It has been suggested that this article should be split into articles titled List of regular polytopes and List of regular polytope compounds. (discuss) (January 2024)

Example regular polytopes
Regular (2D) polygons
Convex Star

{5}

{5/2}
Regular (3D) polyhedra
Convex Star

{5,3}

{5/2,5}
Regular 4D polytopes
Convex Star

{5,3,3}

{5/2,5,3}
Regular 2D tessellations
Euclidean Hyperbolic

{4,4}

{5,4}
Regular 3D tessellations
Euclidean Hyperbolic

{4,3,4}

{5,3,4}

This article lists the regular polytopes and regular polytope compounds in Euclidean, spherical and hyperbolic spaces.

Overview

This table shows a summary of regular polytope counts by rank.

Rank Finite Euclidean Hyperbolic Abstract Compounds
Compact Paracompact
Convex Star Skew[a][1] Convex Skew[a][1] Convex Star Convex Convex Star
1 1 none none none none none none none 1 none none
2 none 1 none 1 none none
3 5 4 9 3 3 5 none
4 6 10 18 1 7 4 none 11 26 20
5 3 none 3 3 15 5 4 2 none none
6 3 none 3 1 7 none none 5 none none
7 3 none 3 1 7 none none none 3 none
8 3 none 3 1 7 none none none 6 none
9+ 3 none 3 1 7 none none none [b] none
  1. ^ a b Only counting polytopes of full rank. There are more regular polytopes of each rank > 1 in higher dimensions.
  2. ^

There are no Euclidean regular star tessellations in any number of dimensions.

1-polytopes

A Coxeter diagram represent mirror "planes" as nodes, and puts a ring around a node if a point is not on the plane. A dion { }, , is a point p and its mirror image point p', and the line segment between them.

There is only one polytope of rank 1 (1-polytope), the closed line segment bounded by its two endpoints. Every realization of this 1-polytope is regular. It has the Schläfli symbol { },[2][3] or a Coxeter diagram with a single ringed node, . Norman Johnson calls it a dion[4] and gives it the Schläfli symbol { }.

Although trivial as a polytope, it appears as the edges of polygons and other higher dimensional polytopes.[5] It is used in the definition of uniform prisms like Schläfli symbol { }×{p}, or Coxeter diagram as a Cartesian product of a line segment and a regular polygon.[6]

2-polytopes (polygons)

The polytopes of rank 2 (2-polytopes) are called polygons. Regular polygons are equilateral and cyclic. A p-gonal regular polygon is represented by Schläfli symbol {p}.

Many sources only cosider convex polygons, but star polygons, like the pentagram, when considered, can also be regular. They use the same vertices as the convex forms, but connect in an alternate connectivity which passes around the circle more than once to be completed.

Convex

The Schläfli symbol {p} represents a regular p-gon.

Name Triangle
(2-simplex)
Square
(2-orthoplex)
(2-cube)
Pentagon
(2-pentagonal
polytope
)
Hexagon Heptagon Octagon
Schläfli {3} {4} {5} {6} {7} {8}
Symmetry D3, [3] D4, [4] D5, [5] D6, [6] D7, [7] D8, [8]
Coxeter
Image
Name Nonagon
(Enneagon)
Decagon Hendecagon Dodecagon Tridecagon Tetradecagon
Schläfli {9} {10} {11} {12} {13} {14}
Symmetry D9, [9] D10, [10] D11, [11] D12, [12] D13, [13] D14, [14]
Dynkin
Image
Name Pentadecagon Hexadecagon Heptadecagon Octadecagon Enneadecagon Icosagon ...p-gon
Schläfli {15} {16} {17} {18} {19} {20} {p}
Symmetry D15, [15] D16, [16] D17, [17] D18, [18] D19, [19] D20, [20] Dp, [p]
Dynkin
Image

Spherical

The regular digon {2} can be considered to be a degenerate regular polygon. It can be realized non-degenerately in some non-Euclidean spaces, such as on the surface of a sphere or torus. For example, digon can be realised non-degenerately as a spherical lune. A monogon {1} could also be realised on the sphere as a single point with a great circle through it.[7] However, a monogon is not a valid abstract polytope because its single edge is incident to only one vertex rather than two.

Name Monogon Digon
Schläfli symbol {1} {2}
Symmetry D1, [ ] D2, [2]
Coxeter diagram or
Image

Stars

There exist infinitely many regular star polytopes in two dimensions, whose Schläfli symbols consist of rational numbers {n/m}. They are called star polygons and share the same vertex arrangements of the convex regular polygons.

In general, for any natural number n, there are regular n-pointed stars with Schläfli symbols {n/m} for all m such that m < n/2 (strictly speaking (({1))}) and m and n are coprime (as such, all stellations of a polygon with a prime number of sides will be regular stars). Symbols where m and n are not coprime may be used to represent compound polygons.

Name Pentagram Heptagrams Octagram Enneagrams Decagram ...n-grams
Schläfli {5/2} {7/2} {7/3} {8/3} {9/2} {9/4} {10/3} {p/q}
Symmetry D5, [5] D7, [7] D8, [8] D9, [9], D10, [10] Dp, [p]
Coxeter
Image  
Regular star polygons up to 20 sides

{11/2}

{11/3}

{11/4}

{11/5}

{12/5}

{13/2}

{13/3}

{13/4}

{13/5}

{13/6}

{14/3}

{14/5}

{15/2}

{15/4}

{15/7}

{16/3}

{16/5}

{16/7}

{17/2}

{17/3}

{17/4}

{17/5}

{17/6}

{17/7}

{17/8}

{18/5}

{18/7}

{19/2}

{19/3}

{19/4}

{19/5}

{19/6}

{19/7}

{19/8}

{19/9}

{20/3}

{20/7}

{20/9}

Star polygons that can only exist as spherical tilings, similarly to the monogon and digon, may exist (for example: {3/2}, {5/3}, {5/4}, {7/4}, {9/5}), however these do not appear to have been studied in detail.

There also exist failed star polygons, such as the piangle, which do not cover the surface of a circle finitely many times.[8]

Skew polygons

In addition to the planar regular polygons there are infinitely many regular skew polygons. Skew polygons can be created via the blending operation.

The blend of two polygons P and Q, written P#Q, can be constructed as follows:

  1. take the cartesian product of their vertices VP×VQ.
  2. add edges (p0×q0, p1×q1) where (p0, p1) is an edge of P and (q0, q1) is an edge of Q.
  3. select an arbitrary connected component of the result.

Alternatively, the blend is the polygon ρ0σ0, ρ1σ1 where ρ and σ are the generating mirrors of P and Q placed in orthogonal subspaces.[9] The blending operation is commutative, associative and idempotent.

Every regular skew polygon can be expressed as the blend of a unique[a] set of planar polygons.[9] If P and Q share no factors then Dim(P#Q) = Dim(P) + Dim(Q).

In 3 space

The regular finite polygons in 3 dimensions are exactly the blends of the planar polygons (dimension 2) with the digon (dimension 1). They have vertices corresponding to a prism ({n/m}#{} where n is odd) or an antiprism ({n/m}#{} where n is even). All polygons in 3 space have an even number of vertices and edges.

Several of these appear as the Petrie polygons of regular polyhedra.

In 4 space

The regular finite polygons in 4 dimensions are exactly the polygons formed as a blend of two distinct planar polygons. They have vertices lying on a Clifford torus and related by a Clifford displacement. Unlike 3-dimensional polygons, skew polygons on double rotations can include an odd-number of sides.

3-polytopes (polyhedra)

Polytopes of rank 3 are called polyhedra:

A regular polyhedron with Schläfli symbol {p,q}, Coxeter diagrams , has a regular face type {p}, and regular vertex figure {1}.

A vertex figure (of a polyhedron) is a polygon, seen by connecting those vertices which are one edge away from a given vertex. For regular polyhedra, this vertex figure is always a regular (and planar) polygon.

Existence of a regular polyhedron {p,q} is constrained by an inequality, related to the vertex figure's angle defect:

By enumerating the permutations, we find five convex forms, four star forms and three plane tilings, all with polygons {p} and {q} limited to: {3}, {4}, {5}, {5/2}, and {6}.

Beyond Euclidean space, there is an infinite set of regular hyperbolic tilings.

Convex

The five convex regular polyhedra are called the Platonic solids. The vertex figure is given with each vertex count. All these polyhedra have an Euler characteristic (χ) of 2.

Name Schläfli
{p,q}
Coxeter
Image
(solid)
Image
(sphere)
Faces
{p}
Edges Vertices
{q}
Symmetry Dual
Tetrahedron
(3-simplex)
{3,3} 4
{3}
6 4
{3}
Td
[3,3]
(*332)
(self)
Hexahedron
Cube
(3-cube)
{4,3} 6
{4}
12 8
{3}
Oh
[4,3]
(*432)
Octahedron
Octahedron
(3-orthoplex)
{3,4} 8
{3}
12 6
{4}
Oh
[4,3]
(*432)
Cube
Dodecahedron {5,3} 12
{5}
30 20
{3}
Ih
[5,3]
(*532)
Icosahedron
Icosahedron {3,5} 20
{3}
30 12
{5}
Ih
[5,3]
(*532)
Dodecahedron

Spherical

In spherical geometry, regular spherical polyhedra (tilings of the sphere) exist that would otherwise be degenerate as polytopes. These are the hosohedra {2,n} and their dual dihedra {n,2}. Coxeter calls these cases "improper" tessellations.[10]

The first few cases (n from 2 to 6) are listed below.

Hosohedra
Name Schläfli
{2,p}
Coxeter
diagram
Image
(sphere)
Faces
{2}π/p
Edges Vertices
{p}
Symmetry Dual
Digonal hosohedron {2,2} 2
{2}π/2
2 2
{2}π/2
D2h
[2,2]
(*222)
Self
Trigonal hosohedron {2,3} 3
{2}π/3
3 2
{3}
D3h
[2,3]
(*322)
Trigonal dihedron
Square hosohedron {2,4} 4
{2}π/4
4 2
{4}
D4h
[2,4]
(*422)
Square dihedron
Pentagonal hosohedron {2,5} 5
{2}π/5
5 2
{5}
D5h
[2,5]
(*522)
Pentagonal dihedron
Hexagonal hosohedron {2,6} 6
{2}π/6
6 2
{6}
D6h
[2,6]
(*622)
Hexagonal dihedron
Dihedra
Name Schläfli
{p,2}
Coxeter
diagram
Image
(sphere)
Faces
{p}
Edges Vertices
{2}
Symmetry Dual
Digonal dihedron {2,2} 2
{2}π/2
2 2
{2}π/2
D2h
[2,2]
(*222)
Self
Trigonal dihedron {3,2} 2
{3}
3 3
{2}π/3
D3h
[3,2]
(*322)
Trigonal hosohedron
Square dihedron {4,2} 2
{4}
4 4
{2}π/4
D4h
[4,2]
(*422)
Square hosohedron
Pentagonal dihedron {5,2} 2
{5}
5 5
{2}π/5
D5h
[5,2]
(*522)
Pentagonal hosohedron
Hexagonal dihedron {6,2} 2
{6}
6 6
{2}π/6
D6h
[6,2]
(*622)
Hexagonal hosohedron

Star-dihedra and hosohedra {p/q,2} and {2,p/q} also exist for any star polygon {p/q}.

Stars

The regular star polyhedra are called the Kepler–Poinsot polyhedra and there are four of them, based on the vertex arrangements of the dodecahedron {5,3} and icosahedron {3,5}:

As spherical tilings, these star forms overlap the sphere multiple times, called its density, being 3 or 7 for these forms. The tiling images show a single spherical polygon face in yellow.

Name Image
(skeletonic)
Image
(solid)
Image
(sphere)
Stellation
diagram
Schläfli
{p,q} and
Coxeter
Faces
{p}
Edges Vertices
{q}
verf.
χ Density Symmetry Dual
Small stellated dodecahedron {5/2,5}
12
{5/2}
30 12
{5}
−6 3 Ih
[5,3]
(*532)
Great dodecahedron
Great dodecahedron {5,5/2}
12
{5}
30 12
{5/2}
−6 3 Ih
[5,3]
(*532)
Small stellated dodecahedron
Great stellated dodecahedron {5/2,3}
12
{5/2}
30 20
{3}
2 7 Ih
[5,3]
(*532)
Great icosahedron
Great icosahedron {3,5/2}
20
{3}
30 12
{5/2}
2 7 Ih
[5,3]
(*532)
Great stellated dodecahedron

There are infinitely many failed star polyhedra. These are also spherical tilings with star polygons in their Schläfli symbols, but they do not cover a sphere finitely many times. Some examples are {5/2,4}, {5/2,9}, {7/2,3}, {5/2,5/2}, {7/2,7/3}, {4,5/2}, and {3,7/3}.

Skew polyhedra

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (January 2024)

Regular skew polyhedra are generalizations to the set of regular polyhedron which include the possibility of nonplanar vertex figures.

For 4-dimensional skew polyhedra, Coxeter offered a modified Schläfli symbol {l,m|n} for these figures, with {l,m} implying the vertex figure, m l-gons around a vertex, and n-gonal holes. Their vertex figures are skew polygons, zig-zagging between two planes.

The regular skew polyhedra, represented by {l,m|n}, follow this equation:

2 sin(π/l) sin(π/m) = cos(π/n)

Four of them can be seen in 4-dimensions as a subset of faces of four regular 4-polytopes, sharing the same vertex arrangement and edge arrangement:

{4, 6 | 3} {6, 4 | 3} {4, 8 | 3} {8, 4 | 3}

4-polytopes

Regular 4-polytopes with Schläfli symbol have cells of type , faces of type , edge figures , and vertex figures .

The existence of a regular 4-polytope is constrained by the existence of the regular polyhedra . A suggested name for 4-polytopes is "polychoron".[11]

Each will exist in a space dependent upon this expression:

 : Hyperspherical 3-space honeycomb or 4-polytope
 : Euclidean 3-space honeycomb
 : Hyperbolic 3-space honeycomb

These constraints allow for 21 forms: 6 are convex, 10 are nonconvex, one is a Euclidean 3-space honeycomb, and 4 are hyperbolic honeycombs.

The Euler characteristic for convex 4-polytopes is zero:

Convex

The 6 convex regular 4-polytopes are shown in the table below. All these 4-polytopes have an Euler characteristic (χ) of 0.

Name
Schläfli
{p,q,r}
Coxeter
Cells
{p,q}
Faces
{p}
Edges
{r}
Vertices
{q,r}
Dual
{r,q,p}
5-cell
(4-simplex)
{3,3,3} 5
{3,3}
10
{3}
10
{3}
5
{3,3}
(self)
8-cell
(4-cube)
(Tesseract)
{4,3,3} 8
{4,3}
24
{4}
32
{3}
16
{3,3}
16-cell
16-cell
(4-orthoplex)
{3,3,4} 16
{3,3}
32
{3}
24
{4}
8
{3,4}
Tesseract
24-cell {3,4,3} 24
{3,4}
96
{3}
96
{3}
24
{4,3}
(self)
120-cell {5,3,3} 120
{5,3}
720
{5}
1200
{3}
600
{3,3}
600-cell
600-cell {3,3,5} 600
{3,3}
1200
{3}
720
{5}
120
{3,5}
120-cell
5-cell 8-cell 16-cell 24-cell 120-cell 600-cell
{3,3,3} {4,3,3} {3,3,4} {3,4,3} {5,3,3} {3,3,5}
Wireframe (Petrie polygon) skew orthographic projections
Solid orthographic projections

tetrahedral
envelope
(cell/
vertex-centered)

cubic envelope
(cell-centered)

cubic envelope
(cell-centered)

cuboctahedral
envelope

(cell-centered)

truncated rhombic
triacontahedron
envelope

(cell-centered)

Pentakis
icosidodecahedral

envelope
(vertex-centered)
Wireframe Schlegel diagrams (Perspective projection)

(cell-centered)

(cell-centered)

(cell-centered)

(cell-centered)

(cell-centered)

(vertex-centered)
Wireframe stereographic projections (Hyperspherical)

Spherical

Di-4-topes and hoso-4-topes exist as regular tessellations of the 3-sphere.

Regular di-4-topes (2 facets) include: {3,3,2}, {3,4,2}, {4,3,2}, {5,3,2}, {3,5,2}, {p,2,2}, and their hoso-4-tope duals (2 vertices): {2,3,3}, {2,4,3}, {2,3,4}, {2,3,5}, {2,5,3}, {2,2,p}. 4-polytopes of the form {2,p,2} are the same as {2,2,p}. There are also the cases {p,2,q} which have dihedral cells and hosohedral vertex figures.

Regular hoso-4-topes as 3-sphere honeycombs
Schläfli
{2,p,q}
Coxeter
Cells
{2,p}π/q
Faces
{2}π/p,π/q
Edges Vertices Vertex figure
{p,q}
Symmetry Dual
{2,3,3} 4
{2,3}π/3
6
{2}π/3,π/3
4 2 {3,3}
[2,3,3] {3,3,2}
{2,4,3} 6
{2,4}π/3
12
{2}π/4,π/3
8 2 {4,3}
[2,4,3] {3,4,2}
{2,3,4} 8
{2,3}π/4
12
{2}π/3,π/4
6 2 {3,4}
[2,4,3] {4,3,2}
{2,5,3} 12
{2,5}π/3
30
{2}π/5,π/3
20 2 {5,3}
[2,5,3] {3,5,2}
{2,3,5} 20
{2,3}π/5
30
{2}π/3,π/5
12 2 {3,5}
[2,5,3] {5,3,2}

Stars

There are ten regular star 4-polytopes, which are called the Schläfli–Hess 4-polytopes. Their vertices are based on the convex 120-cell {5,3,3} and 600-cell {3,3,5}.

Ludwig Schläfli found four of them and skipped the last six because he would not allow forms that failed the Euler characteristic on cells or vertex figures (for zero-hole tori: F+V−E=2). Edmund Hess (1843–1903) completed the full list of ten in his German book Einleitung in die Lehre von der Kugelteilung mit besonderer Berücksichtigung ihrer Anwendung auf die Theorie der Gleichflächigen und der gleicheckigen Polyeder (1883)[1].

There are 4 unique edge arrangements and 7 unique face arrangements from these 10 regular star 4-polytopes, shown as orthogonal projections:

Name
Wireframe Solid Schläfli
{p, q, r}
Coxeter
Cells
{p, q}
Faces
{p}
Edges
{r}
Vertices
{q, r}
Density χ Symmetry group Dual
{r, q,p}
Icosahedral 120-cell
(faceted 600-cell)
{3,5,5/2}
120
{3,5}
1200
{3}
720
{5/2}
120
{5,5/2}
4 480 H4
[5,3,3]
Small stellated 120-cell
Small stellated 120-cell {5/2,5,3}
120
{5/2,5}
720
{5/2}
1200
{3}
120
{5,3}
4 −480 H4
[5,3,3]
Icosahedral 120-cell
Great 120-cell {5,5/2,5}
120
{5,5/2}
720
{5}
720
{5}
120
{5/2,5}
6 0 H4
[5,3,3]
Self-dual
Grand 120-cell {5,3,5/2}
120
{5,3}
720
{5}
720
{5/2}
120
{3,5/2}
20 0 H4
[5,3,3]
Great stellated 120-cell
Great stellated 120-cell {5/2,3,5}
120
{5/2,3}
720
{5/2}
720
{5}
120
{3,5}
20 0 H4
[5,3,3]
Grand 120-cell
Grand stellated 120-cell {5/2,5,5/2}
120
{5/2,5}
720
{5/2}
720
{5/2}
120
{5,5/2}
66 0 H4
[5,3,3]
Self-dual
Great grand 120-cell {5,5/2,3}
120
{5,5/2}
720
{5}
1200
{3}
120
{5/2,3}
76 −480 H4
[5,3,3]
Great icosahedral 120-cell
Great icosahedral 120-cell
(great faceted 600-cell)
{3,5/2,5}
120
{3,5/2}
1200
{3}
720
{5}
120
{5/2,5}
76 480 H4
[5,3,3]
Great grand 120-cell
Grand 600-cell {3,3,5/2}
600
{3,3}
1200
{3}
720
{5/2}
120
{3,5/2}
191 0 H4
[5,3,3]
Great grand stellated 120-cell
Great grand stellated 120-cell {5/2,3,3}
120
{5/2,3}
720
{5/2}
1200
{3}
600
{3,3}
191 0 H4
[5,3,3]
Grand 600-cell

There are 4 failed potential regular star 4-polytopes permutations: {3,5/2,3}, {4,3,5/2}, {5/2,3,4}, {5/2,3,5/2}. Their cells and vertex figures exist, but they do not cover a hypersphere with a finite number of repetitions.

Skew 4-polytopes

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (January 2024)

In addition to the 16 planar 4-polytopes above there are 18 finite skew polytopes.[12] One of these is obtained as the Petrial of the tesseract, and the other 17 can be formed by applying the kappa operation to the planar polytopes and the Petrial of the tesseract.

Ranks 5 and higher

5-polytopes can be given the symbol where is the 4-face type, is the cell type, is the face type, and is the face figure, is the edge figure, and is the vertex figure.

A vertex figure (of a 5-polytope) is a 4-polytope, seen by the arrangement of neighboring vertices to each vertex.
An edge figure (of a 5-polytope) is a polyhedron, seen by the arrangement of faces around each edge.
A face figure (of a 5-polytope) is a polygon, seen by the arrangement of cells around each face.

A regular 5-polytope exists only if and are regular 4-polytopes.

The space it fits in is based on the expression:

 : Spherical 4-space tessellation or 5-space polytope
 : Euclidean 4-space tessellation
 : hyperbolic 4-space tessellation

Enumeration of these constraints produce 3 convex polytopes, no star polytopes, 3 tessellations of Euclidean 4-space, and 5 tessellations of paracompact hyperbolic 4-space. The only no non-convex regular polytopes for ranks 5 and higher are skews.

Convex

In dimensions 5 and higher, there are only three kinds of convex regular polytopes.[13]

Name Schläfli
Symbol
{p1,...,pn−1}
Coxeter k-faces Facet
type
Vertex
figure
Dual
n-simplex {3n−1} ... {3n−2} {3n−2} Self-dual
n-cube {4,3n−2} ... {4,3n−3} {3n−2} n-orthoplex
n-orthoplex {3n−2,4} ... {3n−2} {3n−3,4} n-cube

There are also improper cases where some numbers in the Schläfli symbol are 2. For example, {p,q,r,...2} is an improper regular spherical polytope whenever {p,q,r...} is a regular spherical polytope, and {2,...p,q,r} is an improper regular spherical polytope whenever {...p,q,r} is a regular spherical polytope. Such polytopes may also be used as facets, yielding forms such as {p,q,...2...y,z}.

5 dimensions

Name Schläfli
Symbol
{p,q,r,s}
Coxeter
Facets
{p,q,r}
Cells
{p,q}
Faces
{p}
Edges Vertices Face
figure
{s}
Edge
figure
{r,s}
Vertex
figure

{q,r,s}
5-simplex {3,3,3,3}
6
{3,3,3}
15
{3,3}
20
{3}
15 6 {3} {3,3} {3,3,3}
5-cube {4,3,3,3}
10
{4,3,3}
40
{4,3}
80
{4}
80 32 {3} {3,3} {3,3,3}
5-orthoplex {3,3,3,4}
32
{3,3,3}
80
{3,3}
80
{3}
40 10 {4} {3,4} {3,3,4}

5-simplex

5-cube

5-orthoplex

6 dimensions

Name Schläfli Vertices Edges Faces Cells 4-faces 5-faces χ
6-simplex {3,3,3,3,3} 7 21 35 35 21 7 0
6-cube {4,3,3,3,3} 64 192 240 160 60 12 0
6-orthoplex {3,3,3,3,4} 12 60 160 240 192 64 0

6-simplex

6-cube

6-orthoplex

7 dimensions

Name Schläfli Vertices Edges Faces Cells 4-faces 5-faces 6-faces χ
7-simplex {3,3,3,3,3,3} 8 28 56 70 56 28 8 2
7-cube {4,3,3,3,3,3} 128 448 672 560 280 84 14 2
7-orthoplex {3,3,3,3,3,4} 14 84 280 560 672 448 128 2

7-simplex

7-cube

7-orthoplex

8 dimensions

Name Schläfli Vertices Edges Faces Cells 4-faces 5-faces 6-faces 7-faces χ
8-simplex {3,3,3,3,3,3,3} 9 36 84 126 126 84 36 9 0
8-cube {4,3,3,3,3,3,3} 256 1024 1792 1792 1120 448 112 16 0
8-orthoplex {3,3,3,3,3,3,4} 16 112 448 1120 1792 1792 1024 256 0

8-simplex

8-cube

8-orthoplex

9 dimensions

Name Schläfli Vertices Edges Faces Cells 4-faces 5-faces 6-faces 7-faces 8-faces χ
9-simplex {38} 10 45 120 210 252 210 120 45 10 2
9-cube {4,37} 512 2304 4608 5376 4032 2016 672 144 18 2
9-orthoplex {37,4} 18 144 672 2016 4032 5376 4608 2304 512 2

9-simplex

9-cube

9-orthoplex

10 dimensions

Name Schläfli Vertices Edges Faces Cells 4-faces 5-faces 6-faces 7-faces 8-faces 9-faces χ
10-simplex {39} 11 55 165 330 462 462 330 165 55 11 0
10-cube {4,38} 1024 5120 11520 15360 13440 8064 3360 960 180 20 0
10-orthoplex {38,4} 20 180 960 3360 8064 13440 15360 11520 5120 1024 0

10-simplex

10-cube

10-orthoplex

Star polytopes

There are no regular star polytopes of rank 5 or higher, with the exception of degenerate polytopes created by the star product of lower rank star polytopes. e.g. hosotopes and ditopes.

Regular projective polytopes

A projective regular (n+1)-polytope exists when an original regular n-spherical tessellation, {p,q,...}, is centrally symmetric. Such a polytope is named hemi-{p,q,...}, and contain half as many elements. Coxeter gives a symbol {p,q,...}/2, while McMullen writes {p,q,...}h/2 with h as the coxeter number.[14]

Even-sided regular polygons have hemi-2n-gon projective polygons, {2p}/2.

There are 4 regular projective polyhedra related to 4 of 5 Platonic solids.

The hemi-cube and hemi-octahedron generalize as hemi-n-cubes and hemi-n-orthoplexes to any rank.

Regular projective polyhedra

rank 3 regular hemi-polytopes
Name Coxeter
McMullen
Image Faces Edges Vertices χ
Hemi-cube {4,3}/2
{4,3}3
3 6 4 1
Hemi-octahedron {3,4}/2
{3,4}3
4 6 3 1
Hemi-dodecahedron {5,3}/2
{5,3}5
6 15 10 1
Hemi-icosahedron {3,5}/2
{3,5}5
10 15 6 1

Regular projective 4-polytopes

5 of 6 convex regular 4-polytopes are centrally symmetric generating projective 4-polytopes. The 3 special cases are hemi-24-cell, hemi-600-cell, and hemi-120-cell.

Rank 4 regular hemi-polytopes
Name Coxeter
symbol
McMullen
Symbol
Cells Faces Edges Vertices χ
Hemi-tesseract {4,3,3}/2 {4,3,3}4 4 12 16 8 0
Hemi-16-cell {3,3,4}/2 {3,3,4}4 8 16 12 4 0
Hemi-24-cell {3,4,3}/2 {3,4,3}6 12 48 48 12 0
Hemi-120-cell {5,3,3}/2 {5,3,3}15 60 360 600 300 0
Hemi-600-cell {3,3,5}/2 {3,3,5}15 300 600 360 60 0

Regular projective 5-polytopes

Only 2 of 3 regular spereical polytopes are centrally symmetric for ranks 5 or higher: they are the hemi versions of the regular hypercube and orthoplex. They are tabulated below for rank 5, for example:

Name Schläfli 4-faces Cells Faces Edges Vertices χ
hemi-penteract {4,3,3,3}/2 5 20 40 40 16 1
hemi-pentacross {3,3,3,4}/2 16 40 40 20 5 1

Apeirotopes

An apeirotope or infinite polytope is a polytope which has infinitely many facets. An n-apeirotope is an infinite n-polytope: a 2-apeirotope or apeirogon is an infinite polygon, a 3-apeirotope or apeirohedron is an infinite polyhedron, etc.

There are two main geometric classes of apeirotope:[15]

2-apeirotopes (apeirogons)

The straight apeirogon is a regular tessellation of the line, subdividing it into infinitely many equal segments. It has infinitely many vertices and edges. Its Schläfli symbol is {∞}, and Coxeter diagram .

......

It exists as the limit of the p-gon as p tends to infinity, as follows:

Name Monogon Digon Triangle Square Pentagon Hexagon Heptagon p-gon Apeirogon
Schläfli {1} {2} {3} {4} {5} {6} {7} {p} {∞}
Symmetry D1, [ ] D2, [2] D3, [3] D4, [4] D5, [5] D6, [6] D7, [7] [p]
Coxeter or
Image

Apeirogons in the hyperbolic plane, most notably the regular apeirogon, {∞}, can have a curvature just like finite polygons of the Euclidean plane, with the vertices circumscribed by horocycles or hypercycles rather than circles.

Regular apeirogons that are scaled to converge at infinity have the symbol {∞} and exist on horocycles, while more generally they can exist on hypercycles.

{∞} {πi/λ}

Apeirogon on horocycle

Apeirogon on hypercycle

Above are two regular hyperbolic apeirogons in the Poincaré disk model, the right one shows perpendicular reflection lines of divergent fundamental domains, separated by length λ.

Skew apeirogons

A skew apeirogon in two dimensions forms a zig-zag line in the plane. If the zig-zag is even and symmetrical, then the apeirogon is regular.

Skew apeirogons can be constructed in any number of dimensions. In three dimensions, a regular skew apeirogon traces out a helical spiral and may be either left- or right-handed.

2-dimensions 3-dimensions

Zig-zag apeirogon

Helix apeirogon

2-apeirotopes (apeirohedra)

Euclidean tilings

There are three regular tessellations of the plane. All three have an Euler characteristic (χ) of 0.

Name Square tiling
(quadrille)
Triangular tiling
(deltille)
Hexagonal tiling
(hextille)
Symmetry p4m, [4,4], (*442) p6m, [6,3], (*632)
Schläfli {p,q} {4,4} {3,6} {6,3}
Coxeter diagram
Image

There are two improper regular tilings: {∞,2}, an apeirogonal dihedron, made from two apeirogons, each filling half the plane; and secondly, its dual, {2,∞}, an apeirogonal hosohedron, seen as an infinite set of parallel lines.


{∞,2},

{2,∞},

Euclidean star-tilings

There are no regular plane tilings of star polygons. There are many enumerations that fit in the plane (1/p + 1/q = 1/2), like {8/3,8}, {10/3,5}, {5/2,10}, {12/5,12}, etc., but none repeat periodically.

Hyperbolic tilings

Tessellations of hyperbolic 2-space are hyperbolic tilings. There are infinitely many regular tilings in H2. As stated above, every positive integer pair {p,q} such that 1/p + 1/q < 1/2 gives a hyperbolic tiling. In fact, for the general Schwarz triangle (pqr) the same holds true for 1/p + 1/q + 1/r < 1.

There are a number of different ways to display the hyperbolic plane, including the Poincaré disc model which maps the plane into a circle, as shown below. It should be recognized that all of the polygon faces in the tilings below are equal-sized and only appear to get smaller near the edges due to the projection applied, very similar to the effect of a camera fisheye lens.

There are infinitely many flat regular 3-apeirotopes (apeirohedra) as regular tilings of the hyperbolic plane, of the form {p,q}, with p+q<pq/2. (previously listed above as tessellations)

A sampling:

Regular hyperbolic tiling table
Spherical (improper/Platonic)/Euclidean/hyperbolic (Poincaré disc: compact/paracompact/noncompact) tessellations with their Schläfli symbol
p \ q 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 ... ... iπ/λ
2
{2,2}

{2,3}

{2,4}

{2,5}

{2,6}

{2,7}

{2,8}

{2,∞}

{2,iπ/λ}
3

{3,2}

(tetrahedron)
{3,3}

(octahedron)
{3,4}

(icosahedron)
{3,5}

(deltille)
{3,6}


{3,7}


{3,8}


{3,∞}


{3,iπ/λ}
4

{4,2}

(cube)
{4,3}

(quadrille)
{4,4}


{4,5}


{4,6}


{4,7}


{4,8}


{4,∞}

{4,iπ/λ}
5

{5,2}

(dodecahedron)
{5,3}


{5,4}


{5,5}


{5,6}


{5,7}


{5,8}


{5,∞}

{5,iπ/λ}
6

{6,2}

(hextille)
{6,3}


{6,4}


{6,5}


{6,6}


{6,7}


{6,8}


{6,∞}

{6,iπ/λ}
7 {7,2}

{7,3}

{7,4}

{7,5}

{7,6}

{7,7}

{7,8}

{7,∞}
{7,iπ/λ}
8 {8,2}

{8,3}

{8,4}

{8,5}

{8,6}

{8,7}

{8,8}

{8,∞}
{8,iπ/λ}
...

{∞,2}

{∞,3}

{∞,4}

{∞,5}

{∞,6}

{∞,7}

{∞,8}

{∞,∞}

{∞,iπ/λ}
...
iπ/λ
{iπ/λ,2}

{iπ/λ,3}

{iπ/λ,4}

{iπ/λ,5}

{iπ/λ,6}
{iπ/λ,7}
{iπ/λ,8}

{iπ/λ,∞}

{iπ/λ, iπ/λ}

The tilings {p, ∞} have ideal vertices, on the edge of the Poincaré disc model. Their duals {∞, p} have ideal apeirogonal faces, meaning that they are inscribed in horocycles. One could go further (as is done in the table above) and find tilings with ultra-ideal vertices, outside the Poincaré disc, which are dual to tiles inscribed in hypercycles; in what is symbolised {p, iπ/λ} above, infinitely many tiles still fit around each ultra-ideal vertex.[16] (Parallel lines in extended hyperbolic space meet at an ideal point; ultraparallel lines meet at an ultra-ideal point.)[17]

Hyperbolic star-tilings

There are 2 infinite forms of hyperbolic tilings whose faces or vertex figures are star polygons: {m/2, m} and their duals {m, m/2} with m = 7, 9, 11, .... The {m/2, m} tilings are stellations of the {m, 3} tilings while the {m, m/2} dual tilings are facetings of the {3, m} tilings and greatenings of the {m, 3} tilings.

The patterns {m/2, m} and {m, m/2} continue for odd m < 7 as polyhedra: when m = 5, we obtain the small stellated dodecahedron and great dodecahedron, and when m = 3, the case degenerates to a tetrahedron. The other two Kepler–Poinsot polyhedra (the great stellated dodecahedron and great icosahedron) do not have regular hyperbolic tiling analogues. If m is even, depending on how we choose to define {m/2}, we can either obtain degenerate double covers of other tilings or compound tilings.

Name Schläfli Coxeter diagram Image Face type
{p}
Vertex figure
{q}
Density Symmetry Dual
Order-7 heptagrammic tiling {7/2,7} {7/2}
{7}
3 *732
[7,3]
Heptagrammic-order heptagonal tiling
Heptagrammic-order heptagonal tiling {7,7/2} {7}
{7/2}
3 *732
[7,3]
Order-7 heptagrammic tiling
Order-9 enneagrammic tiling {9/2,9} {9/2}
{9}
3 *932
[9,3]
Enneagrammic-order enneagonal tiling
Enneagrammic-order enneagonal tiling {9,9/2} {9}
{9/2}
3 *932
[9,3]
Order-9 enneagrammic tiling
Order-11 hendecagrammic tiling {11/2,11} {11/2}
{11}
3 *11.3.2
[11,3]
Hendecagrammic-order hendecagonal tiling
Hendecagrammic-order hendecagonal tiling {11,11/2} {11}
{11/2}
3 *11.3.2
[11,3]
Order-11 hendecagrammic tiling
Order-p p-grammic tiling {p/2,p}   {p/2} {p} 3 *p32
[p,3]
p-grammic-order p-gonal tiling
p-grammic-order p-gonal tiling {p,p/2}   {p} {p/2} 3 *p32
[p,3]
Order-p p-grammic tiling

Skew apeirohedra in Euclidean 3-space

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (January 2024)

There are three regular skew apeirohedra in Euclidean 3-space, with planar faces.[18][19][20] They share the same vertex arrangement and edge arrangement of 3 convex uniform honeycombs.

12 "pure" apeirohedra in Euclidean 3-space based on the structure of the cubic honeycomb, {4,3,4}.[21] A π petrie dual operator replaces faces with petrie polygons; δ is a dual operator reverses vertices and faces; φk is a kth facetting operator; η is a halving operator, and σ skewing halving operator.
Regular skew polyhedra with planar faces

{4,6|4}

{6,4|4}

{6,6|3}

Allowing for skew faces, there are 24 regular apeirohedra in Euclidean 3-space.[22] These include 12 apeirhedra created by blends with the Euclidean apeirohedra, and 12 pure apeirohedra, including the 3 above, which cannot be expressed as a non-trivial blend.

Those pure apeirohedra are:

Skew apeirohedra in hyperbolic 3-space

There are 31 regular skew apeirohedra with convex faces in hyperbolic 3-space with compact or paracompact symmetry:[23]

4-apeirotopes

Tessellations of Euclidean 3-space

Edge framework of cubic honeycomb, {4,3,4}

There is only one non-degenerate regular tessellation of 3-space (honeycombs), {4, 3, 4}:[24]

Name Schläfli
{p,q,r}
Coxeter
Cell
type
{p,q}
Face
type
{p}
Edge
figure
{r}
Vertex
figure

{q,r}
χ Dual
Cubic honeycomb {4,3,4} {4,3} {4} {4} {3,4} 0 Self-dual

Improper tessellations of Euclidean 3-space

Regular {2,4,4} honeycomb, seen projected into a sphere.

There are six improper regular tessellations, pairs based on the three regular Euclidean tilings. Their cells and vertex figures are all regular hosohedra {2,n}, dihedra, {n,2}, and Euclidean tilings. These improper regular tilings are constructionally related to prismatic uniform honeycombs by truncation operations. They are higher-dimensional analogues of the order-2 apeirogonal tiling and apeirogonal hosohedron.

Schläfli
{p,q,r}
Coxeter
diagram
Cell
type
{p,q}
Face
type
{p}
Edge
figure
{r}
Vertex
figure

{q,r}
{2,4,4} {2,4} {2} {4} {4,4}
{2,3,6} {2,3} {2} {6} {3,6}
{2,6,3} {2,6} {2} {3} {6,3}
{4,4,2} {4,4} {4} {2} {4,2}
{3,6,2} {3,6} {3} {2} {6,2}
{6,3,2} {6,3} {6} {2} {3,2}

Tessellations of hyperbolic 3-space

There are ten flat regular honeycombs of hyperbolic 3-space:[25] (previously listed above as tessellations)

4 compact regular honeycombs

{5,3,4}

{5,3,5}

{4,3,5}

{3,5,3}
4 of 11 paracompact regular honeycombs

{3,4,4}

{3,6,3}

{4,4,3}

{4,4,4}

Tessellations of hyperbolic 3-space can be called hyperbolic honeycombs. There are 15 hyperbolic honeycombs in H3, 4 compact and 11 paracompact.

4 compact regular honeycombs
Name Schläfli
Symbol
{p,q,r}
Coxeter
Cell
type
{p,q}
Face
type
{p}
Edge
figure
{r}
Vertex
figure

{q,r}
χ Dual
Icosahedral honeycomb {3,5,3} {3,5} {3} {3} {5,3} 0 Self-dual
Order-5 cubic honeycomb {4,3,5} {4,3} {4} {5} {3,5} 0 {5,3,4}
Order-4 dodecahedral honeycomb {5,3,4} {5,3} {5} {4} {3,4} 0 {4,3,5}
Order-5 dodecahedral honeycomb {5,3,5} {5,3} {5} {5} {3,5} 0 Self-dual

There are also 11 paracompact H3 honeycombs (those with infinite (Euclidean) cells and/or vertex figures): {3,3,6}, {6,3,3}, {3,4,4}, {4,4,3}, {3,6,3}, {4,3,6}, {6,3,4}, {4,4,4}, {5,3,6}, {6,3,5}, and {6,3,6}.

11 paracompact regular honeycombs
Name Schläfli
Symbol
{p,q,r}
Coxeter
Cell
type
{p,q}
Face
type
{p}
Edge
figure
{r}
Vertex
figure

{q,r}
χ Dual
Order-6 tetrahedral honeycomb {3,3,6} {3,3} {3} {6} {3,6} 0 {6,3,3}
Hexagonal tiling honeycomb {6,3,3} {6,3} {6} {3} {3,3} 0 {3,3,6}
Order-4 octahedral honeycomb {3,4,4} {3,4} {3} {4} {4,4} 0 {4,4,3}
Square tiling honeycomb {4,4,3} {4,4} {4} {3} {4,3} 0 {3,3,4}
Triangular tiling honeycomb {3,6,3} {3,6} {3} {3} {6,3} 0 Self-dual
Order-6 cubic honeycomb {4,3,6} {4,3} {4} {4} {3,6} 0 {6,3,4}
Order-4 hexagonal tiling honeycomb {6,3,4} {6,3} {6} {4} {3,4} 0 {4,3,6}
Order-4 square tiling honeycomb {4,4,4} {4,4} {4} {4} {4,4} 0 Self-dual
Order-6 dodecahedral honeycomb {5,3,6} {5,3} {5} {5} {3,6} 0 {6,3,5}
Order-5 hexagonal tiling honeycomb {6,3,5} {6,3} {6} {5} {3,5} 0 {5,3,6}
Order-6 hexagonal tiling honeycomb {6,3,6} {6,3} {6} {6} {3,6} 0 Self-dual

Noncompact solutions exist as Lorentzian Coxeter groups, and can be visualized with open domains in hyperbolic space (the fundamental tetrahedron having ultra-ideal vertices). All honeycombs with hyperbolic cells or vertex figures and do not have 2 in their Schläfli symbol are noncompact.

Spherical (improper/Platonic)/Euclidean/hyperbolic(compact/paracompact/noncompact) honeycombs {p,3,r}
{p,3} \ r 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 ... ∞
{2,3}

{2,3,2}
{2,3,3} {2,3,4} {2,3,5} {2,3,6} {2,3,7} {2,3,8} {2,3,∞}
{3,3}

{3,3,2}

{3,3,3}

{3,3,4}

{3,3,5}

{3,3,6}

{3,3,7}

{3,3,8}

{3,3,∞}
{4,3}

{4,3,2}

{4,3,3}

{4,3,4}

{4,3,5}

{4,3,6}

{4,3,7}

{4,3,8}

{4,3,∞}
{5,3}

{5,3,2}

{5,3,3}

{5,3,4}

{5,3,5}

{5,3,6}

{5,3,7}

{5,3,8}

{5,3,∞}
{6,3}

{6,3,2}

{6,3,3}

{6,3,4}

{6,3,5}

{6,3,6}

{6,3,7}

{6,3,8}

{6,3,∞}
{7,3}
{7,3,2}
{7,3,3}

{7,3,4}

{7,3,5}

{7,3,6}

{7,3,7}

{7,3,8}

{7,3,∞}
{8,3}
{8,3,2}
{8,3,3}

{8,3,4}

{8,3,5}

{8,3,6}

{8,3,7}

{8,3,8}

{8,3,∞}
... {∞,3}
{∞,3,2}
{∞,3,3}

{∞,3,4}

{∞,3,5}

{∞,3,6}

{∞,3,7}

{∞,3,8}