French Customs
Direction Générale des Douanes et Droits Indirects
French Customs logo
French Customs logo
Common namela douane
Agency overview
Formed1791
Annual budget1.66 billion (2020)
Jurisdictional structure
Operations jurisdictionFrance
Specialist jurisdiction
Operational structure
Headquarters11, Rue des Deux Communes, Montreuil, Seine-Saint-Denis
Elected officer responsible
Parent agencyMinistry of the Economy, Industry and Employment
Minister for the Budget, Public Accounts and the Civil Service
Website
www.douane.gouv.fr

The Directorate-General of Customs and Indirect Taxes (French: Direction générale des douanes et droits indirects, DGDDI), commonly known as les douanes (Customs), is the customs service of the French Republic. It is responsible for levying indirect taxes, preventing smuggling, surveilling borders and investigating counterfeit money. The agency acts as a coast guard, border guard, sea rescue organisation, and customs service.[1] In addition, since 1995, the agency has replaced the Border Police units of the National Police in carrying out immigration control at smaller border checkpoints, in particular at maritime borders and regional airports.[2][3]

The Directorate-general is controlled by the Minister for the Budget, Public Accounts and the Civil Service (French: Ministère du Budget, des Comptes publics et de la Fonction publique) at the Ministry of the Economy, Industry and Employment. It is normally known simply as "la douane", individual officers being referred to as "douaniers". Officers are routinely armed.[4]

History

Renault Mégane patrol unit of the French Customs

The first French customs service was called the Ferme générale ("General Farm") and operated under the monarchy. The ferme générale was a private company which bought each year the right to collect taxes. After the French Revolution, the General Farm was dismantled and the French Customs, as a State service were created. Shortly after the instauration of Empire, the Customs gained a military status. Some personnels were affected in bureaux (port or office-based staff who were tasked to apply customs measures to the goods entering and leaving France), others in brigades (mobile detachments organized and equipped to patrol the borders and arrest smugglers).

During French wars, notably the Franco-Prussian War and the First World War.[5] the brigades were used to form marksmen units and to track enemy units trying to infiltrate French lines. During WW1, due to their knowledge of the areas and their experience in human tracking, they were part of Corps Francs (small units which were tasked to operate behind German lines to collect intelligence and perform sabotages on enemy targets). The red stripe on their uniforms is a remaining of the decoration of one of their officers, Capitaine Cutsaert during the Napoleonic wars

The military customs service fought in the early part of the Second World War but was disbanded on June 22, 1940 after the French defeat and was never reconstituted as a military service. The most plausible reason was the downsizing of the French Military due to the 1940 armistice[5] Nonetheless small units of customs men from customs posts in French Indochina fought against the Japanese as guerilla units until the end of the war.[5]

The Musée national des douanes located in Bordeaux, France, presents the history of French customs.[6]

Jurisdiction

France has land borders with other members of the European Union Customs Union Belgium, Luxembourg, Germany, Italy, Monaco and Spain. European Union laws prohibit systematic customs checks at any border between two members of its Customs Union. So, there are no permanent customs facilities at the borders with these countries. However, France has borders with non members of this Union : Switzerland, Andorra, Brazil and Suriname.[7] At these borders are located customs facilities. Moreover, there are many facilities inland. French Customs are allowed to search vehicles, merchandises and individuals anywhere France according to the French Customs Code, article 60.

French Customs, in addition to their main missions, are also tasked to perform immigration controls at the following airports and ports at the external border of the Schengen Area:

Airports

Maritime ports

Railway stations

The French customs service carries out customs checks only at the following airports, ports and stations at the external border of the Schengen Area:

Airports

Maritime ports

Railway stations

Organisation

The customs headquarters is in Montreuil (Paris). The agency consists of one national headquarter (Cabinet of the General Director, six sub-directorates and supporting services), national departments and local directorates :[8]

Administration centrale, national headquarters

Services à Compétence Nationale, national departments

Decentralised Services

France is divided into 12 Directions inter-régionales (Inter-region Directorates). These 12 are divided into Directions régionales (Region Directorates).[9]

Legal Framework

Unlike the French National Police, Municipal Polices and the French Gendarmerie, most customs officers do not gain their powers from the Code de Procédure Pénale (Code Of Criminal Procedure) but from the Code des Douanes National (National Customs Code).[10] They can :

Some of these operations require prior approval by a magistrate.

However, the personnels of the SNDJ, nicknamed Officiers de Douane Judiciaire (ODJ), can not use these powers. They gained their powers from the Code of Criminal Procedure[11]

Personnel

Administrateur in uniform for land based officers (with silver insignia and képi).
Administrateur in uniform for sea and air officers (with gold insignia)
Agent de constatation de 1re classe.

Category A (inspecteurs des douanes) is recruited from holders of a bachelor's degree; category B (contrôleurs) is recruited from holders of a high school diploma giving access to university studies; category C (agents de constatation) from holders of a vocational high school diploma.[12][13][14]

CATEGORY C CATEGORY B CATEGORY A
Agent de constatation Agent de constatation principal
de 2e classe
Agent de constatation principal
de 1re classe
Contrôleur de 2e classe Contrôleur de 1re classe Contrôleur principal Inspecteur Inspecteur régional Inspecteur principale Directeur
ADMINISTRATORS

no pips

+ 2 pips

+ 3 pips

+ 4 pips [15]

+ 5 pips [15]
Administrateur Administrateur
supérieur
Administrateur
général
Directeur
général adjoint
Directeur
général

https://douane.uniformesdefrance.com/douanier-grades-galons.php

Les douaniers servant dans des unités navales ou maritimes portent des galons or (les couleurs, argent et or, sont inversées).

Casquette d'officier général naval.

Armament and equipment

Air

In 2010 the aircraft fleet consisted of Reims-Cessna F406 maritime patrol aircraft; and Eurocopter EC-135 and Aérospatiale AS355 helicopters. Two Reims-Cessna F406s operated out of Martinique and the rest were based in metropolitan France.

From 2012 onwards eight Beechcraft King Air 350s replaced the F406s.[16]

Maritime

Swift boat Noroit (DF12), a Haize Hegoa type patrol boat of the French customs, moored in Saint-Malo

In 2010 the customs had 3 offshore patrol boats, 18 coastal patrol boats, 18 surveillance patrol boats and 5 speed boats. The boats are assigned as follows:

1 Offshore Patrol Boat
2 Coastal Patrol Boat
1 Surveillance Patrol Boat
2 speed boats
1 Offshore Patrol Boat
4 Coastal Patrol Boat
3 Surveillance Patrol Boat
2 speed boats
1 Offshore Patrol Boat
8 Coastal Patrol Boat
8 Surveillance Patrol Boat
4 Coastal Patrol Boat
5 Surveillance Patrol Boat
1 Offshore Patrol Boat
1 Speed boat

Ground forces

As of 2008 the Customs service had 3255 vehicles (including 355 motorbikes).

Small Arms

Customs Agents are now armed with the 9 mm SIG Sauer SP 2022 pistols as the standard issued sidearm, a French custom-tailored variant of the SIG Sauer Pro. The pistol was ordered to replace the several revolvers in service.

References

  1. ^ Missions of the DGDDI
  2. ^ "Center for the Study of Democracy: Study to identify best practices on the cooperation between border guards and customs administrations working at the external borders of the EU" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2012-01-30.
  3. ^ "Circuler en sécurité en Europe : renforcer Schengen" (in French). Senate (France). 2017-03-29. Retrieved 2020-04-18. la PAF a-t-elle vocation à se voir attribuer les PPF au « trafic permanent significatif en provenance de pays sources d'immigration ou qui possèdent une importance justifiant une présence policière et douanière permanente »
  4. ^ p Site internet de la Douane: Son organisation Archived 2011-07-27 at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ a b c source: Site de la Douane: L'Histoire de la douane History of the French Customs
  6. ^ Marylène Iapichino (3 August 2015). "Visite surprise (1) : 900 ans d'histoire au Musée des douanes".
  7. ^ source: [1] Status of the European Countries
  8. ^ [2] Presentation of the French Customs
  9. ^ (in French) [3] Territorial organization
  10. ^ (in French) [4] French Customs Code, article 60 to 67 quinquies A
  11. ^ (in French) [5] Code of Criminal Procedure article 28-1
  12. ^ Category A: "Décret n° 2009-777 du 23 juin 2009 fixant l'échelonnement indiciaire applicable au corps de catégorie a des services déconcentrés de la direction générale des douanes et droits indirects". Archived from the original on 2012-05-25. Retrieved 2010-04-15. 2010-04-15
  13. ^ Category B: "Métiers de la fonction publique : Tous les CONCOURS de la fonction publique de a à Z". Archived from the original on 2009-10-04. Retrieved 2010-04-15. 2010-04-15
  14. ^ Category C:http://www.carrieres-publiques.com/PAR_TPL_IDENTIFIANT/34/TPL_CODE/TPL_FIC_METIER_FICHE/PAG_TITLE/Agent+de+constatation+des+douanes+et+droits+indirects/2241-fiche-concours.htm 2010-04-15
  15. ^ a b Arrêté du 4 octobre 2019 définissant la tenue d'uniforme attribuée au directeur général des douanes et droits indirects et à son adjoint 2024-02-16.
  16. ^ Surveillance maritime : La Douane va acquérir 8 nouveaux avions, Mer et Marine, 14 juin 2010