In Occitan, vergonha (Occitan pronunciation: [beɾˈɣuɲo̞, veʀˈɡuɲo̞], meaning "shame") refers to the effects of various language discriminatory policies of the government of France on its minorities whose native language was deemed a patois, where a Romance language spoken in the country other than Standard French, such as Occitan or the langues d'oïl, as well as other non-Romance languages such as Alsatian and Basque, were suppressed.[1] Vergonha is imagined as a process of "being made to reject and feel ashamed of one's (or one's parents') mother tongue through official exclusion, humiliation at school and rejection from the media", as organized and sanctioned by French political leaders from Henri Grégoire onward.[2][3][4]

Vergonha is still a controversial topic in modern French public discourse[5] where some, including successive French governments, have denied discrimination ever existed or downplayed its effects; it is a commonly cited example of sanctioned systematic linguicide and cultural genocide.[6] In 1860, before French schooling was made compulsory, native Occitan speakers represented more than 39%[7] of the whole French population, as opposed to 52% for francophones proper; their share of the population declined to 26–36% by late 1920s,[8] Since the end of World War II, it experienced another sharp decline, to less than 7% by 1993.[9]

France has also continuously refused to ratify the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, and native non-French languages in France continue to be denied official recognition, with Occitans, Basques, Corsicans, Catalans, Flemings, Bretons, Alsatians, and Savoyards still having no explicit legal right to conduct public affairs in their regional languages within their home lands.[10]


16th to 18th century

Beginning in 1539 with Art. 111 of the Ordinance of Villers-Cotterêts,[11] non-French languages in France were reduced in stature when it became compulsory "to deliver and execute all [legal] acts in the French language" (de prononcer et expedier tous actes en langaige françoys). Originally meant as a way to eliminate Latin in official documents — few 16th-century French subjects were educated and familiar with Latin — it also stated that French and only French was legal in the kingdom (en langage maternel françoys et non aultrement).

Late 18th to late 19th century

Abbé Grégoire's "Report on the necessity and means to annihilate the patois"

The deliberate process of eradicating non-French vernaculars in modern France and disparaging them as mere local and often strictly oral dialects was formalized with Henri Grégoire's Report on the necessity and means to annihilate the patois and to universalise the use of the French language,[2] which he presented on 4 June 1794 to the National Convention; thereafter, all languages other than French were officially banned in the administration and schools for the sake of linguistically uniting post-Bastille Day France. At the time, only one tenth of the population were fluent in French.[12] In reference to "patois", Jean Jaurès famously claimed that "one names patois the language of a defeated nation".[13] According to the Chambers Dictionary, the origin of the term is disputed but could be a "corruption of patrois, from LL patriensis, a local inhabitant".

Four months earlier (27 January), Bertrand Barère, although an Occitan from Tarbes himself, claimed before this same Convention:

The monarchy had reasons to resemble the Tower of Babel; in democracy, leaving the citizens to ignore the national language [that of Paris], unable to control the power, is betraying the motherland... For a free people, the tongue must be one and the same for everyone. [...] How much money have we not spent already for the translation of the laws of the first two national assemblies in the various dialects of France! As if it were our duty to maintain those barbaric jargons and those coarse lingos that can only serve fanatics and counter-revolutionaries now![14]

The end of traditional provinces

This policy can be noted by the way France's internal borders were redrawn, creating 83 départements. The law was passed on 22 December 1789 and took effect the following year, on 4 March 1790. As a result, the centuries-old singularities of the various Occitan-speaking parts were overlooked and shaken in a deliberate effort by the newly formed government to weaken and parcel out long-established feudal domains so that republican France would subdue traditional allegiances, as Antonin Perbòsc reveals in the foreword to his Anthologie:

When the Constituante (National Constituent Assembly) created the départements, their goal was clearly to erase the old geographical and historical distinction of the provinces; however this goal was not as perfectly met as some would have liked: in general, the départements were made up of pieces of existing provinces, quite seldom of the reunion of parts from different provinces. If one could criticize this territorial division for being too arbitrary and too geometric, what can be said of Tarn-et-Garonne, born of a sénatus-consule (a law by the Senate of France) on 2 November 1808? Of course, one may think that the Centralisateur (Napoleon Bonaparte) felt real pleasure showing he could do even better than the centralisateurs of the National Constituent Assembly. With fragments of Quercy, Rouergue, Agenais, Lomagne, Gascony and Languedoc, creating a new unit so little vast and yet so diverse of soil, language and race, what a great idea! And maybe the audacious half-god had only one regret: coming a little too late to redesign according to this pattern all the provinces of old France...[15]

In the 20th century, the départements were grouped into régions, to create a level of government between the departmental and national. While the régions were intended to replace the old provinces, they were not necessarily formed along the same boundaries. As the map shows, there were eleven Occitan-speaking enclaves in the pre-1789 state, such as the powerful lands of Languedoc and Gascony, but they were divided into seven régions with no regard whatsoever for cultural and linguistic identities. This is how Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur was created out of portions of five Occitan provinces and three capitals were scrapped in favour of Marseille; and Auvergne came to comprise both native and langues d'oïl entities. Meanwhile, the city of Nantes was administratively removed from Brittany, of which it had been one of two traditional capitals (along with Rennes), and the city of Toulouse was not included in the région of Languedoc-Roussillon, though it had historically been located in that province.

Many of the régions contain hyphenated names, reflecting the merging of multiple historically distinct areas. This is true for four of the seven régions of Occitania: Languedoc-Roussillon, Midi-Pyrénées, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur and Rhône-Alpes.

Traditional Occitan provinces:

1. Béarn (Pau) — 6,800 km2 (est.)
2. Guyenne & Gascony (Bordeaux) — 69,400 km2 (est.)
3. Limousin (Limoges) — 9,700 km2 (est.)
4. County of La Marche (Guéret) — 7,600 km2 (est.)
5. Auvergne (Riom) — 19,300 km2 (est.)
6. Languedoc (Toulouse) — 45,300 km2 (est.)
7. Dauphiné (Grenoble) — 8,500 km2 (est.)
8. County of Nice — 3,600 km2 (est.)
9. Provence (Aix-en-Provence) — 22,700 km2 (est.)
10. Comtat Venaissin (Carpentras) — 3,600 km2 (est.)
11. County of Foix (Foix) — 3,300 km2 (est.)

Régions of France:
A. Aquitaine (Bordeaux) — 41,308 km2
B. Limousin (Limoges) — 16,942 km2
C. Auvergne (Clermont-Ferrand) — 26,013 km2
D. Rhône-Alpes (Lyon) — 43,698 km2
E. Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur (Marseille) — 31,400 km2
F. Languedoc-Roussillon (Montpellier) — 27,376 km2
G. Midi-Pyrénées (Toulouse) — 45,348 km2

– - -: Occitan / Franco-Provençal linguistic limit

Late 19th century – Policies and legacy of Jules Ferry

School discipline

In the 1880s, Jules Ferry implemented a series of strict measures to further weaken regional languages in France, as shown in Bernard Poignant's 1998 report to Lionel Jospin.[16] These included children being given punishments by their teachers for speaking Occitan in a Toulouse school or Breton in Brittany. Art. 30 of Loi d'éducation française (French Teaching Law, 1851) stated that: "It is strictly forbidden to speak patois during classes or breaks."

"Speak French, Be Clean" written on the wall of the Ayguatébia-Talau school

Among other well-known examples of humiliation and corporal punishment was clogging, namely hanging a clog (sabot) around their necks as one Breton woman recalled that her grandparents and their contemporaries were forced to endure:[17]

My grandparents speak Breton too, though not with me. As children, they used to have their fingers smacked if they happened to say a word in Breton. Back then, the French of the Republic, one and indivisible, was to be heard in all schools and those who dared challenge this policy were humiliated with having to wear a clog around their necks or kneel down on a ruler under a sign that read: "It is forbidden to spit on the ground and speak Breton".[18] That's the reason why some older folks won't transmit the language to their children: it brings trouble upon yourself...

This practice was referred to as le symbole by officials and la vache (the cow) by pupils, with offenders becoming "vachards". Many objects were used, not just clogs: horseshoes, shingles, slates, wooden plates with a message, coins with a cross on them. The following are official instructions from a Finistère sub-prefect to teachers in 1845: "And remember, Gents: you were given your position in order to kill the Breton language."[3] The prefect of Basses-Pyrénées in the French Basque Country wrote in 1846: "Our schools in the Basque Country are particularly meant to replace the Basque language with French..."[3]

Resorting to the practice of clogging is confirmed by the Autonomes de Solidarité Laïques website:[19]

School has had a unifying role inasmuch as speaking the "noble" language [French] reduced the use of regional dialects and patois. Let us mention the humiliation of children made to wear a clog around their necks for inadvertently speaking a word in the language of the people.

As for signs, they were also found in Poitou schools:[20]

It seems as though Jules Ferry making school free and compulsory in 1881 materialized the work started four centuries earlier [with the Ordinance of Villers-Cotterêts]; the method of repression and humiliation that was undertaken bore fruit with, for instance, the famous signs in school reading: "It is forbidden to spit on the ground and speak patois."

The Conselh de Representacion Generala de la Joventut d'Òc (CRGJOC, General Representation Council of the Occitan Youth), through the Youth of European Nationalities website,[4] reports that

Our language [Occitan] lost its name, becoming some "patois", first at school and then in families through putting pressure on women in education ("Interdit de cracher par terre et de parler patois") with the French Third Republic, Mussolini and Franco.

The Confolentés Occitan (Occitan-speaking Limousin) website [21] testifies to the methods used by French authorities over the past century or so:

To help efface traditional regional identities, the Occitan language was not merely discouraged but actively suppressed. School pupils were punished well within living memory for speaking their native language on school premises.

The French administration managed to make the Occitan speakers think of their own language as a patois, i.e. as a corrupted form of French used only by the ignorant and uneducated. This alienating process is known as la vergonha ("the shame").

Many older speakers of Occitan still believe that their native language is no more than a shameful patois. This is one reason why you rarely hear it in public — or anywhere outside of the neighbourhood or family circle.

Of the school of Camélas in Northern Catalonia, a former pupil recalled in a 1973 interview,[22]

Everyone but the teacher's children spoke Catalan among themselves. We'd even get punished for that, because at the time, we all had to speak French. Be Clean, Speak French could be found written on the school's walls. And if you refused to speak French, they'd give you some sort of wooden sign to wear until death came, as we said, which meant the last offender, in the evening, had twenty lines to copy. We'd speak French in the schoolyard, and for the first ten metres of the way back home, for as long as we thought the teacher would overhear us, and then we'd switch back to our own mother tongue, Catalan.

In those times, Catalan speakers were rather despised. My generation associated speaking Catalan with a disadvantage, with being less than the others, with running the risk of being left behind on the social ladder, in short with bringing trouble.

Abbé Grégoire's own terms were kept to designate the languages of France: while Breton referred to the language spoken in Brittany, the word patois encompassed all Romance dialects such as Occitan and Franco-Provençal. In his report, Corsican and Alsatian were dismissed as "highly degenerate" (très-dégénérés) forms of Italian and German, respectively. As a result, some people still call their non-French language patois, encouraged by the fact they were never taught how to write it and made to think only French exists in the written form.

Pressure on the church

In 1902, in a speech before the Conseil Général of Morbihan, Chief Education Officer Dantzer recommended that "the Church give first communion only to French-speaking children".[23]

In the same year, prime minister Émile Combes, himself an Occitan, told the prefects of Morbihan, Côtes-du-Nord and Finistère[23] that:

Breton priests want to keep their flock in ignorance by refusing to promote education and using only the Breton language in religious teachings and catechism. The Bretons will only be part of the Republic the day they start speaking French.

Mid-20th century to the present

As the doctor in Catalan philology and professor at the University of the Balearic Islands Jaume Corbera Pou argues,[6][24]

When at the mid-19th century, primary school is made compulsory all across the State, it is also made clear that only French will be taught, and the teachers will severely punish any pupil speaking in patois. The aim of the French educational system will consequently not be to dignify the pupils' natural humanity, developing their culture and teaching them to write their language, but rather to humiliate them and morally degrade them for the simple fact of being what tradition and their nature made them. The self-proclaimed country of the "human rights" will then ignore one of man's most fundamental rights, the right to be himself and speak the language of his nation. And with that attitude France, the "grande France" that calls itself the champion of liberty, will pass the 20th century, indifferent to the timid protest movements of the various linguistic communities it submitted and the literary prestige they may have given birth to.


France, that under Franco's reign was seen here [in Catalonia] as the safe haven of freedom, has the miserable honour of being the [only] State of Europe—and probably the world — that succeeded best in the diabolical task of destroying its own ethnic and linguistic patrimony and moreover, of destroying human family bonds: many parents and children, or grandparents and grandchildren, have different languages, and the latter feel ashamed of the first because they speak a despicable patois, and no element of the grandparents' culture has been transmitted to the younger generation, as if they were born out of a completely new world. This is the French State that has just entered the 21st century, a country where stone monuments and natural landscapes are preserved and respected, but where many centuries of popular creation expressed in different tongues are on the brink of extinction. The "gloire" and the "grandeur" built on a genocide. No liberty, no equality, no fraternity: just cultural extermination, this is the real motto of the French Republic.

Constitutional issues

In 1972, Georges Pompidou, the President of France and a native of an Occitan-speaking region, declared that "there is no room for regional languages in a France whose fate is to mark Europe with its seal".[25]

In a pre-election speech[26] in Lorient, on 14 March 1981, François Mitterrand asserted that:

The time has come to give the languages and cultures of France an official status. The time has come to open school doors wide for them, to create regional radio and TV stations to let them be broadcast, to ensure they play all the role they deserve in public life.

These declarations however were not followed by any effective measures.

Pro-officiality gathering in Carcassonne

In 1992, after some questioned the unconstitutional segregation of minority languages in France, Art. II of the 1958 French Constitution was revised so that "the language of the Republic is French" (la langue de la République est le français). This was achieved only months before the Council of Europe passed the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages,[27] which Jacques Chirac ignored[28] despite Lionel Jospin's plea for the Constitutional Council to amend Art. II and include all vernacular languages spoken on French soil. Yet again, non-French languages in France were denied official recognition and deemed too dangerous for the unity of the country,[29] and Occitans, Basques, Corsicans, Catalans, Flemings, Bretons, Alsatians, Nissarts, and Savoyards have still no explicit legal right to conduct public affairs in their regional languages within their home lands. The text was again refused[30] by majority deputies on 18 January 2008, after the Académie française voiced their absolute disapproval[31][32] of regional languages, the recognition of which they perceive as "an attack on French national identity".[33]

On the UMP website,[34] Nicolas Sarkozy denies any mistreatment of regional languages. In a pre-electoral speech in Besançon on 13 March 2007 he claimed:

If I'm elected, I won't be in favour of the European Charter for Regional Languages. I don't want a judge with a historical experience of the issue of minorities different from ours deciding tomorrow that a regional language must be considered as a language of the Republic just like French.
Because, beyond the text itself, there is a dynamic of interpretations and jurisprudence that can go very far. I am convinced that in France, the land of freedom, no minority is discriminated against and consequently it is not necessary to grant European judges the right to give their opinion on a matter that is consubstantial with our national identity and has absolutely nothing to do with the construction of Europe.

His Socialist rival, Ségolène Royal, on the contrary, declared herself ready to sign the Charter in a March 2007 speech[35] in Iparralde for the sake of cultural variety in France:

Regional identities represent a tremendous asset for the future and I believe that understanding the link between the fundamental values that make the deep-rooted identity between France and the French nation in its diversity, in its authenticity, in its authentic traditions [...] makes the State work well.

On 27 October 2015, the Senate rejected a bill for the ratification of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, preventing the adoption of a constitutional reform that would have given a degree of official status to regional languages such as Occitan.[36] On 8 April 2021, the Breton MP Paul Molac tried to pass a law to protect minority languages, and this law was passed by the French Parliament in Paris.[37] However, the French Minister of Education, opposed to the teaching in minority languages, asked the Conseil Constitutionnel to declare it unconstitutional. This led to the law being constitutionally struck down on 21 May 2021.[38]

See also

French language policy

Similar policies in other countries


  1. ^ Joubert, Aurélie (2010). "A Comparative Study of the Evolution of Prestige Formations and of Speakers' Attitudes in Occitan and Catalan" (PDF).
  2. ^ a b Grégoire, Henri (1790). "Report on the necessity and means to annihilate the patois and to universalise the use of the French language". Wikisource (in French). Paris: French National Convention. Retrieved 16 January 2020.
  3. ^ a b c Georges Labouysse in Histoire de France: L'Imposture. Mensonges et manipulations de l'Histoire officielle pp. 90–92. IEO Edicions
  4. ^ a b "Conselh de Representacion Generala de la Joventut d'Òc (CRGJOC) : Organization, at the Youth of European Nationalities Website". Archived from the original on 21 April 2005. Retrieved 21 April 2005.
  5. ^ Friend, Julius W. (2012). "The French Exception". Stateless Nations. Springer. pp. 137–154. doi:10.1057/9781137008206_7. ISBN 978-1-137-00820-6.
  6. ^ a b Llengua Nacional, Catalan linguistic review Archived 2011-07-16 at the Wayback Machine, spring of 2002. Text available at
  7. ^ Louis de Baecker, Grammaire comparée des langues de la France, 1860, p. 52: parlée dans le Midi de la France par quatorze millions d'habitants ("spoken in the South of France by fourteen million inhabitants"). [1] + [2]
  8. ^ Yann Gaussen, Du fédéralisme de Proudhon au Félibrige de Mistral, 1927, p. 4: [...] défendre une langue, qui est aujourd'hui la mère de la nôtre, parlée encore par plus de dix millions d'individus [...] ("protect a language, which is today the mother of ours, still spoken by more than ten million individuals"). [3]
  9. ^ Stephen Barbour & Cathie Carmichael, Language and nationalism in Europe, 2000, p. 62: Occitan is spoken in 31 départements, but even the EBLUL (1993: 15–16) is wary of statistics: 'There are no official data on the number of speakers. Of some 12 to 13 million inhabitants in the area, it is estimated that 48 per cent understand Occitan, 28 per cent can speak it, about 9 per cent of the population use it on a daily basis, 13 per cent can read and 6 per cent can write the language.'
  10. ^ Roger, Geoffrey (2019). "The langues de France and the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages: Keeping Ratification at Bay Through Disinformation: 2014–2015". French Language Policies and the Revitalisation of Regional Languages in the 21st Century. pp. 309–333. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-95939-9_14. ISBN 978-3-319-95938-2. S2CID 158474654. Retrieved 29 July 2022.
  11. ^ Ordinance of Villers-Cotterêt
  12. ^ "L'Abbé Grégoire en guerre contre les "Patois", Hervé Luxardo,". Archived from the original on 9 June 2007. Retrieved 12 June 2007.
  13. ^ A new "Common Vector", Robert L.E. Billon, April 2000,
  14. ^ "L'aménagement linguistique dans le monde – La politique linguistique du français,". Archived from the original on 15 June 2007. Retrieved 15 June 2007.
  15. ^ Quoted in Georges Labouysse's Histoire de France: L'Imposture. Mensonges et manipulations de l'Histoire officielle p. 234. IEO Edicions
  16. ^ LANGUES ET CULTURES REGIONALES – Rapport de Monsieur Bernard Poignant – Maire de Quimper A Monsieur Lionel Jospin – Premier Ministre Le 1er juillet 1998,
  17. ^ de la Casinière, Nicolas (1 October 1998). "Ecoles Diwan, la bosse du breton" (in French). Archived from the original on 14 October 1999. Retrieved 28 June 2008.
  18. ^ An example sign at Archived 12 July 2012 at The sign reads (in French): "To all school pupils: It is forbidden 1. to speak Breton and spit on the ground; 2. to wet your fingers with your mouth to turn the pages of books and notebooks; 3. to insert the tip of a pen or penholder into your ear; 4. to clean your slates with your spit or directly with your tongue; 5. to hold pens, penholders, coins etc between your lips. Now do you want to know why these things are forbidden? Ask your teachers: they will give you the necessary explanations. And remember your duty is not just to obey these rules but to make sure everyone else applies them."
  19. ^ La neutralité politique, philosophique et religieuse et l’école, Autonomes de Solidarité Laïques website
  20. ^ Parlange : témoignages sur les patois du Bas-Poitou,
  21. ^ Occitan : a short history, Confolentés Occitan website (
  22. ^ Quatre femmes en Roussillon, TV show, 1st April 1973
  23. ^ a b Livre blanc et noir de la langue bretonne,
  24. ^ "El do de la Paraula".
  25. ^ Conséquences sociales, économiques et politiques de la discrimination linguistique. Audition au Parlement européen, groupe ALDE. La République française : non-droit au nom de l'égalité pour les locuteurs des langues régionales ou minoritaires Tangi Louarn, président d'EBLUL-France[permanent dead link]
  26. ^ "Le temps est venu d'un statut des langues et cultures de France, at". Archived from the original on 8 September 2009. Retrieved 19 January 2008.
  27. ^ European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, Strasbourg, 5.XI.1992
  28. ^ Langues régionales : Jospin saisit Chirac,, 24 June 1999
  29. ^ Art. 1 of the French Constitution states that La France est une République indivisible, laïque, démocratique et sociale, France is an indivisible, secular, democratic and social Republic.
  30. ^ Langues régionales : on verra plus tard,
  31. ^ "Le Point – Actualité Politique, Monde, France, Économie, High-Tech, Culture".
  32. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 20 June 2008. Retrieved 16 October 2009.((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  33. ^ Chrisafis, Angelique (17 June 2008). "Local language recognition angers French academy". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 27 May 2010.
  34. ^ Charte européenne des langues régionales, L'Abécédaire des propositions de Nicolas Sarkozy, UMP website
  35. ^ "Charte des langues régionales : C'est OUI,". Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 16 June 2007.
  36. ^ "Le Sénat dit non à la Charte européenne des langues régionales". franceinfo. Retrieved 1 November 2015.
  37. ^ "La proposition de loi Molac en faveur des langues régionales définitivement adoptée". 8 April 2021.
  38. ^ "Langues régionales : le Conseil constitutionnel censure partiellement la proposition de loi". 21 May 2021.