.62% 7,432
Larue 1,892 52.19% 1,727 47.64% 6 0.17% 165 4.55% 3,625
Laurel 4,906 81.06% 1,141 18.85% 5 0.08% 3,765 62.21% 6,052
Lawrence 3,277 59.59% 2,217 40.32% 5 0.09% 1,060 19.28% 5,499
Lee 2,005 63.91% 1,131 36.05% 1 0.03% 874 27.86% 3,137
Leslie 2,806 94.51% 159 5.36% 4 0.13% 2,647 89.15% 2,969
Letcher 5,400 60.55% 3,502 39.27% 16 0.18% 1,898 21.28% 8,918
Lewis 4,077 78.36% 1,120 21.53% 6 0.12% 2,957 56.83% 5,203
Lincoln 3,903 62.68% 2,314 37.16% 10 0.16% 1,589 25.52% 6,227
Livingston 1,767 59.12% 1,217 40.72% 5 0.17% 550 18.40% 2,989
Logan 4,858 55.79% 3,843 44.13% 7 0.08% 1,015 11.66% 8,708
Lyon 1,215 48.43% 1,286 51.26% 8 0.32% -71 -2.83% 2,509
Madison 6,325 57.03% 4,736 42.71% 29 0.26% 1,589 14.33% 11,090
Magoffin 2,816 60.93% 1,806 39.07% 0 0.00% 1,010 21.85% 4,622
Marion 2,395 40.85% 3,461 59.03% 7 0.12% -1,066 -18.18% 5,863
Marshall 1,879 47.87% 2,036 51.87% 10 0.25% -157 -4.00% 3,925
Martin 1,674 80.44% 404 19.41% 3 0.14% 1,270 61.03% 2,081
Mason 5,012 59.79% 3,364 40.13% 6 0.07% 1,648 19.66% 8,382
McCracken 7,368 56.93% 5,535 42.76% 40 0.31% 1,833 14.16% 12,943
McCreary 3,622 89.10% 435 10.70% 8 0.20% 3,187 78.40% 4,065
McLean 2,408 58.07% 1,728 41.67% 11 0.27% 680 16.40% 4,147
Meade 1,610 48.54% 1,700 51.25% 7 0.21% -90 -2.71% 3,317
Menifee 732 50.24% 725 49.76% 0 0.00% 7 0.48% 1,457
Mercer 3,462 61.76% 2,140 38.17% 4 0.07% 1,322 23.58% 5,606
Metcalfe 2,314 66.92% 1,144 33.08% 0 0.00% 1,170 33.83% 3,458
Monroe 3,127 78.59% 843 21.19% 9 0.23% 2,284 57.40% 3,979
Montgomery 2,742 58.35% 1,938 41.24% 19 0.40% 804 17.11% 4,699
Morgan 2,025 44.02% 2,575 55.98% 0 0.00% -550 -11.96% 4,600
Muhlenberg 6,651 56.22% 5,130 43.36% 49 0.41% 1,521 12.86% 11,830
Nelson 2,926 42.04% 4,031 57.92% 3 0.04% -1,105 -15.88% 6,960
Nicholas 1,867 50.36% 1,836 49.53% 4 0.11% 31 0.84% 3,707
Ohio 5,690 66.83% 2,784 32.70% 40 0.47% 2,906 34.13% 8,514
Oldham 1,604 54.02% 1,359 45.77% 6 0.20% 245 8.25% 2,969
Owen 1,573 38.04% 2,552 61.72% 10 0.24% -979 -23.68% 4,135
Owsley 2,107 89.55% 241 10.24% 5 0.21% 1,866 79.30% 2,353
Pendleton 3,196 67.03% 1,567 32.86% 5 0.10% 1,629 34.17% 4,768
Perry 6,099 61.44% 3,814 38.42% 14 0.14% 2,285 23.02% 9,927
Pike 9,386 54.14% 7,930 45.75% 19 0.11% 1,456 8.40% 17,335
Powell 1,160 61.31% 732 38.69% 0 0.00% 428 22.62% 1,892
Pulaski 9,348 78.84% 2,494 21.03% 15 0.13% 6,854 57.81% 11,857
Robertson 742 53.69% 640 46.31% 0 0.00% 102 7.38% 1,382
Rockcastle 3,858 80.95% 908 19.05% 0 0.00% 2,950 61.90% 4,766
Rowan 1,857 61.25% 1,170 38.59% 5 0.16% 687 22.66% 3,032
Russell 3,028 78.45% 823 21.32% 9 0.23% 2,205 57.12% 3,860
Scott 3,192 52.82% 2,843 47.05% 8 0.13% 349 5.78% 6,043
Shelby 3,933 54.89% 3,232 45.11% 0 0.00% 701 9.78% 7,165
Simpson 1,635 39.64% 2,490 60.36% 0 0.00% -855 -20.73% 4,125
Spencer 1,565 62.20% 947 37.64% 4 0.16% 618 24.56% 2,516
Taylor 3,149 65.05% 1,684 34.79% 8 0.17% 1,465 30.26% 4,841
Todd 2,496 50.78% 2,416 49.16% 3 0.06% 80 1.63% 4,915
Trigg 2,346 53.55% 2,031 46.36% 4 0.09% 315 7.19% 4,381
Trimble 573 30.21% 1,317 69.43% 7 0.37% -744 -39.22% 1,897
Union 2,350 37.64% 3,884 62.21% 9 0.14% -1,534 -24.57% 6,243
Warren 7,931 60.90% 5,092 39.10% 1 0.01% 2,839 21.80% 13,024
Washington 2,933 56.36% 2,266 43.54% 5 0.10% 667 12.82% 5,204
Wayne 2,907 64.00% 1,635 36.00% 0 0.00% 1,272 28.01% 4,542
Webster 3,527 49.49% 3,591 50.39% 9 0.13% -64 -0.90% 7,127
Whitley 8,060 83.26% 1,610 16.63% 10 0.10% 6,450 66.63% 9,680
Wolfe 1,270 48.36% 1,356 51.64% 0 0.00% -86 -3.27% 2,626
Woodford 2,490 54.71% 2,056 45.18% 5 0.11% 434 9.54% 4,551
Totals 558,064 59.34% 381,070 40.52% 1,387 0.15% 176,994 18.82% 940,521

References

  1. ^ Sullivan, Robert David; 'How the Red and Blue Map Evolved Over the Past Century'; America Magazine in The National Catholic Review; June 29, 2016
  2. ^ Phillips, Kevin P.; The Emerging Republican Majority, p. 350 ISBN 978-0-691-16324-6
  3. ^ Warren, Kenneth F.; Encyclopedia of U.S. campaigns, elections, and electoral behavior: A-M, Volume 1, p. 620 ISBN 1412954894
  4. ^ Nelson, Michael (1991); Historic documents on presidential elections, 1787–1988, p. 296
  5. ^ Whisenhunt, Donald W.; President Herbert Hoover, p. 69 ISBN 1600214762
  6. ^ Loewen, James A.; Sundown Towns: A Hidden Dimension of American Racism, pp. 72-74 ISBN 0743294483
  7. ^ Moore, Edmund A. A Catholic Runs For President (New York, 1956) p. 157
  8. ^ Watson, Richard L., Jr.; 'Some Recent Interpretations of the Election of 1928'; The High School Journal, May, 1967, Vol. 50, No. 8, "Teaching about Practical Politics" (May, 1967), pp. 428-448
  9. ^ Miller, Robert Moats; 'A Footnote to the Role of the Protestant Churches in the Election of 1928'; Church History, volume 25, no. 2 (June 1956), pp. 145-159
  10. ^ Oulahan, Richard V.; 'Many Questions Enter into Kentucky Campaign: But Questions Raised by Smith's Religious Faith Seem to Be Dominant'; The New York Times, September 27, 1928, p. 3
  11. ^ 'Dixie Hoover Men Predict a Break in the Solid South: State Chairmen Assert Florida, Georgia, Alabama and Kentucky Will Go Republican, Louisiana Held Doubtful'; The New York Times, October 1, 1928, p. 1
  12. ^ Henderson, William; 'G.O.P. in Kentucky Worried by Smith: Republicans Move to Check Tide Seen Moving Away From Hoover'; The Washington Post, October 21, 1928, p. M4
  13. ^ "1928 Presidential General Election Results – Kentucky". Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections. Retrieved 2020-08-13.
  14. ^ Heersink, Boris; Peterson, Brenton D. and Jenkins, Jeffery A .; 'Disasters and Elections: Estimating the Net Effect of Damage and Relief in Historical Perspective'; Political Analysis; volume 25, issue 2 (April 2017), pp. 260-268
  15. ^ Menendez, Albert J.; The Geography of Presidential Elections in the United States, 1868–2004, pp. 206-211 ISBN 0-7864-2217-3
  16. ^ Scammon, Richard M. (compiler); America at the Polls: A Handbook of Presidential Election Statistics 1920–1964; pp. 176-177 ISBN 0405077114