Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, is a state-sanctioned practice of killing a person as a punishment for a crime. Historically, capital punishment has been used in almost every part of the world. Currently, the large majority of countries have either abolished or discontinued the practice.
The 193 member states of the United Nations, and the two observer states, are usually divided in four categories based on their use of capital punishment:
Since 1990, ten countries (China, Congo, Iran, Nigeria, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, South Sudan, Sudan, USA and Yemen) have executed offenders who were under the age of 18 or 21 at the time the crime was committed, contravening the Convention on the Rights of the Child.
In 2013, public executions were carried out by the governments of Iran, North Korea, Saudi Arabia, and Somalia.
In some countries,[quantify] the practice of extrajudicial execution outside their own formal legal frameworks occurs sporadically or systematically. Information on this is not covered in this article.
In Africa, many countries still have capital punishment. However, Algeria, Cameroon, Eritrea, Eswatini, Ghana, Kenya, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Niger, Sierra Leone, Tanzania, and Tunisia have moratoria that have been in place for over a decade making the countries abolitionist in practice, but retain the death penalty in law. Capital punishment in Nigeria is in some states de facto abolitionist and in some states retentionist. In 2018, Burkina Faso repealed death for civilian crimes, and the Gambia announced a moratorium as a first step toward abolition. Chad abolished capital punishment in 2020, Sierra Leone in 2021, and the Central African Republic and Equatorial Guinea in 2022.
In the Caribbean countries, the death penalty exists at least de jure, except in the Dominican Republic and Haiti, which abolished it in 1969 and 1987, respectively. Grenada is abolitionist in practice, and its last execution was in 1978. The last execution in the Caribbean, and the last in the Americas outside the United States, was in Saint Kitts and Nevis in 2008. In Central and South America, the death penalty exists in Belize and Guyana, though it has not been used since 1985 and 1997. In Brazil, Chile, El Salvador, Guatemala, and Peru, executions are only legal in specific circumstances, such as war crimes, and were abolished for civil crimes. Opinion polls stating sentiment for governments to return to capital punishment remain high in many Caribbean countries, and pressure on politicians to retain it is high.
Most executions worldwide take place in Asia. China is the world's most active death penalty country; according to Amnesty International, China executes more people than the rest of the world combined each year. However, not all of China is retentionist, as Hong Kong and Macau have abolished it for all crimes before their handover to China. In Iran and Saudi Arabia, the numbers of executions are also very high. Of the 12 countries/region with a "very high" Human Development Index which practice executions, 10 are in Asia: Japan, Taiwan, Singapore, Malaysia, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Bahrain, Oman, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates, although since 2018 Malaysia does have a moratorium. In 2017, Mongolia repealed the death penalty for all crimes and in 2021 Kazakhstan, that was already abolitionist for ordinary crimes, abolished it also for crimes under special circumstances. India executes criminals rarely. 30 executions have taken place in India since 1991. The latest execution was that of four perpetrators of a gang rape and murder case on 20 March 2020. According to a 2017 report by the Myanmar National Human Rights Commission, 709 prisoners in 26 prisons across the country have had death sentences commuted to life imprisonment.
Main article: Capital punishment in Europe
The European Union holds a strong position against the death penalty; its abolition is a key objective for the Union's human rights policy. Abolition is also a pre-condition for entry into the European Union. In Europe, only Belarus continues to actively use capital punishment.
Capital punishment has been completely abolished in all European countries except for Belarus and Russia, the latter of which has a moratorium and has not conducted an execution since 1996. The absolute ban on the death penalty is enshrined in both the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union (EU) and two widely adopted protocols of the European Convention on Human Rights of the Council of Europe, and is thus considered a central value. Of all modern European countries, San Marino, Portugal and the Netherlands were the first to abolish capital punishment, and now only Belarus still uses capital punishment. In 2012, Latvia became the last EU member state to abolish capital punishment in wartime.
Russia retains the death penalty in law, but there has been a moratorium since 1996, making it de facto abolitionist. The last execution on Russian territory was in Chechnya in 1999. Of the other former Soviet republics, only Belarus and Tajikistan have not formally abolished capital punishment, and only Belarus uses it in practice.
It was in the Kingdom of Tahiti (when the island was independent), in 1824, that for the first time in the world, a legislative assembly abolished the death penalty. Tahiti commuted the death penalty to banishment. Nearly all countries in this region have abolished the death penalty as a form of punishment, and the last country that still has it in law (Tonga) has not used it in many decades and is considered de facto abolitionist. The last known executions in this region took place in Tonga in 1982.
There are 65 sovereign states with a very high human development according to the 2021/2022 Human Development Report, of these:
Singapore has the highest Human Development Index of all the countries that use the death penalty, while Japan has both the highest inequality-adjusted HDI and the highest planetary pressures–adjusted HDI.
At least 20 countries performed executions in 2019:
Precise numbers are not available for many countries, so the total number of executions is unknown. Other countries like Libya have conducted extrajudicial executions.
There are 54 member states of the United Nations in Africa, of these:
Many African countries have carried out no executions for over 10 years, but are not believed to have an abolitionist policy or established practice.
Nigeria is only retentionist in the northern states that use sharia law, and in some southern states such as Imo. Many southern states are abolitionist in practice due to a moratorium that has been in place since 2004.
The countries in Africa that most recently abolished the death penalty are Equatorial Guinea (2022), Central African Republic (2022), Sierra Leone (2021), Chad (2020), and Guinea (2017). Burkina Faso abolished the death penalty for civil cases in 2018.
Executions in Africa in 2019: Botswana (1), Egypt (29+), Somalia (13+), South Sudan (7+).
|Key||Country||Year of last execution||Executions 2019||Year abolished||Notes|
|Algeria||1993||n/a||treason; espionage; aggravated murder; castration resulting in death; arson (or destruction using explosive devices) of buildings, vehicles or harvests resulting in death; intentional destruction of military equipment resulting in death; attempts to change the regime or actions aimed at incitement; destruction of territory; sabotage to public and economic utilities; massacres and slaughters; participation in armed bands or in insurrectionary movements; counterfeiting; terrorism; acts of torture or cruelty; kidnapping; aggravated theft; some military offences; poisoning; attempting a death-eligible offense; some cases of recidivism and perjury leading to a death sentence pronounced. Currently under a moratorium. On 20 December 2012, Algeria co-sponsored and voted in favour of the Resolution on a Moratorium on the Use of the Death Penalty at the UN General Assembly.Firing Squad, shooting. Death penalty for|
|Angola||1977||1992||Abolished in 1992 by Constitution.|
|Benin||1987||2012||Benin acceded to the Second Additional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights which makes Benin abolitionist. The decision was upheld by the Constitutional Court in January 2016 although the death penalty is still present in statutes.On 6 July 2012,|
|Botswana||2021||1||n/a||attempt on the life of the head of state; mutiny; desertion in the face of the enemy, aggravated piracy and terrorism. Persons excused from capital punishment are pregnant women, teenagers who were younger than 18 at time of crime, and the mentally ill.Hanging, and state also has power to determine method of execution by offense committed. Death penalty for murder; espionage; treason;|
|Burkina Faso||1988||N/A (Military)
|Death penalty abolished for ordinary crimes in 2018; still retained for war crimes.|
|Burundi||2000||2009|| Despite having abolished capital punishment, Burundi voted against the UN Moratorium on the Death Penalty in 2016.Death penalty abolished in revised 2009 criminal code. Extrajudicial executions are still commonplace.|
|Cameroon||1997||n/a||secession; espionage; treason; terrorism; aggravated murder; premeditated murder; violent theft leading to death or causing grievous bodily harm; abduction of a minor resulting in the death of that minor; assault on a state employee with intent to kill; attempt of a death-eligible crime and conspiracy to commit a death-eligible crime; plundering by gangs using force during times of war and incitement to war. In February 2014, the President of the Republic, Paul Biya, commuted all persons condemned to the death penalty to life in prison. The decree commuted their sentences to 25 years incarceration. However, death sentences have continued to be handed down as of 2016[update].Hanging, firing squad, shooting. Death penalty for|
|Cape Verde||*None since independence in 1975 (1835, before independence)||1981||Last execution when a colony of Portugal was 1835. Abolished in 1981 by Constitution.|
|Central African Republic||1981||2022||The National Assembly passed a bill abolishing capital punishment on 27 May 2022. President Touadéra has vowed to sign it into law.|
|Chad||2015||2020|| but then reintroduced the following year for acts of terror. In April 2020, Chad's Parliament unanimously abolished the death penalty for terrorism.Capital punishment was abolished in 2014,|
|Comoros||1997||n/a|| Persons excluded from capital punishment are pregnant women, women with small children, teenagers who were under 18 at the time of the crime, and the mentally ill.Firing squad. Death penalty for aggravated murder, murder, public comments, rape (if it results in the death of the victim), barbaric actions including torture, and aggravated rape.|
|Congo, Republic of the||1982||2015||Death penalty abolished November 2015 by Constitution.|
|Djibouti||*None since independence in 1977||1995|
|Congo, Democratic Republic of the||2003||n/a||Hanging, shooting. Death penalty for murder, aggravated murder, treason, destruction of military facilities resulting in death, imposing superstitious trials by ordeal resulting in death, terrorism, armed robbery, drug trafficking and drug possession during wartime, espionage, misappropriation by a public prosecutor of seized or confiscated goods in time of war, some military offences, war crimes, genocide and crimes against humanity.|
|Egypt||2022||29+||n/a|| and organized drug trafficking. Those excused from the death penalty are: women with small children, women who are pregnant, teenagers who were under 18 at the time of the crime, and the mentally ill. In Egypt, it is believed that at least 1,700 people were executed under the death penalty, and 1,413 death sentences alone were issued between 2007 and 2014. Since the beginning of 2015, there have been reports of at least 354 death sentences carried out; however, numbers are not totally reliable, for the government's secrecy surrounding capital punishment prevents them from releasing total information.Hanging/firing squad. Death penalty for rape (if the victim is also kidnapped); murder; treason; terrorism; espionage; perjury causing wrongful execution|
|Equatorial Guinea||2014||2022||President Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo signed a new penal code into law that abolished the death penalty.On 19 September 2022,|
|Eritrea||1989||n/a||Hanging, shooting. Last execution when part of Ethiopia was 1989. Death penalty for murder, armed robbery, espionage, treason, economic crimes, military offenses, war crimes and genocide. At least one execution may have been carried out between 1999 and 2008, but this remains unconfirmed.|
|Eswatini (Swaziland)||1983||n/a|| treason.Death penalty for murder;|
|Ethiopia||2007||n/a||genocide, attempted capital offenses, certain economic crimes in time of war and outrages against the constitutionFiring squad. Death penalty for murder, robbery resulting in death or permanent disability of the victim, armed robbery, terrorism, some economic crimes, espionage, treason, certain military offences, armed conspiracy, war crimes,|
|Gabon||1985||2010||Abolished in February 2010.|
|Gambia||2012||n/a|| Capital punishment was abolished in 1993 but was reinstated by Armed Forces Provisional Ruling Council in August 1995 In February 2018, Gambia announced a moratorium on the death penalty. In September 2018, it ratified the Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. In May 2019, it commuted 22 death sentences to life imprisonment.Hanging, firing squad. Death penalty for treason, murder and terrorism.|
|Ghana||1993||n/a|| In 2014, it was agreed that a referendum would be held on several constitutional amendments including the abolition of capital punishment.Firing squad, hanging. Death penalty for murder; treason; armed robbery|
|Guinea||2001||2017||Abolished 2016 for ordinary crimes, 2017 for all crimes.|
|Guinea-Bissau||1986||1993||Abolished 1993 by Constitution.|
|Ivory Coast||*None since independence in 1960||2000|
|Kenya||1987||n/a||high treason; murder, armed robbery, treason, military offenses and administering an oath purported to bind a person to commit a capital offense. On 3 August 2009, the death sentences of all 4,000 death row inmates were commuted to life imprisonment, and government studies were ordered to determine if the death penalty has any impact on crime.Hanging. Death penalty for terrorism; terrorism acts;|
|Lesotho||1995||n/a||Hanging. Death penalty for murder, treason, rape, and military offenses such as mutiny.|
|Liberia||2000||n/a||hijacking, treason and espionage. On 16 September 2005, Liberia acceded to the Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, abolishing the death penalty, but re-introduced elements of it in July 2008.Hanging. Death penalty for aggravated murder, armed robbery, terrorism, "mercenarism" resulting in death,|
|Libya||2010||n/a||high treason; attempt to forcibly change the form of government; premeditated murder; aggravated murder; terrorism; drug trafficking; robbery resulting in death; espionage and military offences such as assisting the enemy or undermining the defense or the territorial integrity of the State Extrajudicial killings are commonplace in Libya. Amnesty International said that Libyan human rights organizations reported 31 executions between 2018 and 2020, but this is not officially confirmed.Firing squad, shooting. Libya executed more people (18) in 2010, than any other African state. Current laws allow capital punishment for|
|Madagascar||*None since independence in 1960 (1958, before independence)||2014|| Earlier, on 24 September 2012, Madagascar had signed the Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.Abolished 10 December 2014.|
|Malawi||1992||n/a||Executions by hanging. Death penalty for murder; rape; violent robbery; burglary; treason; housebreaking and military offenses.|
|Mali||1980||n/a|| Currently, no individual has been executed since 1980, making Mali a de facto abolitionist country.Executions by firing squad. Death penalty for aggravated murder; terrorism; violent robbery, armed robbery or gang-robbery; arson; kidnapping; treason; espionage; certain military offenses; crimes against humanity; genocide; assaulting on-duty state employees with the intention of causing death; poisoning or mass poisoning of water supplies; committing torture or barbarous acts in the course of a serious offense and attempting a death-eligible crime.|
|Mauritania||1987||n/a||sodomy, apostasy (no recorded executions), blasphemy, adultery, murder, aggravated murder, terrorism, torture, rape, armed robbery, attempted armed robbery, arson, accomplice to a death-eligible crime, assaulting a judge or public official in the course of his duties resulting in his death, kidnapping resulting in death, abandoning a child or an incapacitated person causing his/her death, espionage, treason, perjury causing wrongful execution, some cases of repeat offences and the voluntary destruction of buildings, bridges, dams or roads causing deaths.Death penalty for homosexuality,|
|Morocco||1993||n/a|| treason, espionage, corruption, perjury causing wrongful execution and aggravated murder. In December 2013, a parliamentary opposition group filed a bill to abolish the death penalty in Morocco. The MP who introduced the bill said he was "optimistic" about the bill passing "in view of the current reform movement in Morocco".Death penalty for terrorism,|
|Mozambique||1986||1990||Abolished November 1990 by Constitution.|
|Namibia||*None since independence in 1990 (1988, before independence)||1990||Last execution when occupied by South Africa was in 1988. Abolished March 1990 by Constitution.|
|Niger||1976||n/a|| Abolitionist de facto as the last execution took place in 1976.Executions by firing squad. Death penalty allowed for aggravated murder; castration resulting in death; kidnapping a minor resulting in death; terrorism; robbery; treason; espionage; genocide; crimes against humanity; attempt or conspiracy to commit genocide, crimes against humanity and certain war crimes; torture; human trafficking; poisoning; harboring criminals; perjury leading to a person being sentenced to death; attempting to commit a death-eligible offense and redicivism in case of most serious offenses.|
Death penalty for murder; blasphemy; homosexuality; adultery; treason; rape; robbery; incest; assisting the suicide of a person legally unable to consent; perjury in a capital case causing wrongful execution; terrorism; terrorist acts; some military offences; sodomy; kidnapping and practice of indigenous beliefs in states applying Shariah law. Each of the 36 states has its own laws. Northern (majority Muslim) states also apply Sharia law. Some Southern states of Nigeria are de facto abolitionist since they have imposed a moratorium on the death penalty since 2004, while others continue to carry out executions.
|Rwanda||1998||2007||Rwandan genocide fled to countries that refuse to extradite suspects to countries that use capital punishment, the Rwandan parliament voted to abolish capital punishment in 2007.Since some of the perpetrators of the|
|Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic||n/a||The Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic is only partly recognised, and claimed in whole by Morocco. The Sahrawi constitution which applies only in the Polisario-held territories in the far east and extreme south of the Western Sahara bans the death penalty.|
|São Tomé and Príncipe||*None since independence in 1975||1990||Abolished September 1990 by Constitution.|
|Seychelles||*None since independence in 1976||1993||Abolished June 1993 by Constitution.|
|Sierra Leone||1998||2021|| murder; aggravated robbery. Under the Special Court for Sierra Leone, the death penalty is not a punishment for war crimes.Prior to abolition, death penalty was for treason;|
|Somalia||2022||13||n/a||Hanging, firing squad or stoning. Somalia is the only African state that carries out public executions. The Transitional Federal Government laws allowed for execution (in the limited area of the country it used to control) for murder, terrorism, treason, espionage, homosexuality, some military offences, blasphemy, apostasy and adultery.|
|South Africa||1989||1995||homeland" of Venda in 1991. Capital punishment was declared unconstitutional by the Constitutional Court on 6 June 1995 in the case of S v Makwanyane and Another. In 1997 the Criminal Law Amendment Act formally removed the invalidated provisions from the statute-book, and made provision for the resentencing of prisoners previously sentenced to death. On 25 May 2005 the Constitutional Court ordered that all remaining death sentences in the country be set aside and the prisoners resentenced as soon as possible.The last execution by the South African government was on 14 November 1989. An execution occurred in the internationally unrecognised "|
|South Sudan||2022||7+||n/a||Death penalty for treason; insurgency, banditry, sabotage or terrorism resulting in death; perjury in a capital case leading to wrongful execution; murder; attempted murder causing injury by a person sentenced to life for a previous murder; brigandage with murder; and drug dealing under aggravated circumstances.|
|Sudan||2021||n/a||Garrotte. Death penalty for waging war against the state, prostitution, drug trafficking, treason, perjury in a capital case causing wrongful execution, espionage, acts that may endanger the independence or unity of the state, murder, armed robbery, abetting the suicide of an individual unable to give legal consent, terrorism, rape and incest committed by a married offender.|
|Tanzania||1994||n/a||Death penalty for murder; treason; military offenses; mutiny by prison officers; and abortion (in Zanzibar semi-autonomous region).|
|Tunisia||1991||n/a|| On 6 January 2014, the National Constituent Assembly (NCA) voted for maintaining capital punishment in the upcoming constitution in Tunisia. The votes were by 135 yes out of a total of 174. Since 2015, it has been possible to give the death penalty for terrorism.Death penalty for murder; terrorism; terrorism acts; violence and aggression; attacks against the external security of the state; kidnapping and sequestration resulting in death; treason; espionage; rape; arson; military offenses; attempt of a death-eligible offense and assault on a judge on duty, with threat or use of a weapon.|
|Uganda||2005||n/a|| In 2009, the Supreme Court upheld a 2005 Constitutional Court ruling that although the death penalty was constitutional, its use as a mandatory punishment for certain crimes was not. In 2019 mandatory death penalty was abolished by law.Death penalty for murder; terrorism; kidnapping; rape; robbery if the offender uses or threatens to use a deadly weapon, resulting in death or causing "grievous harm" to anyone; smuggling if the offender uses or threatens to use a deadly weapon, resulting in death or causing "grievous harm" to anyone; treason and some military offences.|
|Zambia||1997||n/a||Levy Mwanawasa stated in 2004 that "For as long as I remain President, I will not execute a death warrant." In 2022, president Hakainde Hichilema announced that the death penalty would be abolished.Death penalty for murder; aggravated robbery; high treason. President|
|Zimbabwe||2005||n/a||Death penalty for murder; high treason; terrorism; some military offences; attempted murder, incitement or conspiracy to commit murder; war crimes and genocide.|
There are 35 member states of the United Nations in the Americas, of these:
Many Caribbean countries have carried out no executions for over 10 years, but are not believed to have an abolitionist policy or established practice.
Currently (2022), the United States is the only country in the Americas to conduct executions for civil purposes. However while capital punishment applies nationwide on the federal level, only some states can be considered retentionist for ordinary crimes, as federal death penalty only applies for crimes committed in exceptional circumstances. Of the 50 states and one federal district, 23 are abolitionist for ordinary crimes and 2 are abolitionist in practice for ordinary crimes. Also 5 states have imposed formal moratoriums and 1 state has imposed an informal moratorium, but cannot be considered abolitionist in practice for ordinary crimes, as the moratoriums have been in place for under a decade. The last execution elsewhere in the region was in Saint Kitts and Nevis in 2008.
The countries in the Americas that most recently abolished the death penalty are Suriname (2015), Argentina (2009), and Bolivia (2009). Guatemala abolished the death penalty for civil cases in 2017.
Executions in the Americas in 2019: United States (22).
|Key||Country||Year of last execution||Executions 2019||Year abolished||Notes|
|Antigua and Barbuda||1991||N/A||Hanging. Death penalty for murder and treason. Currently, no individual is under the sentence of death, as the last death sentence in the country was commuted in 2016.|
|Argentina||1956||2009||Constitution of 1853 states "The penalty of death for political offences, all kinds of torture, and flogging, are forever abolished." And was completely abolished by the Penal Code of 30 April 1922.
Despite this it was reinstated on several occasions:
|Bahamas||2000||N/A||Hanging. Death penalty for treason; piracy; murder. Currently no individual is under the sentence of death, as the last death sentence in the country was commuted in 2016.|
|Barbados||1984||N/A||Death penalty for murder; terrorism; participating in a mutiny; treason and espionage. Presently under review before the IACHR despite strong national support.|
|Belize||1985||N/A||Death penalty for murder, except where extenuating circumstances can be proved, aggravated murder, war crimes, crimes against humanity, genocide, some military offences and treason.|
|Bolivia||1973||2009||Abolished for ordinary crimes 1997. "The death penalty does not exist" (Article 15).|
Hanging (in the past, for civil offences), firing squad (military offences). Brazil has always maintained the death penalty in wartime as part of its Military Code but, after Brazil became a Republic in 1889, capital punishment for civil offenses or for military offences committed in peacetime was abolished by the first republican Constitution, adopted in 1891. The penalty for crimes committed in peacetime was then reinstated during two periods (from 1938 to 1946 and from 1969 to 1978), but on those occasions it was restricted to acts of terrorism or subversion considered "internal warfare".|
Only one civilian was sentenced to death in the republican period, in 1969, but the sentence was commuted and was not carried out. In the republican era, all military death sentences imposed for crimes committed during wartime (the Second World War was Brazil's last international military conflict) were similarly commuted and not carried out. The current Constitution of Brazil (1988) expressly forbids the use of capital punishment, except for military offences committed during a war duly declared by Congress. The last person to suffer the death penalty in Brazil was executed in 1876, during the Imperial era. After 1876, Emperor Pedro II adopted in practice an abolitionist policy through his prerogative of Mercy as Head of State, by directing that all death sentences be submitted by the Courts to the Imperial Government for examination regarding commutation (even without a request for pardon or commutation from the person condemned), and by granting commutations for all death sentences that were passed. For more information see Capital punishment in Brazil.
|Canada||1962||1999||Abolished in 1976 for ordinary crimes (last execution in 1962, last sentence in 1976); abolished 1999 for military offences (last execution in 1945).|
|Shooting. Death penalty remains applicable to military personnel for war crimes and crimes against humanity during wartime. Abolished from civil justice in 2001.|
|Colombia||1907||1910||Colombian Constitution of 1991: "The right to life is inviolable. There will be no death penalty."Abolished in 1910 by Constitutional reform. Prohibited by the|
|Costa Rica||1859||1877||Abolished 1877 by Constitution.|
|Cuba||2003||N/A|| political offenses,[clarification needed] child rape, molestation of a child under 12 years of age with aggravating factors, rape of an adult with aggravating factors, rape of an adult that results in death, illness or grievous bodily harm, robbery with aggravating factors, drug offenses, production of child pornography, child trafficking, child prostitution, child corruption, piracy, working as a mercenary, apartheid, genocide, paedophilia. While there has been no executions in the last decade (the last execution took place on 11 April 2003), and the last death sentences were commuted by the Supreme Court in 2010 and nobody sentenced to death since then, there is however no formal or informal moratorium or abolitionist policy, making the country still retentionist.Firing squad. Death penalty for murder, attempted murder, hijacking, acts of terrorism, treason, espionage,|
|Dominica||1986||N/A||Executions by hanging. Death penalty for aggravated murder and treason.|
|Dominican Republic||1966||1966||Abolished 1966 by Constitution.|
|Ecuador||1884||1906||Abolished 1906 by Constitution.|
|El Salvador||1973||N/A (Military)
| Abolished for other crimes 1983.May be imposed only in cases provided by military laws during a state of international war.|
|Lethal injection. Until 2017, death penalty for murder, espionage, treason, drug trafficking, kidnapping, torture, and terrorism. Abolished for civil cases in 2017.|
|Guyana||1997||N/A|| murder, treason and armed robbery, piracy, drug trafficking, and terrorist offences resulting in death. While the constitutional states that the death penalty is not a mandatory punishment, many provisions of the criminal code suggests that the death penalty may be mandatory for these crimes as no alternatives to such sentence of death is found under any law.Death penalty for terrorist acts;|
|Haiti||1972||1987||Abolished 1987 by Constitution.|
|Honduras||1940||1956||Abolished 1956 by Constitution.|
|Jamaica||1988||N/A||Death penalty for murder.|
|Mexico||1961 – Military
1957 – Civilian
|2005||Abolished for all crimes in 2005.|
|Nicaragua||1930||1979||Abolished 1979 by Constitution.|
|Panama||1903||1903||Abolished 1903 by Constitution.|
|Paraguay||1917||1992||Abolished 1992 by Constitution.|
| Abolished for other crimes 1979.Firing squad. Death penalty for treason; terrorism; espionage; genocide; mutiny; desertion in times of war.|
|Saint Kitts and Nevis||2008||N/A||Hanging. Death penalty for murder and treason.|
|Saint Lucia||1995||N/A||Hanging. Death penalty for murder; treason.|
|Saint Vincent and the Grenadines||1995||N/A||Death penalty for murder; treason.|
|Trinidad and Tobago||1999||N/A||Death penalty for murder; treason|
|United States||2022||22||N/A||lethal injection, electric chair, firing squad, and the gas chamber. Federal law provides the death penalty for many homicide-related crimes, espionage, treason, terrorism, murder, robbery (when it results in death), and extreme cases of drug trafficking (when it involves homicide. 27 of the 50 states currently have the death penalty, though some are under moratorium or have not conducted any executions in decades. Of the non-state territories, American Samoa still has capital punishment as a local statute, and the others have abolished it. The Supreme Court has severely limited the crimes that the death penalty can be a punishment for. It has also abolished the death penalty for crimes committed by a person under the age of 18. Sentences of death may be handed down by a jury or a judge (upon a bench trial or a guilty plea).Methods vary by state, federal, and military policy, but include|
|Uruguay||1902||1907||Constitution of 1918.Abolished by the "Law No. 3238" on 23 September 1907 and by the|
|Venezuela||*None since independence in 1830||1863||Abolished 1863 by Constitution.|
There are 42 member states of the United Nations in Asia, and one observer state, of these:
The information above does not include Taiwan, which is not a UN member. Taiwan practises the death penalty by shooting, and conducted one execution each in 2016, 2018, and 2020.
Hong Kong and Macau are also listed below (they abolished the death penalty before their handover to China), but they are not included in the figures above as they do not have UN membership separate from China. This makes China retentionist only in the mainland.
Iraq also has a regional variety of retentionism and abolitionism, as Iraqi Kurdistan is de facto abolitionist for ordinary crimes due to a moratorium that has been in place since 2007. The rest of Iraq (the majority of the country) is fully retentionist.
Indonesia has an informal moratorium and Malaysia a formal one, but both have been in place for under a decade (both since 2018) and therefore executions resuming are still very possible. Neither Indonesia nor Malaysia have plans to abolish it. Between May 2018 and March 2019, Malaysia's government, which was then led by a progressive coalition, did previously consider abolishing the death penalty, but relented under public pressure and decided to just have plans to abolish mandatory capital punishment.
On 25 July 2022, Myanmar carried out its first executions since 1988, making the country retentionist again.
The countries in Asia that most recently abolished the death penalty are Kazakhstan (2021), Mongolia (2017), and Uzbekistan (2008).
In 2019, Asia had the world's five leading practitioners of capital punishment: China, Iran, North Korea, Saudi Arabia, and Vietnam.
Executions in Asia in 2019: Bahrain (3), Bangladesh (2), China (Unknown), Iran (251+), Japan (3), North Korea (Unknown), Pakistan (14+), Saudi Arabia (184+), Singapore (4), Syria (Unknown), Vietnam (Unknown), Yemen (7+).
|Key||Country||Year of last execution||Executions 2019||Year abolished||Notes|
|Afghanistan (Taliban government)||2021||n/a|| Taliban Shariah allows capital punishment for: murder if the family of the victim deems death to be the appropriate punishment; terrorism-related offenses; treason; espionage; adultery; rape; pedophilia; homosexuality; sodomy; apostasy (unknown whether Muslims who do not pray five times a day are considered apostates); blasphemy; and giving false witness resulting in the execution of an innocent.Hanging; shooting; stoning.|
|Bahrain||2019||3||n/a||Hanging and firing squad are used. Death penalty for premeditated murder; aggravated murder; rape, sexual assault or statutory rape; kidnapping; rape of child; arson; assault; deliberately obstructing funerals or memorial services; certain crimes against property, transportation or agriculture under aggravating circumstances; terrorism; plotting to topple the regime; collaborating with a foreign hostile country; threatening the life of the Emir; defiance of military orders in time of war or martial law; perjury causing wrongful execution; treason; drug trafficking and espionage.|
|Bangladesh||2022||1||n/a|| drug offences; kidnapping and trafficking in children for immoral or illegal purposes; human trafficking; kidnapping a person (especially children or women) to force him/her to engage in prostitution and expose him/her to sexual exploitation/slavery; terrorism; rape; armed robbery; sedition; sabotage; hijacking planes; military offences such as abetting mutiny, cowardice or desertion; attempted dowry murder; abetting or conspiring to commit capital offenses; perjury causing wrongful execution; espionage; treason and war crimes.Hanging. Death penalty for murder;|
|Brunei||*None since independence in 1984 (1957, before independence)||n/a||Hanging is used. Last execution when a protectorate of Britain was in 1957. Death penalty for murder; unlawful possession of firearms and explosives; possession of heroin or morphine of more than 15 grams, cocaine of more than 30 grams, cannabis of more than 500 grams, syabu or methamphetamine of more than 50 grams, or opium of more than 1.2 kg; terrorism; abetting the suicide of a person unable to give legal consent; arson; kidnapping; abetting a successful mutiny; treason and perjury resulting in the conviction of an innocent defendant of a capital offense. A new penal code was introduced in April 2014 and introduced the death penalty for male same-sex adultery if one of the parties is Muslim (by stoning); rape; adultery; apostasy; sodomy; extramarital sexual relations for Muslims; insulting any verse of the Quran and Hadith; blasphemy and declaring oneself a prophet or non-Muslim.|
|Cambodia||1989||1989||Abolished in 1989 by Constitution.|
|China||2022||Unknown||n/a||firing squad); lethal injection. On 25 February 2011, China's newly revised Criminal Law reduced the number of crimes punishable by death by 13, from 68 to 55.[failed verification] Laws allow capital punishment for severe cases of embezzlement; rape (particularly of children); severe cases of fraud; bombing; flooding; rioting under aggravating circumstances; separatism; armed rebellion; collaborationism; political dissidence; subversion; terrorism; spreading poisons/hazardous substances; people trafficking; forcing a person to engage in prostitution (especially children, often after kidnapping or rape); piracy; theft; drug trafficking; corruption; arson; aggravated assault; aircraft hijacking resulting in death; producing or selling tainted food or fake medicine resulting in death or serious medical injury; participating in an armed prison riot or jailbreak; murder; aggravated murder; burglary; kidnapping; robbery; armed robbery; espionage; treason; poaching; military offences (like insubordination, cowardice); sabotaging electricity, gas, fuel, petroleum, weapons, flammables, explosives and military communications/installations; illegal possession, transport, smuggling, or selling of explosives or firearms; illegally manufacturing, selling, transporting or storing hazardous materials; trafficking or smuggling nuclear materials and endangerment of national security. Even the higher sections of Chinese society are not exempt from the death penalty, as billionaire Liu Han was executed 9 February 2015.Shooting (|
|East Timor||*None since independence in 2002||2002||Death penalty suspended following UN administration in 1999 when still a province of Indonesia. Abolished by constitution 2002.|
|Hong Kong||1966||1993||It was last used in 1966 and abolished in 1993 by the then British colonial government.|
|India||2020||n/a||Hanging, shooting can be used in the military court-martial system. Death penalty for murder; instigating a minor's or a mentally ill's suicide; treason; terrorism; a second conviction for drug trafficking; aircraft hijacking; aggravated robbery; espionage; kidnapping; being a party to a criminal conspiracy to commit a capital offence; attempted murder by those sentenced to life imprisonment if the attempt results in harm to the victim; perjury causing wrongful execution; aggravated rape/gang-rape; drug smuggling under aggravated circumstances; abetting sati, mutiny and its abetting; causing explosions which can endanger life or property and a few military offences like desertion. Military offences may be punished with a firing squad.|
|Indonesia||2016||n/a||Firing squad. Death penalty for murder; high treason; espionage; some acts of corruption which damage national economy or finances; aggravated gang-robbery; extortion with force or threat of force; terrorism; some military offences; genocide; crimes against humanity; piracy resulting in death; drug trafficking and developing, producing, obtaining, transferring or using of chemical weapons. President Joko Widodo issued an informal moratorium on executions in 2018 due to outrage over the 2015 and 2016 executions, but there are no plans towards abolition 8 people including overseas nationals executed on 29 April 2015.|
|Iran||2022||256+||n/a||Hanging, shooting or stoning. Iran performs public executions. Iran is second only to China in the number of executions it carries out—executing hundreds every year. Current laws allow the death penalty for murder; armed robbery; drug trafficking; kidnapping; rape; burglary; child molestation; pedophilia; sodomy; homosexuality; incestuous relations; fornication; prohibited sexual relations; sexual misconduct; prostitution; rebellion; plotting to overthrow the Islamic regime; political dissidence; sabotage; arson; espionage; treason; terrorism; joining the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant; certain military offenses (e.g. cowardice, assisting the enemy); apostasy; adultery; blasphemy; counterfeiting; smuggling; speculating; disrupting production; recidivist theft; extortion; immoral attitude; recidivist consumption of alcohol; producing or preparing food, drink, cosmetics or sanitary items that lead to death when consumed or used; producing and publishing pornography; using pornographic materials to solicit sex; recidivist false accusation of capital sexual offenses causing execution of an innocent person; "enmity against God" and "corruption on earth." Secret executions are widespread in the country, so that exact numbers for each year are difficult to obtain and different figures are provided by various organizations.|
|Iraq||2022||n/a||Hanging. Death penalty for murder; endangering national security; distributing drugs; rape; incest; apostasy; espionage; treason; joining the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant; robbery; armed robbery; theft; burglary; kidnapping; attacks on transport convoys; arson; rioting; killing police guards and military officers; intentionally causing a flood or attempting to cause a flood; damaging or sabotaging public structures; war crimes, crimes against humanity; genocide; financing and execution of terrorism. Suspended in June 2003 after 2003 invasion; reinstated August 2004. A total of 447 people were executed between then and the end of March 2013, with 129 in 2012 alone. Iraqi Kurdistan is abolitionist in practice for all ordinary crimes (remains retentionist for crimes in exceptional cases) since a moratorium has been in place since when Kurdistan president Masoud Barzani issued it in 2007.|
|Hanging; firing squad. Death penalty for crimes against humanity, high treason, genocide, and crimes against the Jewish people during wartime. Only two executions since independence in 1948: accused traitor Meir Tobiansky (posthumously acquitted) and Holocaust architect Adolf Eichmann (last execution in 1962). Abolished for other crimes 1954.|
|Japan||2022||3||n/a||Hanging. Death penalty for murder; treason and crimes against the State. Judges usually impose death penalty in case of multiple homicides; death sentence for a single murder is not particularly common. Between 1946 and 2003, 766 people were sentenced to death, 608 of whom were executed. For 40 months from 1989 to 1993 successive ministers of justice refused to authorise executions, which amounted to an informal moratorium. No execution in 2020 (first time in nine years).|
|Jordan||2021||n/a||Hanging, shooting. Death penalty for some cases of terrorism, murder, aggravated murder, rape, aggravated robbery, drug trafficking, illegal possession and use of weapons, war crimes, espionage and treason. Executions resumed in 2014 after a hiatus.|
|Kazakhstan||2003||2021||Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights in 2020. Abolished in 2021.Signed the|
|Kuwait||2017||n/a||Hanging. Death penalty for apostasy; drug trafficking; rape; murder; aggravated murder; kidnapping; piracy; torture; human trafficking; terrorism; certain military offences; national security crimes; espionage; treason and perjury causing execution of an innocent person|
|Kyrgyzstan||*None since independence in 1991||2007||Kyrgyz authorities had extended a moratorium on executions each year since 1998. Abolished by constitution in 2007.|
|Laos||1989||n/a||Death penalty for murder; hostage-taking; kidnapping; committing acts of robbery against the State or against "collective assets"; obstructing an officer in the performance of his public duties and causing his death or causing him physically disabled; trafficking in women or children resulting in death, lifetime incapacity or infection by HIV/AIDS of the victim; terrorism; drug trafficking; disrupting industry, trade, agriculture or other economic activities with the intent of undermining the national economy; drug possession; treason and espionage.|
|Lebanon||2004||n/a||Hanging; firing squad. Death penalty for murder; aggravated murder; rape; pedophilia; terrorism; gang-robbery or gang-assault; arson against certain types of structures or sabotage of communications, transportation or industrial facilities causing death; aggravated assault; gang-assault involving torture; life-eligible crimes with recidivism; importing nuclear/toxic wastes; polluting rivers or waterways with harmful substances; some military offences (e.g. desertion); espionage and treason.|
|Macau||19th century||1976||It was last used in the 19th century and abolished in 1976 when Portugal abolished the death penalty on all its territories.|
|Malaysia||2017||2022||Hanging. Death penalty for trafficking in dangerous drugs; discharging a firearm in the commission of a scheduled offense; accomplices in case of discharge of firearm; offenses against the Yang di-Pertuan Agong's person; murder; kidnapping; burglary; robbery; terrorism and treason. Discretionary for weapons trafficking; abetting mutiny; perjury causing wrongful execution; consorting with a person carrying or having possession of arms or explosives; waging or attempting to wage war or abetting the waging of war against the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, a Ruler or Yang di-Pertua Negeri Although a plan to abolish the death penalty was revoked on 13 March 2019, it did abolish mandatory capital punishment, and a moratorium on executions remains. On 10 June 2022 the practice of mandatory capital punishment was formally abolished.|
|Maldives||*None since independence in 1965 (1952, before independence)||n/a|| terrorism, treason, adultery and apostasy. 60-year moratorium lifted in 2014.Last execution when a colony of Britain was in 1952. Death penalty for murder,|
|Mongolia||2008||2012||Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj instituted a moratorium in 2010, systematically commuting all death sentences. On 5 January 2012, "a large majority of MPs" adopted a bill that aims to abolish the death penalty. After two years under the official moratorium, the State Great Khural formally signed the Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. This makes Mongolia abolitionist because under Article 1, paragraphs 1 and 2, of the Covenant, "No one within the jurisdiction of a State Party to the present Protocol shall be executed," and "Each State Party shall take all necessary measures to abolish the death penalty within its jurisdiction." Unlike in countries that retain capital punishment officially but have abolished it in practice, this made Mongolia abolitionist in both law and practice. However some dead laws that were still symbolically binding referenced capital punishment. These non binding laws were removed from statutes by a 2015 Act, which took effect on 1 July 2016, making some people claim 2015 or 2016 as the year of abolition. Mongolia is one of the last Eastern Bloc states (not including Eastern Europe) to abolish the death penalty. Some even claim that it was abolished in 2017 as the death penalty was formally abolished on 1 July 2017.President|
|Myanmar||2022||n/a|| high treason and drug trafficking.
Death penalty for murder, terrorism, participating in a gang robbery if one of the robbers commits murder, abetting a successful mutiny, assault by a person under a life sentence which causing harm, assault with the intention to murder which causing only harm, perjury causing wrongful execution,|
Myanmar carried out no executions between 1988 and 2022; it is now retentionist again. While Myanmar courts do hand down death sentences pro forma in particularly egregious cases, most recently in the 2018 case of Myo Zaw Oo who was convicted of the rape and murder of a government worker, the sentences in practice are not carried out and are in effect life sentences. There have been three major amnesties (1989, 1993, 1997) in which the government commuted death sentences to life sentences or less, and simultaneously reduced life sentences to 10 years. However, prisoners held for political crimes, or crimes against the state are typically excluded from such amnesties. Nevertheless, Myanmar is regarded as "abolitionist in practice" by both Amnesty International and Death Penalty Watch.
The country's abolitionist-in-practice status is currently in jeopardy as on 1 February 2021 the military overthrew the democratic government in a coup. On 14 March, the military declared martial law in selected regions of two largest cities (Yangon and Mandalay) and furthermore announced the introduction of a suite of new laws and penalties for insurrection and protest, including capital punishment. On 9 April 2021 state broadcaster Myawaddy TV announced that 23 protesters had been charged with murder, and pursuant to s496 of the criminal code, would face execution. The date of the execution was not announced, and it currently (as of 10 April) is unknown whether or how the sentences will be carried out. At least 17 of the convicted were tried in absentia and it is unclear whether they have since been apprehended.
While this would put Myanmar in the "retentionist" category, the legitimacy of the military government and the recently imposed martial laws are contested by the deposed government (known as the NUG) who claim sole legislative authority. The international community thus far have not decided whether the military junta or NUG is the legitimate government, and as such it is not clear whether these executions carried out by the military would be seen by the international community as lawful applications of the death penalty, or extrajudicial killings carried out by armed forces.
As of 3 June 2022, it was reported that a total of 113 people had been sentenced to death by the junta for their roles in the counter-military revolution. On the same date, the junta confirmed the death warrants of four of the prisoners Hla Myo Aung, Ko Aung Thura Zaw, the long-time democratic activist Ko Jimmy, and the rapper and former NLD lawmaker Ko Phyo Zeya Thaw. With the confirmation of the death warrant, responsibility to determine whether, how, and when to proceed to executions fell to the Prison Department. It was announced by the junta that the executions were carried out on 23 July 2022.
In addition, executions are carried out within the de facto autonomous Wa State. Wa state (officially the Wa Self-Administered Division) is nominally a semi-autonomous division located in two disconnected regions within Shan State. As such it is in principle subject to the laws, enforcement, and judicial system of Myanmar. However, in reality, the Wa State is controlled entirely by the United Wa State Army (UWSA) - an ethnic armed organisation (EAO) previously in open rebellion against the Myanmar government and military. While in recent years the UWSA has reached a détente with the Myanmar central authority, the Myanmar legal system does not apply in practice within Wa State. To wit, death sentences are handed down and carried out regularly, most recently in 2020. Wa State imposes the death penalty only for murder  and executions are carried out by gunshot to the back of the head.
An other de facto autonomous region, Mong La (officially: Shan State Special region 4) on the Myanmar-Chinese border under the control of the National Democratic Alliance Army (NDAA) is also reputed to carry out executions much like Wa State, however information is less reliable as executions are not officially announced.
|Nepal||1979||1997|| Completely abolished since 1997 by Constitution.The death penalty was abolished in 1946 for ordinary crimes but was reinstated between 1985 and 1990 for cases of murder and terrorism.|
|North Korea||2022||Unknown||n/a||firing squad, hanging or decapitation. North Korea performs mainly private, but also performs some public executions. Current laws allow the death penalty for drug offences; plots against national sovereignty; circulating "harmful" information; political dissidence; terrorism; espionage; treason against the Motherland or against the people; murder; murder of a North Korean police guard; watching South Korean and foreign websites, medias or movies; listening to South Korean and foreign radio broadcasts; kidnapping; rape; assault; burglary; insubordination; inappropriate words; armed robbery; violation of Juche customs; human trafficking; illegal border crossing; committing massacres; bank robbery; grand theft; making illegal international calls without a phone card; producing and/or watching pornography; embezzlement; currency counterfeiting; black market smuggling/trafficking; damaging or deliberately destroying state property; destroying military facilities or technology; taking unauthorized photographs; unauthorized religious activity; returning home from foreign countries after becoming a defector and prostitution. There have been at least 64 carried out death sentences in 2016, and in 2017 five North Korean minister-level officials were executed; it is not known whether these officials were executed due to a judicial sentence or a direct order of Kim Jong-un. No official numbers can be known because of the secrecy surrounding the topic of capital punishment within the state.Various methods are used, including the|
|Oman||2021||n/a||Death penalty for murder, drug trafficking, arson, piracy, terrorism, kidnapping, recidivism of aggravated offenses punishable by life imprisonment, leading an armed group that engages in spreading disorder (such as by sabotage, pillage or killing), espionage, treason and perjury causing wrongful execution.|
|Pakistan||2019||6+||n/a||Hanging. Death penalty for murder, aggravated murder, drug smuggling, terrorism, arms trafficking, armed robbery resulting in death, certain military offenses (e.g. cowardice, assisting the enemy, abetting a successful mutiny), kidnapping, rape, gang rape, perjury in a capital case leading execution of an innocent person, hijacking, sabotage of the railway system, stripping a woman's clothes, a scheduled offence likely to create terror or disrupt sectarian harmony, acts to strike terror or create a sense of fear and insecurity resulting in death, unlawful assembly, treason, espionage, adultery, homosexuality and blasphemy. Six-year moratorium lifted in 2014 after the Peshawar school massacre.|
|Palestine||2022||n/a||Hamas performs vigilante public executions. Indeed, suspected political dissidents, such as accused Israel collaborators, are frequently executed, often in the street or public squares in front of large crowd to serve as warnings for people, and sometimes without trial. Death penalty for aggravated murder; murder; terrorism; treason; espionage; military offenses and some offenses resulting in death like vandalism; medical violations; felony; disobedience; violence or sedition. The State of Palestine has ratified the Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.|
|Philippines||2000||2006||Constitution, re-introduced in 1993, re-abolished on 24 June 2006 under Republic Act No. 9346. The House of Representatives voted to reinstate the death penalty for drug crimes in March 2017, but it was stalled in the Senate.Abolished in 1987 under the present|
|Qatar||2020||n/a||firing squad. Death penalty for espionage; threat to national security; apostasy (no recorded executions); homosexuality; blasphemy; murder; aggravated murder; violent robbery; arson; torture; kidnapping; terrorism; rape; drug trafficking; extortion by threat of accusation of a crime of honor; perjury causing wrongful execution and treason.Execution by|
|Saudi Arabia||2022||184+||n/a||Decapitation, firing squad, stoning. Saudi Arabia performs public executions. Current Islamic laws allow the use of capital punishment for many violent and nonviolent offenses which includes aggravated burglary, treason, espionage, as well as homosexuality, adultery; murder; blasphemy; apostasy; drug trafficking; rape; armed robbery; some military offences; witchcraft; sexual misconduct and terrorism. Method most often used is beheading with a scimitar, although the firing squad is sometimes used. Bodies may be put on public display.|
|Singapore||2022||2+||n/a||Hanging. Death penalty for terrorism; murder; treason; perjury causing wrongful execution; kidnapping; certain firearm offenses; gang-robbery resulting in death; genocide; arms trafficking; piracy; attempted murder by a convict under a life sentence; drug trafficking in more than 15 grams of heroin or morphine, 30 grams of cocaine or 500 grams of cannabis and some military offences.|
|South Korea||1997||n/a||Hanging and firing squad. Death penalty for murder (over two victims), aggravated murder, arson resulting in death, piracy, terrorism, kidnapping resulting in death, rape resulting in death, rebellion, drug trafficking, conspiracy with foreign countries, robbery-homicide, recidivist violent robbery and treason. There has been an unofficial moratorium on executions since President Kim Dae-jung took office in February 1998.|
|Sri Lanka||1976||n/a|| Moratorium since 1976.Death penalty for murder; treason; perjury causing an innocent person to be executed; rape; armed robbery; drug trafficking; kidnapping with the use of a gun; extortion committed with the use of a gun; human trafficking offenses committed with the use of a gun; attempting murder with the use of a gun; causing harm with the use of a gun; assault on a public servant with the use of a gun and some military offences.|
|Syria||2022||Unknown||n/a||Hanging is used for normal executions, and for military personnel, shooting is used. Syria performs public executions. Current laws allow the death penalty for treason; espionage; murder; arson resulting in death; attempting a death-eligible crime; recidivism for a felony punishable by forced labor for life; terrorism; political acts and military offences such as bearing arms against Syria in the ranks of the enemy, insubordination, rebellion, desertion of the armed forces to the enemy and acts of incitement under martial law or in wartime; violent robbery; subjecting a person to torture or barbaric treatment during the commission of gang-robbery; rape. Certain crimes are considered to deserve an automatic death sentence punishment: membership in the Muslim Brotherhood; joining the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant; drug trafficking; political dissidence and falsification of material evidence resulting in a third party being convicted for a drug offense and sentenced to death. Extrajudicial killings are commonplace in Syria. Persons excused from death row are women with small children, pregnant women, the mentally ill, the intellectually disabled, and teenagers who committed the crime under the age of 18 at the time. Since the start of the civil war, it cannot be known clearly how many people have been put on death row. As of 2014[update], Syria did have an execution per capita rate of 1 for every 3,000,000 persons.|
|Taiwan||2020||n/a|| Crimes punishable by death are: aggravated murder, murder, other offences resulting in death, drug trafficking, drug possession, treason, military offences, war crimes, crimes against humanity, and genocide. Those excluded from capital punishment are: the elderly, pregnant women, women with small children, the mentally ill, and teenagers under the age of 18 at the time of the crime. As of 2006[update], the mandatory death penalty minimum was taken away. By the end of 2012, there were a recorded number of 120 prisoner executions.Gun shot to heart at close range with a single gun. Lethal injection is also a legal form of execution, although there are no known instances of it being used. The condemned person lies on a mattress where doctor marks where heart is; the executioner shoots at the marked place on the condemned back. Condemned are sedated prior to execution. If the condemned person decides to be an organ donor, then the shot is aimed to the rear of the head at the brain stem.|
|Tajikistan||2004||n/a||biocide; genocide. Moratorium introduced 30 April 2004 by President Emomali Rahmon, which means instead of capital punishment, the individual shall receive a life in prison. Persons excluded from death row are: the elderly, women, pregnant women, intellectually disabled, the mentally ill, and teenagers who were under the age of 18 at the time of the crime. Many interest groups within the state are attempting to rid the death penalty out of the law books altogether.Firing squad. Death penalty for murder with aggravating circumstances; rape with aggravating circumstances; terrorism;|
|Thailand||2018||n/a||Lethal Injection, Death penalty for 35 crimes including regicide; sedition or rebellion; offenses committed against the external security of Thailand; murder or attempted murder of a foreign head of state or a member of the royal family; bribery; high treason; espionage; terrorism acts; terrorism; arson; rape; murder; aggravated murder; drug trafficking; kidnapping; robbery resulting in death; certain military offences; illegal use of firearms or explosives. For a full list see here (PDF)|
|Turkmenistan||1997||1999||Abolished 1999 by Constitution.|
|United Arab Emirates||2021||n/a||Firing squad, Stoning. Death penalty for murder; aggravated murder; drug trafficking; successfully inciting the suicide of a person "afflicted with total lack of free will or reason"; arson resulting in death; kidnapping resulting in death; acts of indecent assault resulting in death; importing nuclear substances/wastes in the environment of the State rape; treason; adultery; apostasy; aggravated robbery; terrorism; sodomy; homosexuality; joining the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant in Syria or Iraq; espionage and perjury causing wrongful execution.|
|Uzbekistan||2005||2008||President Islam Karimov signed a decree on 1 August 2005 that replaced the death penalty with life imprisonment on 1 January 2008|
|Vietnam||2021||Unknown||n/a||Lethal injection. Death penalty for treason; taking action to overthrow the government; espionage; rebellion; banditry; terrorism; sabotage; hijacking; destruction of national security projects; undermining peace; war crimes; crimes against humanity; manufacturing, concealing and trafficking in narcotic substances; certain military offences; manufacturing or trading fake goods such as food or medicines, causing "particularly serious" consequences; murder; rape; robbery; embezzlement; fraud and receiving bribes above a certain amount, or causing "particularly serious" consequences.|
|Yemen||2021||7+||n/a||stoning. Yemen performs public executions. Current laws allow the death penalty for murder; adultery; homosexuality; apostasy (no recorded executions); blasphemy; drug trafficking; perjury causing wrongful execution; kidnapping; rape; sexual misconduct; violent robbery; banditry; terrorism; destruction of property leading to death; prostitution; certain military offenses (e.g. cowardice, desertion); espionage and treason.Shooting,|
Main article: Capital punishment in Europe
There are 48 member states of the United Nations in Europe, and one observer state, of these:
Abolition of death penalty is a pre-condition for entry into the European Union, which considers capital punishment a "cruel and inhuman" practice and "not been shown in any way to act as a deterrent to crime".
Since 1999, Belarus has been the only recognised country in Europe to carry out executions. 2009, 2015, 2020 are the first three years in recorded history when Europe was completely free of executions.
The countries in Europe that most recently abolished the death penalty are Bosnia and Herzegovina (2019), Latvia (2012), and Albania (2007).
Executions in Europe in 2019: Belarus (2+).
|Key||Country||Year of last execution||Executions 2019||Year abolished||Notes|
|Albania||1995||2007||Hanging prior to abolition. Ratification of protocol 13 of the ECHR was on 06/02/2007, in effect on 01/06/2007.|
|Andorra||1943||1990||Garrote, firing Squad abolished 1990 by Constitution.|
|Armenia||*None since independence on 21 September 1991 (30 August 1991, before independence)||1998||Constitution. The last execution when Armenia was a part of the USSR was on 30 August 1991.Abolished in 1998 by|
|Austria||1950||1968||Abolished in peacetime 1950. Completely abolished in 1968 by Constitution.|
|Belarus||2019||2+||N/A||Belarus is the only country in Europe to use capital punishment. Laws allow capital punishment for acts of aggression; murder of a representative of a foreign state or international organization with the intention to provoke international tension or war; international terrorism; genocide; crimes against the security of humanity; murder with aggravating circumstances; terrorism; terrorist acts; treason that results in loss of life; conspiracy to seize power; sabotage; murder of a police officer; murder of a border patrol officer; use of weapons of mass destruction; and violations of the laws and customs of war.|
|Belgium||1950||1996||Constitution.Last execution for common law crimes was in 1863. Last execution for war crimes was in 1950. Abolished 1996 by Penal Code; since 2005 in|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||*None since independence in 1991 (1977, before independence)||2019 (for all crimes in Republika Srpska)
1998 (for all crimes in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and for all peacetime crime in Republika Srpska)
| when then Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina was still one of the constituent republics of Yugoslavia. It was abolished in 1998 by the Constitution, although the death penalty remained present in the Constitution of Republika Srpska, where it was endorsed in the Article 11, which said: "Human human life is inviolable. Death may only be used for capital crimes." The Supreme Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina had abolished the death penalty in the Republika Srpska in 2019, making Bosnia and Herzegovina, in practice, the last country in Europe, except for Belarus and Russia, to fully abolish the death penalty on all of the levels of its judiciary.The final execution in the present-day Bosnia and Herzegovina took place in 1977,|
|Bulgaria||1989||1998||Todor Zhivkov, which heralded the end of the communist regime. It was the year's 14th shooting of a convicted prisoner.The last execution in Bulgaria took place on 4 November 1989, days before the downfall of|
|Croatia||*None since independence in 1991 (1987, before independence)||1991||SFR Yugoslavia. Last executed convict was Dušan Kosić who killed Čedomir Matijević, his wife Slavica and their two daughters, Dragana and Snježana. Capital punishment was abolished in 1990 according to the provision of the new Croatian constitution enected for the SR Croatia. Upon declaring independence in June 1991 newly formed Republic of Croatia declared Constitution from 1990 official and left the jurisdiction of the Yugoslav Federation consequently completely abolishing capital punishment. The death penalty is prohibited by the article 21 of the Croatian Constitution.Last capital punishment was performed on 29 January 1987 by the state firing squad while Croatia was still part of|
|Cyprus||1962||2002||Capital punishment for murder abolished in 1983. Completely abolished in 2016 by amendment to the Constitution removing references to capital punishment.|
|Czech Republic||*None since independence in 1993 (1989, before independence)||1990||Constitution of Czechoslovakia. Upon independence on 1 January 1993 the Czech Republic became a new abolitionist state.Last execution when part of Czechoslovakia was in June 1989. Abolished after the Velvet Revolution 1990 by the amendment to|
|Denmark||1950||1978||Last execution for common law crimes 1892. Last execution for war crimes 1950. Capital punishment was retroactively carried out 1945–50 for crimes related to the German occupation in World War II, repealed in 1951 and confirmed in 1993. A similar rule was active 1952–1978 in the civil penalty law for war crimes committed under extreme circumstances.|
|Estonia||1991||1998||The last execution in Estonia has taken place on 11 September 1991 when Rein Oruste was shot with a bullet to the back of the head for the crime of murder.|
|Finland||1944||1972||Last peacetime execution 1825. Last wartime execution 1944. Capital punishment was abolished for civilian crimes in 1949 (all existing sentences commuted to life imprisonment) and for all crimes 1972. In 1984 the death penalty was explicitly outlawed in the Finnish Constitution.|
|France||1977||1981||Constitution in 2007.The death penalty was initially abolished by the Directory in 1795 but re-introduced by Napoleon in 1810. It was re-abolished in law in 1981 and by|
|Georgia||1995||2006||Mikheil Saakashvili signed into a law a new constitutional amendment totally abolishing the death penalty in all circumstances. The self-proclaimed state of Abkhazia, which is claimed by Georgia, still retains the death penalty for wartime treason, but it has been under moratorium since 2007.The death penalty was abolished for most offenses in 1997, but the constitution stated that the Supreme Court had the power to impose the death penalty in exceptionally serious cases of "crimes against life". On 27 December 2006, President|
|Germany||1981||1949 (West Germany), 1987 (East Germany)||Basic Law since the formation of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1949. However, US military authorities carried out seven executions on German territory in 1951, since they were, as an occupation force, not subjected to this. German Democratic Republic (country which ceased to exist in 1990 and all of its territory joined the Federal Republic of Germany) abolished the death penalty in 1987, the last execution was held in 1981.Abolished by the|
|Greece||1972||2001||Constitutional amendment of 2001 and then with the approval by Greek Parliament of the ratification of protocol 13 of the ECHR in 12/2004.Abolished completely with the|
|Hungary||1988||1990||Capital punishment was abolished in 1990 and the last execution was of Ernő Vadász on 14 July 1988 for murder.|
|Iceland||*None since independence in 1944 (1830, before independence)||1928|| Abolished in 1928; reintroduction made unconstitutional in 1995 by unanimous vote of Parliament.Last execution in 1830 when a colony of Denmark.|
|Ireland||1954||1990||Abolished for murder in 1964, and for remaining offences in 1990. Last death sentences passed in 1985; all since 1954 commuted to imprisonment.|
|Italy||1947||1994||Grand Duchy of Tuscany (then independent, now a part of Italy) became the first state in the modern era to completely abolish the death penalty. The short lived Roman Republic of Feb–July 1849 abolished the death penalty before being overthrown by French troops. When the Kingdom of Italy was formed in 1861 all the constituent states except Tuscany allowed capital punishment until it was abolished from the penal code in 1889 – although it was maintained under military and colonial law. In 1926 Mussolini reintroduced the death penalty into Italian law. It was re-abolished from the penal code in 1944. Art. 27 of the Constitution of the Italian Republic (1948) completely abolished it for all common military and civil crimes during peacetime. The death penalty was still, formally, in force in Italy in the military penal code, only for high treachery against the Republic or only in war theatre perpetrated crimes (though no execution ever took place) until it was abolished completely from there as well, in 1994. Article 27 of Italian Constitution was changed, in 2007, to impede the reintroduction of death penalty in time of war too.On 30 November 1786 the|
|Kosovo||*None since self-proclaimed independence in 2008 (1984, as part of Yugoslavia)||2008||The partially recognised Republic of Kosovo does not have the death penalty.|
|Latvia||1996||2012||Abolished for civilian offences in 1999. Abolished for all crimes in 2012.|
|Luxembourg||1949||1979||Abolished by the Constitution in 1979.|
|Malta||*None since independence in 1964 (1943, before independence)||2000||Last execution when a colony of Britain was in 1943. Capital punishment for murder abolished in 1971; part of the military code until 2000.|
|Moldova||*None since independence in 1991||2005|| On 23 September 2005 the Moldovan Constitutional Court approved constitutional amendments that abolished the death penalty.
No executions since independence from USSR in 1991.|
The self-proclaimed state of Transnistria, which is claimed by Moldova, still retains the death penalty but has observed a moratorium on executions since 1999.
|Monaco||1847||1962||Abolished by Constitution 1962.|
|Montenegro||*None since independence in 2006 (1981, before independence)||1995|| Capital punishment abolished by the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in 1995. When Montenegro declared independence in 2006 it became an abolitionist state.Last execution when a part of Yugoslavia was on 29 January 1981.|
|Constitution 1982. Last Netherlands overseas territory to abolish was Antilles in 2010.Last execution for peacetime offences in 1860. Abolished for peacetime offences in 1870. Abolished in Netherlands by|
|North Macedonia||*None since independence in 1991 (1988, before independence)||1991|| Abolished by Constitution in 1991.Last execution when it was part of Yugoslavia in 1988.|
|Norway||1948||1979||Last executions of wartime offenders conducted on 37 men convicted of treason or war crimes in WWII in 1945–48.Abolished for peacetime offences in 1902, last execution for peacetime offences 1876.|
|Poland||1988||1998||Prawo i Sprawiedliwość, but lost its first reading vote in the Sejm by 198 to 194 with 14 abstentions. It is said that this was only populism, since Poland had joined the European Union so there was no chance.A criminal law reform including reintroduction of death penalty was proposed in 2004 by|
|Portugal||1917||1867 (civil crimes); 1976 (all crimes)|| In 1916, capital punishment was reinstated only for military offenses that occurred in a war against a foreign country and in the theater of war. Capital punishment was completely abolished again in 1976.Capital Punishment was abolished for political crimes in 1852, civil crimes in 1867 and war crimes in 1911.|
|Romania||1989||1990||Nicolae Ceaușescu and his wife, Elena Ceaușescu, following the Romanian Revolution of 1989. Their accusations ranged from crimes against humanity to high-treason. Abolished in 1990 and banned by Constitution in 1991.The last people to be convicted and executed in Romania were former dictator|
1996 (rest of Russia)
|N/A||Shooting. Russia retains the death penalty, but it is rarely used. There have been four brief periods when Russia has completely abolished the death penalty, in the 18th century Russian empress Elizabeth abolished it, but it was restored by the next emperor, Peter III of Russia; then, on 12 March 1917 to 12 July 1917 following the overthrow of the Tsar, 27 October 1917 to 16 June 1918 following the seizure of power by the Bolsheviks, and 1947–1950 after the end of the Second World War (Joseph Stalin abolished it in 1947, but he had restored it in 1950, and for this short period, the strictest punishment in USSR was penal servitude in GULAG for 25 years). Currently the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation envisages the death penalty for five crimes: murder with aggravating circumstances, assassination attempt against a state or public figure, attempt on the life of a person administering justice or preliminary investigations, attempt on the life of a law-enforcement officer, and genocide. On 16 April 1997 Russia signed the Sixth Protocol to the European Convention on Human Rights, but has yet to ratify it. There has been a moratorium on executions since 1996; no executions have been in the Russian Federation since August 1996. In November 2009, the Constitutional Court extended the moratorium indefinitely pending ratification of the Sixth Protocol. The death penalty is still present in statutes.|
|San Marino||1468 or 1667||1848 (Civil)
|Abolished for civilian crimes in 1848. Abolished for all crimes in 1865.|
|Serbia||*None since independence in 2006 (1992, before independence)||1995||Last execution when a part of Yugoslavia was in 1992. Capital punishment abolished by the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in 1995. When Serbia became independent in 2006 it became an abolitionist state.|
|Slovakia||*None since independence in 1993 (1989, before independence)||1990||Last execution when a part of Czechoslovakia was in 1989. Abolished 1990 by Constitution when still a constituent part of Czechoslovakia. Upon independence on 1 January 1993 Slovakia became a new abolitionist state.|
|Slovenia||*None since independence in 1991 (1959, before independence)||1991||Constitution. Upon declaration of independence in 1991 Slovenia removed itself from the jurisdiction of the Federal Yugoslav capital punishment statutes effectively achieving complete abolition.Last execution when a part of Yugoslavia was in 1959. Abolished in Slovenian Yugoslav Republic 1989 by|
|Abolished in 1978 by Constitution except for wartime offences. Abolished from the military penal code in 1995.|
|Sweden||1910||1973||Peacetime offences 1921, Wartime offences 1973. Constitutionally prohibited since 1975.|
|Switzerland||1944||1992||cantons (nine executions up to 1940). Abolished by popular vote in 1938, except for wartime military crimes, for which it was abolished in 1992. Banned by the 1999 constitution.Capital punishment was abolished in 1874, but reinstated in 1879. It was practiced by a few|
|Turkey||1984||2004||Constitution. On 29/10/2016, Recep Tayyip Erdogan said that his government would ask parliament to consider reintroducing capital punishment due to the 2016 Turkish coup d'état attempt, while suggesting the possibility of reintroducing it through a referendum.Abolished in 2004 by|
|Ukraine||1997||2000||Constitutional Court ruled the death penalty unconstitutional in December 1999. New criminal code passed in April 2000. The unrecognized Donetsk People's Republic reintroduced the death penalty for treason in 2014.Abolished February 2000 after the|
|United Kingdom||1977 (Bermuda)
|1998||Northern Ireland. Abolished for all remaining offences (high treason, piracy with violence and offences under military jurisdiction) in UK in 1998. European Convention, Thirteenth Protocol ratified in 2003 confirming total abolition. The last British Territory or Crown Dependency to completely abolish capital punishment was Jersey on 10 December 2006 (see Capital punishment in Jersey).Last execution in the UK was in 1964. The last execution on British Overseas Territory occurred in Bermuda in 1977. Abolished for murder in 1969 in Great Britain and 1973 in|
|Vatican City||1870||1969 (2001)||Mazzatello. Never used within the Vatican City itself and only carried out in the Papal States by local authorities where the sentences were handed out. From 1870 to 1929 the Vatican had no sovereign territories, and no death sentences were applied. Officially re-introduced in the Law Codes in 1927, only for papal murder. Abolished in 1969.Last execution on 9 July 1870.|
There are 14 member states of the United Nations in Oceania, of these:
Only Tonga has not formally abolished capital punishment despite not using the practice since 1982.
The countries in Oceania that most recently abolished the death penalty are Papua New Guinea (2022), Nauru (2016), and Fiji (2015).
|Key||Country||Year of last execution||Executions 2019||Year abolished||Notes|
|Australia||1967||1985||Queensland in 1922; Tasmania in 1968; the Northern Territory, the Australian Capital Territory and the Commonwealth in 1973; Victoria in 1975; South Australia in 1976; Western Australia in 1984; and New South Wales in 1985.Capital punishment was abolished in|
|Fiji||*None since independence in 1970 (1964, before independence)||2015||Republic of Fiji Military Forces Act was abolished in Feb 2015. Abolished for other crimes 1979.Last execution when a colony of Britain was in 1964. The death penalty for crimes under the|
|Kiribati||*None since independence in 1979||1979|
|Marshall Islands||*None since independence in 1986||1986||Abolished in 1986 by Constitution.|
|Micronesia||*None since independence in 1986||1986||Abolished in 1986 by Constitution.|
|Nauru||*None since independence in 1968||2016|| Despite having abolished capital punishment, Nauru voted against the UN Moratorium on the Death Penalty in 2018.Death penalty abolished May 2016.|
|New Zealand||1957||1989||Abolished in New Zealand in 1941 for most crimes, reinstated in 1950, abolished again in 1961 for most crimes, and formally abolished for treason in 1989. In 2007 the Cook Islands became the last of New Zealand's overseas territories to abolish capital punishment.|
|Palau||*None since independence in 1994||1994|
|Papua New Guinea||*None since independence in 1975 (1957, before independence)||2022||Last execution when under Australian administration in November 1957. The death penalty was abolished in 1970, five years before independence. It was reinstated in 1991, but never applied. It was abolished again in 2022.|
|Samoa||*None since independence in 1962 (1952, before independence)||2004||Last execution under New Zealand colonial rule in April 1952. Since independence in 1962 all death sentences were commuted to life imprisonment. The death penalty was formally abolished in 2004.|
|Solomon Islands||*None since independence in 1978||1978|
|Tonga||1982||N/A||Hanging. Death penalty for treason, murder.|
|Tuvalu||*None since independence in 1978||1978|
|Vanuatu||*None since independence in 1980||1980|
The table below lists in chronological order the 110 independent states, that are either UN members or have UN observer status, that have completely abolished the death penalty. In the hundred years following the abolition of capital punishment by Venezuela in 1863, only 11 more countries followed, not counting temporary abolitions which were later reversed. From the 1960s onwards, abolition became far more popular. 4 countries abolished capital punishment in the 1960s (a record up to that time for any decade), 11 in the 1970s, and a further 10 in the 1980s. After the end of the Cold War, many more countries followed. 36 countries abolished capital punishment in the 1990s, with 9 in 1990 alone, 23 in the 2000s, 11 in the 2010s, and 6 so far in the 2020s. Since 1985, there have been only five years when no country has abolished the death penalty: 2001, 2003, 2011, 2013, and 2018.
Note: Where a country has abolished, re-instated, and abolished again (e.g. Philippines, Switzerland, Portugal, Italy) only the later abolition date is included. Countries which have abolished and since reinstated (e.g. Liberia) are not included. Non-independent territories are considered being under the jurisdiction of their parent country – which leads to unexpectedly late abolition dates for the UK, New Zealand and the Netherlands, where Jersey (UK), the Cook Is (NZ), and the Netherlands Antilles, were the last territories of those states to abolish capital punishment, and all were rather later than the more well-known abolitions on the respective mainlands. References are in the continental tables above and are not repeated here.
|Year abolished||Country||Countries per year||Running total|
|1978||Denmark Solomon Islands Tuvalu||3||20|
|1979||Kiribati Luxembourg Nicaragua Norway||4||24|
|1981||Cape Verde France||2||27|
|1986||Marshall Islands Micronesia||2||31|
|1989||Cambodia Liechtenstein New Zealand||3||35|
|1990||Andorra ( Czech Republic Slovakia as Czechoslovakia) Hungary Ireland Mozambique Namibia Romania São Tomé and Príncipe||9||44|
|1991||Croatia North Macedonia Slovenia||3||47|
|1992||Angola Paraguay Switzerland||3||50|
|1995||Djibouti Mauritius ( Montenegro Serbia as Yugoslavia) South Africa Spain||6||60|
|1998||Armenia Azerbaijan Bulgaria Estonia Lithuania Poland United Kingdom||7||69|
|2000||Ivory Coast Malta Ukraine||3||74|
|2002||Cyprus East Timor||2||76|
|2004||Bhutan Greece Samoa Senegal Turkey||5||81|
|2007||Albania Kyrgyzstan Rwanda||3||88|
|2009||Argentina Bolivia Burundi Togo||4||93|
|2015||Congo Fiji Suriname||3||100|
|2019||Bosnia and Herzegovina||1||104|
|2021||Kazakhstan Sierra Leone||2||107|
|2022||Central African Republic Equatorial Guinea Papua New Guinea||3||110|
China is believed to execute more people annually than any other country, but is highly secretive about the number. Human rights group Amnesty International puts the figure in the thousands - more than the rest of the world's nations put together.
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In 1994 Congress enacted the Federal Death Penalty Act (FDPA) with provisions permitting the imposition of the death penalty on Drug Kingpins. The FDPA is unprecedented in American legal history in that the death penalty can be imposed in cases where the Drug Kingpin does not take a human life.
((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
Síðan liðu 40 ár þar til síðasta aftakan fór fram, en það var 12. janúar 1830 þegar Agnes Magnúsdóttir og Friðrik Sigurðsson voru tekin af lífi í Vatnsdalshólum í Húnavatnssýslu fyrir morðið á Natani Ketilssyni.
Árið 1928 var til meðferðar á Alþingi frumvarp til breytinga á almennum hegningarlögum. Þingmaður Dalamanna, Sigurður Eggerz, setti þá fram tillögu um afnám líflátsrefsinga. Var hún samþykkt án teljandi umræðna og var dauðarefsing þar með afnumin á Íslandi.
Mannréttindasáttmáli Evrópu var lögfestur á Íslandi árið 1995 og eru ákvæði hans þar með orðin hluti af íslenskum rétti. Ári síðar var mannréttindaákvæðum stjórnarskrárinnar mikið breytt og þau aukin. Var þá m.a. sett í stjórnarskrána bann við dauðarefsingu, en þar segir nú að aldrei megi mæla fyrir um slíka refsingu í lögum.