Garrard County
Location within the U.S. state of Kentucky
Kentucky's location within the U.S.
Coordinates: 37°39′N 84°32′W / 37.65°N 84.54°W / 37.65; -84.54
Country United States
State Kentucky
FoundedDecember 17, 1796
Named forJames Garrard
SeatLancaster
Largest cityLancaster
Area
 • Total234 sq mi (610 km2)
 • Land230 sq mi (600 km2)
 • Water3.9 sq mi (10 km2)  1.7%%
Population
 (2020)
 • Total16,953 Increase
Congressional district2nd
Websitewww.garrardcounty.ky.gov

Garrard County (/ˈɡærɪd/ GAIR-id;) is a county located in the Bluegrass Region of Kentucky. As of the 2020 U.S. Census, the county's population was 16,953.[1] Its county seat is Lancaster.[2] The county was formed in 1796 and was named for James Garrard, Governor of Kentucky from 1796 to 1804.[3] It is a prohibition or dry county, although its county seat, Lancaster, is wet. Lancaster was founded as a collection of log cabins in 1776 near a spring that later provided a constant source of water to early pioneers. It is one of the oldest cities in the Commonwealth. Boonesborough, 25 miles to the east, was founded by Daniel Boone in 1775. Lexington, 28 miles to the north, was founded in 1775. Stanford, originally known as St. Asaph, is 10 miles south of Lancaster. It too was founded in 1775. The oldest permanent settlement in Kentucky, Harrodsburg, was founded in 1774 and is 18 miles to the west. Garrard's present day courthouse is one of the oldest courthouses in Kentucky in continuous use.

History

The area presently bounded by Kentucky state lines was a part of the U.S. State of Virginia, and was established as Kentucky County by the Virginia legislature in 1776, before the British colonies separated themselves in the American Revolutionary War. In 1780, the Virginia legislature divided Kentucky County into three counties: Fayette, Jefferson, and Lincoln. In 1785, parts of Lincoln County were divided off to create Mercer and Madison Counties.

In 1791 the previous Kentucky County was incorporated into the new nation as a separate state, Kentucky. This change became official on June 1, 1792. In 1796, a portion of the remaining Lincoln County was combined with areas split off from Mercer and Madison Counties to form Garrard County. It was the 25th county to be formed in the new state.[4][5] It was named for Col. James Garrard, second Governor of Kentucky and acting governor at the time of the county's establishment.[6][7]

Harriet Beecher Stowe, author of the powerful antebellum novel Uncle Tom's Cabin, visited the Thomas Kennedy home located in the Paint Lick section of Garrard County in her only visit to the South while gathering material for the book. The cabin that formed the basis of her novel was an actual structure behind the plantation house.[8] In 2008, Garrard County officials announced their intention to recreate the slave cabin on the grounds of the Governor William Owsley House.[9] However, in 2018 newspaper articles showed the proposed site abandoned and grown over; a memorial in another Kentucky county (Mason) was continuing to honor the memory and contribution of Stowe.[10]

Garrard County is historically a Whig and Republican County. Its early political leaders were outspoken supporters of Henry Clay. It was strongly pro-Union during the Civil War and has remained a Republican stronghold in the Bluegrass Region which was, until recently, largely Democratic.

Garrard County is the home of Camp Dick Robinson, the first Federal base south of the Ohio River during the Civil War.

Geography

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 234 square miles (610 km2), of which 230 square miles (600 km2) is land and 3.9 square miles (10 km2) (1.7%) is water.[11]

Adjacent counties

Demographics

Historical population
Census Pop.
18006,186
18109,18648.5%
182010,85118.1%
183011,8719.4%
184010,480−11.7%
185010,237−2.3%
186010,5312.9%
187010,376−1.5%
188011,70412.8%
189011,138−4.8%
190012,0428.1%
191011,894−1.2%
192012,5035.1%
193011,562−7.5%
194011,9103.0%
195011,029−7.4%
19609,747−11.6%
19709,457−3.0%
198010,85314.8%
199011,5796.7%
200014,79227.7%
201016,91214.3%
202016,9530.2%
U.S. Decennial Census[12]
1790-1960[13] 1900-1990[14]
1990-2000[15] 2010-2020[1]

As of the census[16] of 2000, there were 14,792 people, 5,741 households, and 4,334 families residing in the county. The population density was 64 per square mile (25/km2). There were 6,414 housing units at an average density of 28 per square mile (11/km2). The racial makeup of the county was 95.75% White, 3.06% Black or African American, 0.13% Native American, 0.04% Asian, 0.43% from other races, and 0.59% from two or more races. 1.32% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 5,741 households, out of which 33.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.60% were married couples living together, 9.40% had a female householder with no husband present, and 24.50% were non-families. 21.10% of all households were made up of individuals, and 9.50% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.56 and the average family size was 2.95.

By age, 24.40% of the population was under 18, 8.10% from 18 to 24, 30.90% from 25 to 44, 23.60% from 45 to 64, and 13.00% were 65 or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 96.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.00 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $34,284, and the median income for a family was $41,250. Males had a median income of $30,989 versus $21,856 for females. The per capita income for the county was $16,915. About 11.60% of families and 14.70% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.10% of those under age 18 and 17.00% of those age 65 or over.

Communities

Law and government

In the United States Senate, Garrard County is represented by US Senator Mitch McConnell and US Senator Rand Paul. Garrard County is in the 2nd Congressional District, represented by US Rep. Brett Guthrie; in the 22nd State Senatorial District represented by State Senator Tom Buford and in the 36th State Legislative District represented by State Representative Jonathan Shell.

Garrard County is governed by the Garrard County Fiscal Court, composed of the Judge Executive, who is elected countywide, and five Magistrates who are elected in magisterial districts representing different geographic areas of the county. Each member of the Fiscal Court is elected to a four-year term, pursuant to the Kentucky Constitution. Magistrates are addressed by the honorific "Squire." The Fiscal Court is represented by the County Attorney. The County Clerk archives all court records and keeps the minutes of meetings.

Politics

Garrard County lies at the northeastern end of the historically Unionist belt of Kentucky, covering the eastern Pennyroyal Plateau, the southern tip of the Bluegrass Plateau, and the southwestern part of the Eastern Coalfield. Although it only provided a modest level of volunteers for the Union Army during the Civil War and had a very high proportion of slave owners amongst its 1860 electorate,[18] Garrard County nonetheless came to form the northernmost border of the rock-ribbed Republican bloc of south-central Kentucky that includes such counties as Clinton, Cumberland, Russell, Casey, Pulaski, Laurel, Rockcastle, Monroe, McCreary, Clay, Jackson, Owsley and Leslie. The only Democratic Presidential candidates to carry Garrard County since the end of Reconstruction have been Woodrow Wilson in 1912, Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1932, 1936 and 1940, and Lyndon Johnson in 1964, and Roosevelt only won by 24 votes over Alf Landon and 14 votes over Wendell Willkie. Since 1944, when Thomas Dewey defeated Franklin Roosevelt by 278 votes, Garrard has voted Democratic in a presidential contest only once.

United States presidential election results for Garrard County, Kentucky[19]
Year Republican Democratic Third party
No.  % No.  % No.  %
2020 6,754 77.58% 1,830 21.02% 122 1.40%
2016 5,904 77.45% 1,453 19.06% 266 3.49%
2012 5,310 75.03% 1,661 23.47% 106 1.50%
2008 5,118 70.98% 2,012 27.91% 80 1.11%
2004 4,784 71.85% 1,841 27.65% 33 0.50%
2000 4,043 69.43% 1,713 29.42% 67 1.15%
1996 2,540 58.11% 1,486 34.00% 345 7.89%
1992 2,359 49.18% 1,730 36.06% 708 14.76%
1988 2,681 60.18% 1,710 38.38% 64 1.44%
1984 3,284 67.21% 1,566 32.05% 36 0.74%
1980 2,585 57.70% 1,774 39.60% 121 2.70%
1976 2,045 51.28% 1,887 47.32% 56 1.40%
1972 3,143 67.49% 1,441 30.94% 73 1.57%
1968 2,205 56.15% 1,000 25.46% 722 18.39%
1964 1,828 46.45% 2,092 53.16% 15 0.38%
1960 2,759 60.78% 1,780 39.22% 0 0.00%
1956 2,311 55.92% 1,798 43.50% 24 0.58%
1952 2,398 55.37% 1,927 44.49% 6 0.14%
1948 1,890 51.12% 1,725 46.66% 82 2.22%
1944 2,042 53.46% 1,764 46.18% 14 0.37%
1940 2,148 49.75% 2,162 50.07% 8 0.19%
1936 2,252 49.66% 2,276 50.19% 7 0.15%
1932 2,276 46.84% 2,582 53.14% 1 0.02%
1928 2,862 62.34% 1,729 37.66% 0 0.00%
1924 2,592 54.63% 2,126 44.81% 27 0.57%
1920 2,994 54.74% 2,434 44.51% 41 0.75%
1916 1,628 53.78% 1,375 45.42% 24 0.79%
1912 481 17.33% 1,232 44.40% 1,062 38.27%


Popular culture

Notable residents

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See also

References

  1. ^ a b "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on June 7, 2011. Retrieved September 27, 2021.
  2. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on May 31, 2011. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
  3. ^ "Garrard County". The Kentucky Encyclopedia. 2000. Archived from the original on June 14, 2018. Retrieved August 21, 2014.
  4. ^ Rennick, Robert M. (1987). Kentucky Place Names. University Press of Kentucky. p. 114. ISBN 0813126312. Retrieved April 28, 2013.
  5. ^ Collins, Lewis (1882). Collins' Historical Sketches of Kentucky: History of Kentucky, Vol. 2. Collins & Company. p. 26.
  6. ^ The Register of the Kentucky State Historical Society, Vol. 1. Kentucky State Historical Society. 1903. p. 35.
  7. ^ Gannett, Henry (1905). The Origin of Certain Place Names in the United States. Govt. Print. Off. p. 135.
  8. ^ "Highway Marker: Birthplace of Carry A. Nation". Kentucky Historical Society. Archived from the original on May 14, 2009. Retrieved May 7, 2009.
  9. ^ Cox, Charlie (May 29, 2008). "Garrard proceeds with Uncle Tom's Cabin". The Advocate Messenger. Retrieved October 7, 2009.[permanent dead link]
  10. ^ [1] Harriet Beecher Stowe Museum. Atlas Obscura.
  11. ^ "2010 Census Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. August 22, 2012. Archived from the original on August 12, 2014. Retrieved August 14, 2014.
  12. ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved August 14, 2014.
  13. ^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved August 14, 2014.
  14. ^ "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved August 14, 2014.
  15. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Retrieved August 14, 2014.
  16. ^ "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
  17. ^ "Kentucky: Garrard County – County Overview". Garrardcounty.ky.gov. January 14, 2013. Archived from the original on May 17, 2013. Retrieved June 7, 2013.
  18. ^ Copeland, James E.; ‘Where Were the Kentucky Unionists and Secessionists’; The Register of the Kentucky Historical Society, vol. 71, no. 4 (October 1973), pp. 344–363
  19. ^ Leip, David. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved July 1, 2018.
  20. ^ Stephenson, David (June 13, 2007). "Garrard Stockyards Prepares to Close". Lexington Herald Leader. Archived from the original on February 13, 2009. Retrieved October 7, 2009.
  21. ^ "Barbara Montgomery v John Michael Montgomery, Atlantic Records Corporation, and Maureen Ryan". Supreme Court of Kentucky. November 21, 2001. Archived from the original on September 17, 2009. Retrieved October 7, 2009.
  22. ^ "Carry A. Nation (1846 – 1911)". The State Historical Society of Missouri. Archived from the original on April 7, 2014. Retrieved April 6, 2014.
  23. ^ Puckett, Jeffrey Lee (March 21, 2011). "Mickey Raphael loves being a part of Willie Nelson's Family". The Courier-Journal. Archived from the original on July 28, 2012. Retrieved April 13, 2017.

Coordinates: 37°39′N 84°32′W / 37.65°N 84.54°W / 37.65; -84.54