1866 United States elections
1864          1865          1866          1867          1868
Midterm elections
Incumbent presidentAndrew Johnson (Independent)[1]
Next Congress40th
Senate elections
Overall controlRepublican hold
Seats contested25 of 66 seats[2]
Net seat changeRepublican +2[3]
House elections
Overall controlRepublican hold
Seats contestedAll 224 voting seats
Net seat changeRepublican +38[3]
1866 House of Representatives election results

  Democratic seat
  Republican seat

  Independent seat

The 1866 United States elections occurred in the middle of National Union/Democratic President Andrew Johnson's term, during the Third Party System and Reconstruction. Johnson had become president on April 15, 1865, upon the death of his predecessor, Abraham Lincoln. Members of the 40th United States Congress were chosen in this election. As this was the first election after the Civil War, many ex-Confederates were barred from voting, and several Southern states did not take part in the election. Delegations from Arkansas, Florida, Alabama, North Carolina, Louisiana, and South Carolina were re-admitted during the 40th Congress.

President Andrew Johnson held a National Union Convention in hopes of rallying supporters against the Radical Republicans. However, the Republican Party maintained a dominant majority in both houses of Congress, and ultimately impeached Johnson in 1868.

In the House, both parties picked up several seats, but Republicans retained a majority.[4]

In the Senate, Republicans won massive gains and increased their already-dominant majority, while Democrats suffered slight losses.[5]

See also


  1. ^ Johnson was elected as vice president on the National Union ticket in 1864 and assumed the presidency in 1865 after the assassination of Abraham Lincoln. After becoming president, Johnson broke with Lincoln's Republican Party, attempted to form his own party, and was a candidate for the presidential nomination at the 1868 Democratic National Convention.
  2. ^ Not counting special elections.
  3. ^ a b Congressional seat gain figures only reflect the results of the regularly-scheduled elections, and do not take special elections into account.
  4. ^ "Party Divisions of the House of Representatives". United States House of Representatives. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
  5. ^ "Party Division in the Senate, 1789-Present". United States Senate. Retrieved 25 June 2014.