Tacrine
Clinical data
Trade namesCognex
AHFS/Drugs.comMonograph
MedlinePlusa693039
Pregnancy
category
  • AU: C
Routes of
administration
Oral, rectal
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
  • AU: S4 (Prescription only)
  • UK: POM (Prescription only)
  • US: ℞-only
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability2.4–36% (oral)
Protein binding55%
MetabolismHepatic (CYP1A2)
Elimination half-life2–4 hours
ExcretionRenal
Identifiers
  • 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydroacridin-9-amine
CAS Number
IUPHAR/BPS
DrugBank
ChemSpider
UNII
ChEBI
ChEMBL
PDB ligand
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
ECHA InfoCard100.005.721 Edit this at Wikidata
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC13H14N2
Molar mass198.269 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)
Melting point183 °C (361 °F)
Boiling point358 °C (676 °F)
  • n1c3c(c(c2c1cccc2)N)CCCC3
  • InChI=1S/C13H14N2/c14-13-9-5-1-3-7-11(9)15-12-8-4-2-6-10(12)13/h1,3,5,7H,2,4,6,8H2,(H2,14,15) checkY
  • Key:YLJREFDVOIBQDA-UHFFFAOYSA-N checkY
  (verify)

Tacrine is a centrally acting acetylcholinesterase inhibitor and indirect cholinergic agonist (parasympathomimetic). It was the first centrally acting cholinesterase inhibitor approved for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, and was marketed under the trade name Cognex. Tacrine was first synthesised by Adrien Albert at the University of Sydney in 1949. It also acts as a histamine N-methyltransferase inhibitor.[1]

Clinical use

Tacrine was the prototypical cholinesterase inhibitor for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. William K. Summers received a patent for this use in 1989.[2][3][4] Studies found that it may have a small beneficial effect on cognition and other clinical measures, though study data was limited and the clinical relevance of these findings was unclear.[5][6]

Tacrine has been discontinued in the US[7] in 2013, due to concerns over safety.[8]

Tacrine was also described as an analeptic agent used to promote mental alertness.[9]

Adverse Effects

Very common (>10% incidence) adverse effects include[7]
Common (1-10% incidence) adverse effects include[7][10]
Uncommon/rare (<1% incidence) adverse effects include[10]
Unknown incidence adverse effects include[10]

Overdose

As stated above, overdosage of tacrine may give rise to severe side effects such as nausea, vomiting, salivation, sweating, bradycardia, hypotension, collapse, and convulsions. Atropine is a popular treatment for overdose.[10]

Pharmacokinetics

Major form of metabolism is in the liver via hydroxylation of benzylic carbon by CYP1A2. This forms the major metabolite 1-hydroxy-tacrine (velnacrine) which is still active.[10]

References

  1. ^ Taraschenko, OD; Barnes, WG; Herrick-Davis, K; Yokoyama, Y; Boyd, DL; Hough, LB (April 2005). "Actions of tacrine and galanthamine on histamine-N-methyltransferase". Methods and Findings in Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology. 27 (3): 161–165. doi:10.1358/mf.2005.27.3.890872. PMID 15834447.
  2. ^ US 4816456, "Administration of monoamine acridines in cholinergic neuronal deficit states" 
  3. ^ Waldholz M. A Psychiatrist’s work leads to a US study of Alzheimer’s drug: but Dr. Summers shuns test, seeks to widen his own; is Memory really aided; Fee-for research Furor. Wall Street Journal. Tuesday August 4, 1987 p A-1
  4. ^ Peacock D. New Mexico Doctor invents drugs, supplements for Alzheimer’s disease, Multiple Sclerosis. NM Bus Weekly. 25 MAR 2005
  5. ^ Qizilbash N, Whitehead A, Higgins J, et al. (1998). "Cholinesterase inhibition for Alzheimer disease: a meta-analysis of the tacrine trials". Journal of the American Medical Association. 280 (20): 1777–82. doi:10.1001/jama.280.20.1777. PMID 9842955.
  6. ^ Rang HP, Dale MM, Ritter JM, Moore PK (2003). Pharmacology (5th ed.). Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone. ISBN 978-0-443-07145-4..
  7. ^ a b c "tacrine (Discontinued) - Cognex". Medscape Reference. WebMD. Retrieved 8 October 2013.[dead link]
  8. ^ Tacrine at LiverTox[dead link]
  9. ^ Elks, J.; Ganellin, C. R. (1990). Dictionary of Drugs. doi:10.1007/978-1-4757-2085-3. ISBN 978-1-4757-2087-7.
  10. ^ a b c d e Truven Health Analytics, Inc. DRUGDEX® System (Internet) [cited 2013 Oct 8]. Greenwood Village, CO: Thomsen Healthcare; 2013.