Narayan Debnath
Narayan Debnath in work room (cropped).jpg
Debnath in 2013
Born(1925-11-25)25 November 1925
Howrah, Bengal Presidency, British Raj
Died18 January 2022(2022-01-18) (aged 96)
Kolkata, West Bengal, India
NationalityIndian
Area(s)West Bengal, India
Notable works
Bantul the Great, Handa Bhonda, Nonte Fonte
AwardsPresident's Special Recognition Award (2007), Sahitya Akademi (2013), Banga Bibhushan (2013), D. Litt. by Rabindra Bharati University (2015),
Padma Shri riband
Padma Shri by Government of India (2021)

Narayan Debnath (25 November 1925 – 18 January 2022) was an Indian comics artist, writer and illustrator.[1] He created the Bengali comic strips Handa Bhonda (1962), Bantul the Great (1965) and Nonte Phonte (1969). He holds the record of longest running comics by an individual artiste for Handa Bhonda comics series which completed its continuous 53 years of running. He was the first and only comics artist in India who has received a D. Litt. degree.[2] Debnath was awarded Padma Shri, the fourth highest civilian award in India, in the year 2021.[3]

His other creations like Rabi Chobi was published to celebrate the birth centenary of Rabindranath Tagore in the May 1961 issue of the weekly magazine called Anandamela. The full length 50-page comics were first published in the book format by Sarvodaya Sahitya Prakashan, Varanasi. Rajar Raja (was published in 1962), it was illustrated by Narayan Debnath and written by Bimal Ghosh to celebrate the birth centenary of Swami Vivekananda.

Early life

Narayan Debnath in his study.
Narayan Debnath in his study.

Narayan Debnath was born and spent most of his life living in Shibpur, Howrah, India. His family hailed from Bikrampur in what is now Bangladesh but had migrated to Shibpur before his birth. In an interview published by Laalmati Publication in Narayan Debnath Comics Samagra, Debnath confessed that he was interested in visual arts from a very early age. The family business was retailing gold and he had ample scope to design patterns for jewellery. During the time of World War II, Debnath would study fine arts at the Indian Art College for five years. He did not continue to get his degree but instead discontinued in his final year.[4] For the next few years he freelanced for advertising agencies creating movie slides and logos. Debnath recounts in Narayan Debnath Comics Samagra, Vol. 2 that on the day of his wedding Gandhi was assassinated, which caused much inconvenience to the guests. The four volumes of Narayan Debnath Comics Samagra provide rich information about the life of the author.[5]

In 1950 he was introduced to Dev Sahitya Kutir, a major publishing house through a friend. People such as Pratul Chandra Banerjee, Shailo Chakraborty, Balaibandhu Roy, and Purnachandra Chakraborti were associated with the press at the time. From 1950 to 1961 he illustrated a number of children's books including adventure novels and Western classics in translation. His journey in comics started in 1962 with 'Handa-Bhonda' in Shuktara.[6]

He began as a freelancing comics-artist and soon went for comics on his own . However, when still a struggling freelancer, he was instructed by the publisher to adopt 'well accepted foreign comics' to make comics for their magazine(s) to get easy business.

Introduction to comics

The suggestion to work in comics in Bengali came from the editors at Dev Sahitya Kutir. Also the name 'Handa Bhonda' was their suggestion. Debnath had been familiar with foreign comics, but comics in Bengal, to his belief, had yet to take off. 'Shiyal Pandit', a comic strip created by Pratul Chandra Lahiri for the Jugantar newspaper was one of the earliest ones. Handa-Bhonda became an instant success and continues to be printed in Shuktara every month . Handa-Bhonda was initially penciled and inked by Debnath and had no coloured frames. Later it would be printed in the grey-scale.[7]

Narayan Debnath's first comic characters in color were for the comic strip and book 'Bantul The Great'. By Debnath's admission, he thought up the idea of the superhero while returning from College Street, Calcutta. The name came to him instantly and he thought up the figure of the protagonist rapidly. Batul the Great, written and illustrated with red and black ink made his first appearance in comic strips in the May–June (Bengali Baishak), 1965 issue of the monthly children's periodical called Shuktara, published by Dev Sahitya Kutir (henceforth DSK) publishing house. This character has similarities with Desperate Dan. Apart from Batul the Great, Debnath also illustrated Rabi Chobi (1961), written by Bimal Ghosh about the childhood days of Rabindranath Tagore. His Rajar Raja/Chobite Vivekananda (1962) recreates the life and times of Swami Vivekananda, while his Chitre Durgeshnandini (1962) re-imagines Bankimchandra Chattopadhyay's novel Durgeshnandini in graphic novel techniques. But it was his Handa Bhoda (1962), Nonte Phonte (1969) and Shootki ar Mootki (1964) that revolutionized the comic genre in Bengal through the familiar trope of the ‘terrible twins’ at boarding school. This trope could be traced back to the German artist Wilhelm Bosch's Max and Moritz (1865) – an illustrated story in verse, which later found its way into the English world as The Katzenjammer Kids (1897) of Rudolph Dirks and Harold H. Knerr. The trope is also found in Hergè's Quick and Flupke (1930).

Development of the genre

Narayan Debnath
Narayan Debnath

When the Bangladesh War of Liberation flared up, he was asked by the editors and publishers to add an aura of invincibility. He made Bantul a superhero able to take on tanks, aircraft, and missiles. Bullets began to bounce off of him . Bantul was still drawn by Debnath for Shuktara.

He gave birth to eponymous cartoon characters, Nonte and Phonte in 1969, and since then, stories revolve around them, have been regularly published in “Kishor Bharati”.[8]

He had started his freelancing artist career from 1950 in Shuktara magazine and did the record of doing highest number of illustrations in Bengal . He was a renowned illustrator during his time. His work for Tarzan stories (continuous for 42 years), Bengali translation of foreign novels etc. are among his great works of illustration.[9]

Personal life and death

Narayan Debnath was admitted to a hospital on 24 December[10] and died of heart related ailments on 18 January 2022 in Kolkata, at the age of 97.[11][12][13][14]

Selected creations (Chronological List)

Popularity

Releasing his own book at the Kolkata International Book Fair 2014
Releasing his own book at the Kolkata International Book Fair 2014

Collections of Debnath's comics have been published serially in Shuktara and Kishor Bharati and irregularly in Kishor Mon, Chotoder Asar, Pakhkhiraj etc. His comic books featuring 'Handa Bhonda', 'Batul the Great' and 'Nonte Phonte' have been published since the early 1980s. Since the late 1990s, the Nonte Phonte comics have been anthologised and published in softcover format. From 2003 onwards, the earlier comics have been re-inked and published in full-color, Recently, Debnath gave permission for animation film based on the characters from 'Batul The Great', 'Handa Bhonda' and 'Nonte Phonte', and these provide access to the original stories to a whole new generation of children.

Debnath's style incorporating characters speaking in the typical language of Bengali adda (the quintessential Bengali gossip sessions lasting hours) and hundreds of nonstandard, yet most commonly used expletives in daily life like "Uls" (describing reaction to a delicious food) or "Aoofs", "Yiofs", "Arghhh"(similar to ouch). Subtle punning is also aplenty in his comics but the main source of comedy is slapstick.

Though his comic characters have immense popularity, Narayan Debnath himself has rather lived reclusively, distancing himself from publicity and media.

Television

Most of Narayan Debnath's work has been adapted for Bengali television. Nonte Phonte and Bantul the Great are animated shows today, while a television series called Handa Bhonda was briefly on air.

Awards and recognition

  1. Padma Shri, awarded by Government of India on 26 January 2021[19] [a]
  2. Sahitya Akademi Award, 2013[21][22][23]
  3. Banga Bibhushan, awarded by Government of West Bengal in 2013[24][25]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Narayan Debnath, the cartoonist who never underestimated children". The Indian Express. 19 January 2022.
  2. ^ "Remembering Narayan Debnath, the illustrator who gave Bengal its first superhero 'Bantul'". The Indian Express. 18 January 2022. Retrieved 21 January 2022.
  3. ^ "'Handa Bhonda' & 'Bantul The Great' creator Narayan Debnath passes away at 97". The Economic Times. Retrieved 18 January 2022.
  4. ^ সংবাদদাতা, নিজস্ব. "Narayan Debnath Death: নারায়ণ দেবনাথ প্রয়াত, রেখে গেলেন হাঁদা, ভোঁদা, বাঁটুল, নন্টে, ফন্টে, কেল্টুদের". www.anandabazar.com (in Bengali). Retrieved 18 January 2022.
  5. ^ খান, আর্যভট্ট. "আজও বাঙালি হৃদয়কে মাতিয়ে রেখেছে ৫০ বছরের এই দুই কিশোর". www.anandabazar.com (in Bengali). Retrieved 13 December 2021.
  6. ^ Ghosh, Devarsi (29 September 2019). "Meet Narayan Debnath, the grandfather of Bengali comics for six decades". Scroll.in.
  7. ^ "নন্টেফন্টে-হাঁদাভোদা-বাঁটুলকে রেখে চলে গেলেন স্রষ্টা, প্রয়াত নারায়ণ দেবনাথ". News18 Bengali (in Bengali). 18 January 2022. Retrieved 18 January 2022.
  8. ^ খান, আর্যভট্ট. "আজও বাঙালি হৃদয়কে মাতিয়ে রেখেছে ৫০ বছরের এই দুই কিশোর". www.anandabazar.com (in Bengali). Anandabazar Patrika. Retrieved 13 December 2021.
  9. ^ Deb, Debasish (11 November 2007). "How Bantul was born". www.telegraphindia.com. The Telegraph.
  10. ^ "প্রয়াত 'হাঁদা ভোদা'র স্রষ্টা, ৯৭ বছরে চলে গেলেন নারায়ণ দেবনাথ". Hindustantimes Bangla (in Bengali). 18 January 2022. Retrieved 18 January 2022.
  11. ^ "Cartoonist Narayan Debnath, creator of 'Bantul The Great', dies at 97". The Hindu. PTI. 18 January 2022. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 18 January 2022.((cite news)): CS1 maint: others (link)
  12. ^ "Veteran Bengali cartoonist Narayan Debnath dies at 97". The Telegraph (India). Retrieved 18 January 2022.((cite news)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  13. ^ "Cartoonist Narayan Debnath passes away". Hindustan Times. 18 January 2022. Retrieved 18 January 2022.
  14. ^ Dasgupta, Priyanka. "Narayan Debnath Death: Narayan Debnath dies in Kolkata, a slice of childhood lost | Kolkata News - Times of India". The Times of India.
  15. ^ "শুধু কমিকস্‌ই নয়, পুরোদস্তুর গল্পও লিখেছেন নারায়ণ দেবনাথ! - Prohor".
  16. ^ "শুধু কমিকস্‌ই নয়, পুরোদস্তুর গল্পও লিখেছেন নারায়ণ দেবনাথ! - Prohor".
  17. ^ "শুধু কমিকস্‌ই নয়, পুরোদস্তুর গল্পও লিখেছেন নারায়ণ দেবনাথ! - Prohor".
  18. ^ "শুধু কমিকস্‌ই নয়, পুরোদস্তুর গল্পও লিখেছেন নারায়ণ দেবনাথ! - Prohor".
  19. ^ "Sculptor Sudarshan Sahoo, illustrator Narayan Debnath among recipients of Padma Awards". www.outlookindia.com/. Archived from the original on 31 January 2021. Retrieved 26 January 2021.
  20. ^ 26 January 2021. "West Bengal: 'Bantul the Great' creator wins Padma Shri". The Times of India. Retrieved 26 January 2021.
  21. ^ Shome-Ray, Aditi (4 September 2013). "'Handa-Bhonda' creator Narayan Debnath gets Sahitya Akademi Award: A look at the life and works of the comics writer". DNA India. Retrieved 26 January 2021.
  22. ^ "Bal Sahitya Puraskar – Sahitya Akademi".
  23. ^ https://sahitya-akademi.gov.in/awards/bal%20sahitya%20samman_suchi.jsp
  24. ^ "Bantul creator gets highest honour". www.telegraphindia.com. Retrieved 26 January 2021.
  25. ^ "Soumitra refuses Banga Bibhushan Award | Kolkata News - Times of India". The Times of India. TNN. 20 May 2013. Retrieved 18 January 2022.

Notes

  1. ^ He was 95 at that time and was needed to be explained several times before fully comprehending that he indeed was chosen to receive the award. His first reaction was, "Finally, have they chosen me?"[20]

Further reading