This is a listing of researchers who have made discoveries or inventions relating to the science and technology of underwater diving.
Divers who have become notable due to their exploits are not listed here, unless they have published research findings or invented an important item of diving related equipment. For these, see List of underwater divers.
Researchers in diving medicine and physiology, including decompression theory
This section needs expansion with: Researchers not listed here, each with at least one reliable reference.. You can help by adding to it
. (October 2022)
- Guybon Chesney Castell Damant – English physiologist, diver, royal navy officer, and researcher
- B. G. D'Aoust – US Navy decompression researcher.
- Jefferson C. Davis (decompression researcher)
- Petar J. DeNoble – American decompression researcher.
- Kenneth William Donald – British expert on underwater and exercise physiology. (1911–1994)
- David J. Doolette – American decompression researcher.
- Joel A. Dovenbarger
- R. G. Dunford
- Carl Edmonds – Author of diving medicine textbooks
- David Hallen Elliott
- Yvon Fauvel
- William Paul Fife – US Air Force officer and hyperbaric medicine researcher (1917-2008)
- Edward T Flynn
- M. Frankenhaeuser Narcotic effects of oxygen at pressure.
- Emmanuel Gempp
- Peter Germonpre
- Wayne A. Gerth (c2007) – American decompression researcher.
- Frederick Campbell Golding (4 June 1901 – 17 July 1984)
- Saul Goldman – Decompression researcher.
- Desmond F. Gorman (1988)
- D. J. Graves
- J. Idicula
- Jean-Pierre Imbert – French decompression researcher.
- Christian J. Lambertsen – American environmental and diving medicine specialist (1917-2011)
- Michael A. Lang environmental physiologist
- Edward H. Lanphier – American decompression researcher.
- G. Lauchner
- David Hugh LeMessurier, Australian decompression researcher.
- Pasquale Longobardi (born 1961) - Italian researcher.
- Alessandro Marroni
- Alfred Le Roy de Méricourt [fr] (13 October 1825 – 12 August 1901)
- Simon J. Mitchell – New Zealand physician and author on diving medicine (b1958)
- Charles Momsen – US Navy admiral, submarine rescue (1896–1967) (1896-1967)
- Richard E. Moon
- T. S. Neuman
- Ronald Y. Nishi - Canadian decompression researcher
- Virginie Papadopolou – Decompression researcher
- D. Paris
- E. C. Parker
- W. D. M. Paton
- A. A. Pilmanis - Decompression researcher
- B. Pol
- Neal W. Pollock – Canadian researcher in diving physiology and hyperbaric medicine (1962 - )
- John Rawlins – Royal Navy officer and pioneer in the field of diving medicine (1922-2011)
- Jean-Yves Redureau
- V. Schrotter (c1906)
- A. Seireg
- Paul J. Sheffield
- Charles Wesley Shilling – U.S. Navy physician, researcher, and educator (1901-1994)
- Andrew Smith (physiologist) (fl.1873) 
- Merrill P. Spencer
- George D. Stillson
- Roy A. Stubbs (c1984) Canadian decompression researcher, Kidd-Stubbs decompressin model, DCIEM decompression tables
- S. S. Survanshi
- H. Swanson
- Donna M. Uguccioni (c1984) Diabetes and diving.
- Dennis N. Walder
- T. J. Watelle
- Paul K. Weathersby
- James T. Webb
- R. S. Weaver
- D. West
- Bruce Wienke – American decompression researcher, Reduced gradient bubble model (RGBM)
- Robert D. Workman (physiologist) – American decompression researcher. Concept of M-values, US Navy (1965?) decompression tables.
- O. D. Yarborough (c1937) – US Navy decompression researcher. 1937 US Navy tables, Treatment with hyperbaric oxygen.
- Donald E. Yount – American decompression researcher. Varying Permeability Model