Apple Arcade
TypeVideo game subscription service
Launch dateSeptember 19, 2019; 4 years ago (2019-09-19)
Platform(s)iPhone, iPad, iPod Touch, Mac, Apple TV, Apple Vision Pro
Operating system(s)iOS 13 or later, iPadOS 13 or later, macOS Catalina or later, tvOS 13 or later, VisionOS
Pricing modelUS$6.99 per month or US$49.99 annually
WebsiteApple Arcade

Apple Arcade is a video game subscription service offered by Apple. It is available through a dedicated tab of the App Store on devices running iOS 13, VisionOS, tvOS 13, iPadOS 13, and macOS Catalina or later.[1][2] The service launched on September 19, 2019.[3]

It offers experiences that excluding practices such as in-app purchases and advertisements. Some of the games are produced by Apple.


All games available on the service are free of advertisements, in-app purchases, data tracking processes, and always-on DRM, meaning games can be played offline and without interruptions.[2] Subscribers can share access with up to five others through family sharing and the service can also be purchased through the Apple One bundle. Both standalone subscriptions and the Apple One bundle provide a free one-month trial and can be cancelled at any time.

Games on the service feature integration with Game Center and iCloud, allowing games to implement social features such as achievements and leaderboards, and to carry data between devices when linked to the same iCloud account. In addition to Apple's own products, many games are compatible with third-party controllers such as the DualShock 4, DualSense and Xbox Wireless Controller,[1] with support for Joy-Con and the Nintendo Switch Pro Controller added with the release of iOS 16.[4] By extension, controllers modeled after classic Nintendo and Sega gamepads for use with Nintendo Switch Online are also supported with iOS 16.[5]


Apple Arcade was announced in March 2019 at an Apple Event showcasing their various upcoming services. It launched in September 2019 with 71 games, with Apple stating that the number would grow to over 100 by 2020.[6] The apps support a minimum of 14 languages and can be accessed in over 150 countries.[6] Launch titles included Sneaky Sasquatch, What the Golf, Sayonara Wild Hearts, Rayman Mini, Exit the Gungeon, and Lego Brawls.[7]

Noted publishers and developers that have partnered with Apple to create Arcade games include Capcom, Sega, Bandai Namco Entertainment, Konami, and Annapurna Interactive.[3] Developers cannot release their Apple Arcade games on other mobile platforms due to exclusivity agreements, but are allowed to offer their games on console or PC. Apple does not share game performance metrics with developers, only revealing whether the game has been accepted onto the Apple Arcade platform.[8]

There are several categories within the platform that group together similar games based on their premise, genre, level of difficulty and more. Some categories include "adventure", "puzzle", and "education".[2] There is also a category called "daily play suggestions", which offers a curated selection of games based on the consumer's download and gameplay history.[2]

In June 2020, Bloomberg reported that Apple ended its contract with some future Arcade titles and shifted its strategy to seek games with stronger engagement to retain subscribers. It was further noted that Apple invited former Arcade partners to return and develop titles that would fit Apple's new strategy.[9]

On April 2, 2021,[10][11] Apple surprise-released a number of new games and announced that they would be bringing "Timeless Classics" and "App Store Greats" to the service. These are versions of preexisting popular games already available on the App Store which have had their in-app purchases and advertisements removed, denoted by a "+" at the end of the application name. Notable games added to the service include Fruit Ninja Classic+, Monument Valley+, and Threes!+.[12] Unlike titles developed exclusively for Apple Arcade, these games are only available for iOS and iPadOS devices.

On May 31, 2022, creator of the classic shoot 'em up Space Harrier Yu Suzuki announced an original arcade style rail shooting game Air Twister exclusively for Apple Arcade.[13] In September 2022, Horizon Chase 2, the sequel of the award-winning retro racing game Horizon Chase, was released exclusively on the platform.[14]


According to CNET, "Every game platform rises or falls on whether it has games that people actually want to play. The breadth of Apple Arcade's catalog, bolstered by consistent new releases and updates, is impressive. There are a ton of different types of games -- mystery games, family games, puzzle games, nostalgic games and more."[15]

In TechRadar, David Lumb wrote, "The hope is that Arcade games distinguish themselves, and the service as a whole, thanks to Apple assistance written into the platform. When developers sign their games up to be on Arcade, the company pledges an undefined level of financial support to give creators breathing room to make the games they want to make."[16]

Referencing Lifewire, artist and programmer Tyrone Evans Clark told Lifewire, "I feel personally more attracted to the Apple Arcade because they have more of a variety pack of games to choose from," "Nintendo's Switch Game Store has a limited number of games, and they are mostly predominantly Nintendo brands such as anything relating to the characters Mario, Zelda, Pokémon, etc. Apple Arcade, on the other hand, has a little bit of everything for everyone."[17]

Jordan Minor of PC Magazine wrote, "That's why, as someone who believes in mobile gaming's potential, Apple Arcade's launch was so exciting. For $5 per month, Apple gives you access to a fast-growing library of nearly 200 premium games to enjoy on iPhone, iPad, Mac, and Apple TV with a real controller connected. None of these games compromise their design with garbage F2P mechanics, and that's so refreshing to see in this space."[18]


In 2018, premium games on the App Store generated US$476 million while free-to-play games produced US$21.3 billion in revenue.[8] Also, the number of premium apps available on the App Store fell from 21.6% of total App Store games in 2014 to 9.3% in 2018.[8] Some analysts argue that this is a contributing factor to the development and founding of Apple Arcade, with the economic perspective that consumers will be more incentivized to pay a subscription fee to access a range of premium apps rather than purchasing individual premium games.[19] Others have argued that Apple Arcade is another source of revenue for Apple and enables them to compete with other video-game subscription services like Google Play Pass and Xbox Game Pass.[3]

Apple spent $500 million to launch Apple Arcade. Apple pays app developers an upfront fee to create video-games for the platform and corresponds with some developers in the development process.[8]

List of games

Title Genre(s) Developer(s) Publisher(s) Date first released on Apple Arcade macOS iOS tvOS
Sonic Racing Racing SEGA September 19, 2019
NBA 2K22 Arcade Edition Sports (Basketball) 2K Games September 14, 2021
NBA 2K23 Arcade Edition Sports (Basketball) September 8, 2022
NBA 2K24 Arcade Edition Sports (Basketball) September 29, 2023
The Oregon Trail Survival Gameloft April 2, 2021
Pac-Man Party Royale Pellet collecting Bandai Namco October 18, 2019
Hello Kitty Island Adventure Life simulator, 3D platform Sunblink June 26, 2023
Doctor Who: Hidden Mysteries Hidden object Tilting Point March 24, 2023
Nickelodeon Extreme Tennis Sports (Tennis) Viacom International December 14, 2021
Samba de Amigo: Party-Go-Go Rhythm SEGA
Football Manager 2023 Touch Sports (Association football, manager)
My Little Pony: Mane Merge Tile merge, minigames Gameloft November 18, 2022
Lego Star Wars: Castaways
Ballistic Baseball Sports (Baseball) 2019
Disney Getaway Blast Puzzle 2023
SongPop Party Rhythm
Asphalt 8: Airborne Racing
Angry Birds Reloaded Demolition Rovio
Sneaky Sasquatch Adventure RAC7 Games RAC7 Games September 19, 2019
Spek. Puzzle RAC7 Games September 19, 2019
Splitter Critters+ Puzzle RAC7 Games December 10, 2021
Mini Metro Town management Dinosaur Polo Club April 2, 2021
Mini Motorways Town management
Kingdom Rush Frontiers TD Tower defence Ironhide
Kingdom Rush Vengeance TD Tower defence
Legends of Kingdom Rush
Iron Marines
Decoherence Strategy Efecto Estudias
Red Reign Strategy Ninja Kiwi September 15, 2019
Bloons TD 6 Tower defence
Outlanders Town management Pomelo Games Outbox
Dandara: Trials of Fear Raw Fury
The Mosaic November 1, 2019
Kingdom Two Crowns
Summon Quest RPG (real-time) The Label Team17 March 27, 2023
What the Golf? Sports (Golf) The Label
Farmside Life simulator (Farming) The Label December 9, 2022
The_Otherside RPG (turn-based) The Label
Spaceland Strategy (turn-based) Tortuga Team
Cluedo: Classic Edition Detective Marmalade Game Studio
Game Dev Story Job simulator Kairosoft
Lego Star Wars Battles Real-time strategy TT Games
The College Atlas Exploration John William Evelyn Robot House Games September 15, 2020
Dear Reader Local No. 12 September 13, 2019
Samorost 3 Amanita Design
Pilgrims Amanita Design October 5, 2019
Creaks Amanita Design July 10, 2020
Squiggle Drop Puzzle Noodlecake Studios November 1, 2022
Bridge Constructor Puzzle (Physics) ClockStone Software Headup GmbH
Prune Meditative Joel McDonald Joel McDonald 2022
Castle Crumble Demolition Orbital Knight December 14, 2022
Cut the Rope Remastered Puzzle (Physics) Paladin Studios ZeptoLab April 2, 2021
Moonshot - A Journey Home Puzzle Noodlecake Studios April 4, 2022
Lifelike: Chapter One Meditative Kunami Brother October 25, 2019
Blek Puzzle
Chameleon Run Noodlecake Studios
Nuts - A Surveillance Mystery December 19, 2020
Slash Quest! RPG (real-time, top-down) September 1, 2020
Super Stickman Golf 3 Sports (Golf) June 24, 2021
Cricket Through the Ages Sports, Minigames Devolver Digital September 12, 2019
My Bowling 3D Sports (Bowling) iWare Designs June 21, 2022
Pro Snooker & Pool 2023 Sports (Snooker)
Charrua Soccer Sports (Association football) Batovi Games Studio
Gris Devolver Digital
Reigns: Beyond Card game Nerial October 13, 2020
Game of Thrones: Tale of Crows August 7, 2020
Bleak Sword
Pro Darts 2023 Sports (Darts) iWare Designs
Retro Bowl Sports (American football) New Star R&D June 1, 2023
Retro Goal Sports (Association football) June 4, 2023
Grand Mountain Adventure Sports (Skiing, Snowboarding) Toppluva Toppluva March 27, 2023
Easy Come Easy Golf (prev. Clap Hanz Golf) Sports (Golf) Clap Hanz April 2, 2021
Sociable Soccer '21 Sports (Association football) Rogue Games
Mind Symphony Rhythm
Super Impossible Road 3D platform (Rolling ball) September 19, 2019
Hexaflip: The Action Puzzler Puzzle
SP!NG SMG Studio 2020
Osmos Hemisphere
Hill Climb Racing Racing (2D sideways) Fingersoft May 4, 2023 Grand eater Kooapps May 4, 2023
Getting Over It 2D platform Bennett Foddy Bennett Foddy May 4, 2023
Fledgling Heroes 2D platform Subtle Boom September 18, 2019
Things That Go Bump Tinybop October 18, 2019
Crayola Create and Play Art drawing Red Games
Crossy Road Frogger-like Hipster Whale October 28, 2021
Crossy Road Castle 2D platform February 27, 2020
Solitaire Card game (Solitaire) Red Games
Super Mega Mini Party Minigames November 1, 2019
Bold Moves Match-3, Puzzle May 26, 2023
finity. Seabaa August 21, 2023
Fruit Ninja Classic Swiping Halfbrick Studios April 2, 2021
Jetpack Joyride 2D platform
Jetpack Joyride 2 2D platform July 28, 2022
MasterChef: Learn to Cook! Job simulator (Cooking) Tilting Point August 27, 2021
Star Trek: Legends RPG (turn-based) April 2, 2021
Chess Universe Chess May 4, 2023
SpongeBob: Patty Pursuit 2D platform Nickelodeon Viacom International May 28, 2020
Leo's Fortune 2D platform 1337 & Senri April 1, 2021
Badland 2D platform Frogmind HypeHype April 2, 2021
Badland Party 2D platform March 22, 2022
Oddmar 2D platform Mobge October 30, 2021
Star Fetched 2D platform Crescent Moon Games November 1, 2019
Gibbon: Beyond the Trees 2D platform Broken Rules January 8, 2022
Jumper Jon 2D platform Esteban Duran Esteban Duran November 1, 2019
Old Man's Journey Broken Rules
Shadow Blade 2D platform Crescent Moon Games
Crashlands 2D platform Sumo Digital June 12, 2020
Little Orpheus
Wonderbox: The Adventure Maker RPG (real-time), level maker Aquiris Game Studio September 22, 2020
Don't Starve: Pocket Edition Survival Klei April 2, 2021
Inmost Chucklefish Limited October 11, 2019
Stela SkyBox Labs October 11, 2019
Limbo Playdead 2023
Oceanhorn 2 RPG (real-time) Cornfox & Brothers July 25, 2019
Beyond a Steel Sky Revolution Software June 25, 2020
Mutazione Die Gute Frabik September 13, 2019
Lifeline Text adventure 3 Minute Games
Spyder Sumo Digital March 20, 2020
Horizon Chase 2 Racing Aquiris Game Studio August 29, 2022
Riptide GP: Renegade Racing Vector Unit
Warped Kart Racers Racing Electric Square April 29, 2022
Detonation Racing Racing June 21, 2021
Speed Demons Racing (2D top-down) Radiangames September 12, 2019
Warp Drive Racing Supergonk October 27, 2020
Gear.Club Stradale Racing Eden Games March 1, 2022
What the Car? 3D platform, racing Triband May 4, 2023
ShockRods Demolition derby Stainless Games October 11, 2019
Jet Dragon Racing (Flying) Grezzo May 26, 2023
Pocket Card Jockey: Ride On! Card game (Solitaire) Game Freak December 20, 2022
Chess - Play & Learn Chess April 2, 2021
Subway Surfers Tag Sybo Games June 30, 2022
Farming Simulator 20 Farming GIANTS Software 2019
Amazing Bomberman Bomberman Konami August 3, 2022
Monster Hunter Stories RPG (real-time) Capcom
Monument Valley Puzzle Ustwo Games
Monument Valley 2 Puzzle
Alba: A Wildlife Adventure 3D platform November 10, 2020
Assemble with Care
The Pathless Giant Squid Annapurna Interactive October 13, 2020
Beyond Blue Scuba diving E-Line Media April 17, 2020
Sayonara Wild Hearts Simogo Annapurna Interactive September 13, 2019
Rayman Mini Runner (Sideways), 2D platform Ubisoft
Populus Run Fiftytwo December 19, 2020
Alto's Adventure: Remastered Sports (Snowboarding, sideways) Snowman February 28, 2022
Alto's Odyssey: Remastered Sports (Snowboarding, sideways) June 7, 2021
Baldo RPG Naps Team
Sonic Dash Runner (3D) SEGA SEGA April 5, 2022
Super Leap Day 2D platform Nitrome July 6, 2021
JellyCar Worlds 2D platform, racing (2D sideways) Walaber Entertainment November 16, 2022
Tiny Wings Andreas Illiger Andreas Illiger September 13, 2021
Temple Run Runner (3D) Imangi Studios May 4, 2023
Air Twister On-rails shooter Ys Net May 24, 2022
Ridiculous Fishing EX Vlambeer July 13, 2023
Time Locker Shoot 'em up (Top-down towards top) Sotaro Otsuka Sotaro Otsuke May 4, 2023
UFO on Tape: First Contact Revolutionary Concepts November 8, 2019
Skate City Sports (Skateboarding, 2D sideways) Snowman September 14, 2019
Where Cards Fall September 15, 2019
DoDonPachi Resurrection HD Shoot 'em up (Top-down towards top) Cave Co.
Frogger in Toy Town Konami September 4, 2019
Survival Z Ember Entertainment January 21, 2021
Galaga Wars Shoot 'em up (Top-down towards top) Bandai Namco October 25, 2021
PPKP Shimada Toshihiro Shimada Toshihiro May 4, 2023
Yaga The Roleplaying Folktale RPG Versus Evil October 25, 2019
Zombie Rollerz: Pinball Heroes Pinball Firefly Games December 3, 2020
Hitchhiker - A Mystery Game Detective Mad About Pandas Versus Evil March 12, 2021
The Bradwell Conspiracy Bossa Studios October 5, 2019
Layton's Mystery Journey: Katrielle and the Millionaires' Conspiracy Detective Level-5
Discolored Shifty Eye Games November 8, 2019
Takeshi and Hiroshi Oink Games Oink Games November 8, 2019
Hogwash Pet care Bossa Studios October 25, 2019
Stranded Sails Survival Shifty Eye Games September 17, 2019
Operator 41 Stealth September 15, 2019
Wylde Flowers Life simulator (Farming) Studio Drydock January 25, 2022
Guildlings RPG (turn-based) Sirvo Studios November 8, 2019
Pocket Build Town management MoonBear March 1, 2022
Monomals 2D platform, rhythm Picomy November 1, 2019
Exit the Gungeon 2D platform Devolver Dungeon September 15, 2019
Redout: Space Assault 34BigThings October 5, 2019
Shovel Knight Dig 2D platform Yacht Club Games August 30, 2022
Fallen Knight 2D platform FairPlay Studios October 25, 2019
Dead Cells Roguelike Playdigious November 17, 2022
Castlevania: Grimoire of Souls 2D platform Konami September 10, 2021
Frogger and the Rumbling Ruins May 23, 2022
Marble It Up: Mayhem 3D platform (Rolling ball) The Marble Collective Marble It Up November 8, 2019
Human: Fall Flat 505 Games
Taiko no Tatsujin Pop Tap Beat Rhythm Bandai Namco April 2, 2021
Very Little Nightmares
Thumper: Pocket Edition Drool LLC September 7, 2021
TMNT Splintered Fate Viacom International May 4, 2023
SpongeBob SolitairePants Card game (Solitaire) October 29, 2022
Spider Solitaire: Card Game Card game (Solitaire) MobilityWare MobilityWare September 19, 2022
Solitaire by MobilityWare Card game (Solitaire) MobilityWare April 2, 2021
Flipflop Solitaire Card game (Solitaire) Zach Gage STFJ LLC
Slay the Spire Card game, roguelike MegaCrit Humble Bundle June 26, 2023
Card of Darkness Card game, roguelike Zach Gage Zach Gage September 16, 2019
Good Sudoku Puzzle (Sudoku) Zach Gage STFJ LLC
SpellTower Puzzle Zach Gage Zach Gage
Really Bad Chess Chess Zach Gage STFJ LLC
Solitaire Stories Card game (Solitaire) Red Games
Agent Intercept Racing, Runner (3D) PinPok Prodidy Design Limited, Sidhe Interactive September 15, 2019
Nightmare Farm Hit-Point Co. October 5, 2019
Cityscapes: Sim Builder Town management Magic Fuel Games Playstack May 4, 2023
Construction Simulator 2 Job simulator (Construction site) Rarebyte Astragon Entertainment March 30, 2022
My Talking Tom Pet care Outfit7 ARM
My Talking Angela 2 Pet care
Stardew Valley Life simulator (Farming) ConcernedApe
Neko Atsume: Kitty Collector Pet care Hit-Point Co.
Farm It!! Life simulator (Farming) Tummy Games March 26, 2021
Oceanhorn: Chronos Dungeon RPG (real-time, top-down) Cornfox & Brothers December 8, 2020
The Survivalists Survival Team17 September 8, 2020
Goat Simulator Physics Coffee Stain Studios Coffee Stain Publishing April 14, 2022
South of the Circle State of Play Games October 28, 2020
The Gardens Between The Voxel Agents
Kingdoms: Merge & Build Tile merge Cherrypick Games July 17, 2023
Love You to Bits Alike Studio
All of You Puzzle October 6, 2020
Illustrated BorderLeap December 20, 2022
Grindstone Puzzle Capybara Games September 19, 2019
Patterned Puzzle BorderLeap
INKS. Pinball State of Play Games May 11, 2021
Kimono Cats Life simulator HumanAture Studios February 13, 2023
Hidden Folks Character searching Adriaan de Jongh Adriaan de Jongh
Cozy Grove Life simulator Spry Fox February 11, 2021
Hot Lava 3D platform (First-person) Klei July 31, 2019
Octodad: Dadliest Catch Physics Young Horses
Gin Rummy Classic Card game MobilityWare
Lego Duplo World StoryToys Entertainment Limited
Threes! Puzzle Sirvo LLC
Cooking Mama: Cuisine! Job simulator (Cooking) Office Create Corp. May 23, 2022
My Town Home - Family Games My Town Games May 4, 2023
Hearts: Card Game Card game MobilityWare
Spades: Card Game Card game
Checkers Royal Board game Gamma Play Limited April 2, 2021
Backgammon Board game Adikus April 2, 2021
Tiny Crossword Puzzle PlaySimple Games April 2, 2021
Garden Tails: Match and Grow Match-3 Playdots
Zookeeper World Match-3 Kiteretsu Inc.
Jigsaw Puzzle by MobilityWare Puzzle MobilityWare April 20, 2022
Millionaire Trivia: TV Game Quiz Uken Inc. June 1, 2023
Hanx101 Trivia Quiz BlueLine Studios August 30, 2022
stitch. Puzzle Lykkegaard Europe Limited September 26, 2022
Frenzic: Overtime Puzzle The Iconfactory May 17, 2021
tint. Puzzle, art drawing Lykkegaard Europe Limited September 26, 2022
lumen. Puzzle December 15, 2020
The Room Two Fireproof Studios
Lego Builder's Journey LEGO LEGO December 20, 2019
Lego Brawls 2D platform, fighter LEGO
Disney Coloring World Art drawing StoryToys Entertainment Limited
Zen Pinball Party Pinball Zen Studios August 25, 2021
Disney Dreamlight Valley Arcade Edition Life simulation, adventure Gameloft Montreal Gameloft December 5, 2023
Sonic Dream Team 3d platform Hardlight SEGA December 5, 2023
Tamagotchi Adventure Kingdom Adventure Bandai Namco January 10, 2024

See also


  1. ^ a b Biggs, Tim (September 20, 2019). "Apple Arcade: how to jump in and start playing". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved November 6, 2020.
  2. ^ a b c d Needleman, Sarah E. (September 10, 2019). "Apple Wants Gamers to Hit 'Subscribe' With Apple Arcade". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved November 6, 2020.
  3. ^ a b c Conway, Steven (September 17, 2019). "Apple and Google to offer frictionless gaming, if your NBN plan can handle it". Swinburne University of Technology. Retrieved November 6, 2020.
  4. ^ Warren, Tom (June 7, 2022). "iOS 16 supports Nintendo's Switch Pro and Joy-Con controllers". The Verge. Retrieved October 12, 2022.
  5. ^ Voorhees, John (October 26, 2022). "Apple Adds Nintendo Online Classic Controller Support to the iPhone, iPad, Mac, and Apple TV". MacStories. Retrieved October 26, 2022.
  6. ^ a b Knowlton, Thomas (2020). "Apple arcade gives educators choices: The subscription service allows many game options for a relatively low price". School Library Journal. 60 (3): 30.
  7. ^ Khan, Imran (September 19, 2019). "A Comprehensive List Of Apple Arcade Launch Games". IGN. Retrieved September 18, 2021.
  8. ^ a b c d Guadiana, Gerardo (2020). A Netflix experience : reimagining the direct-to-consumer platform (Thesis thesis). Massachusetts Institute of Technology. hdl:1721.1/126900.
  9. ^ Gurman, Mark; Schreier, Jason (June 30, 2020). "Apple Cancels Some Arcade Games in Strategy Shift To Keep Subscribers". Bloomberg News. Archived from the original on June 30, 2020. Retrieved July 12, 2021.
  10. ^ "Apple Arcade launches its biggest expansion yet, growing its award-winning catalog to more than 180 games" (Press release). Cupertino, California: Apple Newsroom. April 2, 2021. Retrieved July 11, 2022.
  11. ^ Carter, Vickers. "Apple Arcade Pro Release Date announced". Mobilekoto (Tech Blog). Retrieved August 11, 2022.
  12. ^ Hector, Hamish; Lumb, David (July 1, 2021). "Huge Apple Arcade update: classic games and all-new must-plays join the service". TechRadar. Retrieved July 11, 2022.
  13. ^ Hilliard, Kyle (May 31, 2022). "Shenmue Creator Announces Air Twister For Apple Arcade". GameSpot. Retrieved June 14, 2022.
  14. ^ Romano, Sal (August 30, 2022). "Horizon Chase 2 announced for consoles, PC, and Apple Arcade". Gematsu. Retrieved September 26, 2022.
  15. ^ "Apple Arcade: Still the Best Mobile Game Subscription". CNET. Retrieved June 17, 2023.
  16. ^ Lumb, David (December 16, 2019). "Apple Arcade review". TechRadar. Retrieved June 17, 2023.
  17. ^ Sorrel, Charlie (April 6, 2021). "What Is Apple Arcade Trying To Be?". Lifewire. Retrieved June 17, 2023.
  18. ^ "The 29 Best Apple Arcade Games for 2023". PCMAG. Retrieved June 17, 2023.
  19. ^ Carroni, Elias; Madio, Leonardo; Shekhar, Shiva (2018). "Superstars in Two-Sided Markets: Exclusives or Not?" (PDF). SSRN Electronic Journal. doi:10.2139/ssrn.3243777. ISSN 1556-5068. S2CID 169180632.