Wu Bangguo
8th Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress
In office
15 March 2003 – 14 March 2013
DeputyWang Zhaoguo
LeaderHu Jintao
Preceded byLi Peng
Succeeded byZhang Dejiang
Vice Premier of the People's Republic of China
In office
March 1995 – March 2003
PremierLi Peng
Zhu Rongji
Communist Party Secretary of Shanghai
In office
DeputyHuang Ju (Mayor)
Preceded byZhu Rongji
Succeeded byHuang Ju
Personal details
Born (1941-07-12) 12 July 1941 (age 82)[citation needed]
Guizhou, China
Political partyChinese Communist Party
SpouseZhang Ruizhen
Children1 son, 1 daughter
Alma materTsinghua University
OccupationElectronics engineer
Wu Bangguo
Simplified Chinese吴邦国
Traditional Chinese吳邦國

Wu Bangguo (born 12[citation needed] July 1941) is a Chinese retired politician. Wu served as the second-ranking member of the Politburo Standing Committee of the Chinese Communist Party from 2002 to 2012, and as Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress from 2003 to 2013.

Wu is an electrical engineer by profession, and rose to political prominence during his work in Shanghai. During the early 1980s, he was in charge of science and technology related work in Shanghai, where he worked with Jiang Zemin, then mayor and later Communist Party secretary of the city, leading Wu to be affiliated with Jiang's political faction. He became Shanghai's party secretary in 1991, succeeding Zhu Rongji, leading him to assume a seat in the CCP Politburo in 1992.

He became the country's third-ranking Vice Premier of the State Council in 1995, with a portfolio including state-owned enterprises and the construction of the Three Gorges Dam. He jointed the Politburo Standing Committee in 2002, and was appointed as the Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress in 2003. Serving as one of the highest-ranking officials under Party general secretary Hu Jintao, Wu is generally regarded to have taken more conservative positions towards reforms during his tenure. He stepped down from the Politburo Standing Committee in 2012, and was succeeded by Zhang Dejiang as Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress in 2013.

Early life

Wu was born in Pingba,[citation needed] Guizhou,[1] with ancestral roots in Feidong, Anhui. He entered Tsinghua University in 1960, majoring in electron tube engineering at the Department of Radio Electronics, where he graduated in 1967. He joined the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) in 1964.[2] After graduation, he was employed as a worker and technician at Shanghai's No. 3 Electronic Tube Factory, and then deputy chief and chief of the technical section from 1976 to 1978. He would eventually go on to lead the factory as its party secretary. In 1978 he was assigned to become the deputy manager of Shanghai Electronic Elements Company, and between 1979 and 1981 the deputy manager of Shanghai Electron Tube Company. Between 1981 and 1983 he worked as the deputy secretary of Shanghai Meters, Instruments and Telecommunications Bureau.

Political career

Wu's work in electronics companies earned him a tenure in the city's upper echelons of power. He became part of the Standing Committee of the Shanghai party committee in 1983, effectively becoming part of Shanghai's political inner circle, and was put in charge of work related to science and technology.[2] During this time, he worked with Jiang Zemin, who was mayor and later the CCP secretary of the city.[2] Between 1985 and 1991, Wu was elevated to CCP deputy secretary of Shanghai, and subsequently as CCP secretary of Shanghai, succeeding Jiang.

As Shanghai's political and economic stature grew due to economic reforms, Wu gained a seat on the Politburo of the Chinese Communist Party, China's ruling council, in 1992. He was subsequently appointed as the third-ranking vice premier in 1995 under premier Li Peng. During this period, he served in a portfolio dealing with industry and reforming state-owned enterprises, and also oversaw the Three Gorges Dam.[2] He continued as vice premier under Zhu Rongji, and served as the role until 2003.

Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress

At the 16th Party Congress in November 2002, Wu entered the highest power elite in the country, ranking second in the Politburo Standing Committee of the Chinese Communist Party, only under then general secretary Hu Jintao. In 2003, at the first session of the 10th National People's Congress, he was appointed as the chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress. At the first session of the 11th National People's Congress, he was re-elected as Chairman of the NPC Standing Committee on 15 March 2008.[3]

During his tenure, Wu was generally regarded as a member of the Shanghai clique and an associate of Jiang Zemin,[4] generally taking a conservative approach towards reform.[2][4] He was also described as having a low-key profile during his time in office.[4]

During a speech about the Hong Kong Basic Law in the territory in June 2007, Wu warned that Hong Kong will only have as much authority as granted from Beijing, and that the Special Administrative Region's government is an executive-led model and should not blindly follow Western systems.[5] He also stated that the Central Government supported Hong Kong's development of democracy, so long as it is within the boundaries of the Hong Kong Basic Law. Although the remarks were left open to interpretation, they generated significant controversy in Hong Kong, with pro-democracy politicians calling it a challenge on the autonomy of the territory.[5]

In his capacity as NPCSC chair, Wu delivers an annual address each year at the National People's Congress sessions in March. These speeches have always noted that China will not adopt multiparty democracy, separation of powers, or a federal system.[6] In 2011, Wu said that "[w]e have made a solemn declaration that we will not employ a system of multiple parties holding office in rotation" and also ruled out separation of powers and federalism.[6]

On 16 July 2012, Wu attended the launch ceremony of Shenzhou 9 crewed spacecraft.[7]

Wu retired from the CCP Politburo Standing Committee at the 18th Party Congress in November 2012, and was succeeded as NPCSC chairman by Zhang Dejiang in March 2013.[4]


Similar to other retired top-ranking officials in China, Wu has largely stopped making public appearances except to attend important events such as the National Day celebration. In March 2015, Wu was pictured visiting a rapeseed farm in Wuyuan, Jiangxi province.[4]

See also


  1. ^ "Wu Bangguo: I have many stories in Guizhou" (in Chinese). China Economic Net. 6 March 2008.
  2. ^ a b c d e "Wu Bangguo: Vice-Premier". BBC News. Retrieved 18 June 2023.
  3. ^ "Wu Bangguo reelected chairman of NPC Standing Committee". Xinhua News Agency. 15 March 2008. Archived from the original on 20 March 2008. Retrieved 18 June 2023.
  4. ^ a b c d e "Retired leader Wu Bangguo makes rare public appearance". South China Morning Post. 25 March 2015. Retrieved 18 June 2023.
  5. ^ a b "Wu warning on limited power stuns Hong Kong". The Standard HK. 7 June 2007. Retrieved 31 March 2012.
  6. ^ a b Bristow, Michael (10 March 2011). "Chinese leader rules out democracy". BBC News. Retrieved 31 March 2012.
  7. ^ "God nine astronauts launch soon enter the spacecraft cabin" (in Chinese). China News net. 2012.
Political offices Preceded byLi Peng Chairman of the Standing Committee ofthe National People's Congress 2003–2013 Succeeded byZhang Dejiang Party political offices Preceded byZhu Rongji Communist Party Secretary of Shanghai 1991–1994 Succeeded byHuang Ju Order of precedence Preceded byHu JintaoGeneral Secretary and President 2nd Rank of the Chinese Communist Party16, 17th Politburo Standing Committee Succeeded byWen JiabaoPremier