This is a list of space forces, units, and formations that identifies the current and historical antecedents and insignia for the military space arms of countries fielding a space component, whether an independent space force, multinational commands, joint command, or as a part of another military service.

Independent space forces

Country Current Service
Indigenous name
Former Established
 China People's Liberation Army Strategic Support Force Space Systems Department [zh][1] 2015

People's Liberation Army General Armaments Department[2]

1998–2016
 United States United States Space Force[3] 2019

Air Force Space Command[3]

1982–2019

Space Command[4]

1982–1985

Strategic Air Command[5]

1963–1984[a]

Aerospace Defense Command[5]

1976–1980[b]

Fourteenth Aerospace Force (Aerospace Defense Command)[5]

1968–1980[c]

9th Aerospace Defense Division (Air Defense Command)[5]

1961–1968

Air Defense Command[5]

1960–1961 [d]

Air Force Security Service[6][7]

1955–1964 [e]

Space and Missile Systems Center (Air Force Materiel Command)[5]

1992–2001[f]

Space Systems Division (Air Force Systems Command)[5]

1989–1992 [g]

Space Division (Air Force Systems Command)[5]

1979–1989

Space and Missile Systems Organization (Air Force Systems Command)[5]

1967–1979

Space Systems Division (Air Force Systems Command)[5]

1961–1967

Air Force Ballistic Missile Organization (Air Research and Development Command)[5]

1957–1961

Western Development Division (Air Research and Development Command)[5]

1954–1957

Air Research and Development Command[5]

1950–1954

Air Materiel Command[5]

1947–1951[h]

United States Army Air Forces[5]

1945–1947[i]

Air and space forces

Country Current Service
Indigenous name
Former Established
 Colombia Colombian Aerospace Force[8] 2023
 France French Space Command (French Air and Space Force)[9] 2019

Joint Space Command (French Air Force)[10]

2010–2019
 Iran Iranian Space Command (Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps Aerospace Force)[11] 2020
 Russia (1992–present)
 Commonwealth of Independent States (1991–1992)
 Soviet Union (1955–1991)
Russian Space Forces (Russian Aerospace Forces)[12] 2015[j]

Russian Space Command (Russian Aerospace Defence Forces)[13]

2011–2015[k]

Russian Space Forces[14]

2001–2011

Russian Strategic Rocket Forces[14]

1997–2001

Military Space Forces[14]

1992–1997[l]

Rocket and Space Defence Troops (Russian Air Defence Forces)[14][15]

1992–1997[m]

Anti-Ballistic Missile and Anti-Space Defense Forces (Soviet Air Defense Forces)[15]

1967–1992

Chief Directorate of Space Assets (Soviet Ministry of Defence)[16][17]

1986–1992

Main Directorate of Space Assets (Soviet Armed Forces General Staff)[14][17]

1982–1986

Main Directorate of Space Assets (Soviet Strategic Rocket Forces)[18][17]

1970–1982

Central Directorate of Space Assets (Soviet Strategic Rocket Forces)[18]

1964–1970

3rd Department of the Main Missile Directorate of the Ministry of Defence[17]

1960–1964

Artillery of the Supreme High Command Reserve[19][17]

1955–1959
 Spain Spanish Air and Space Force 2022

Joint and multinational space commands

Country Current Service
Indigenous name
Former Established
 Australia Defence Space Command 2022
 Canada
 United States
North American Aerospace Defense Command[5] 1981

North American Air Defense Command[5]

1960–1981[n]
 India Defence Space Agency[20] 2018
 Italy Space Operations Command 2020
 Mexico Mexican Secretariat of National Defense[21] 2019
 NATO NATO Space Centre (Allied Air Command)[22] 2020

Allied Air Command[23]

2013
 Peru National Commission for Aerospace Research and Development (Peruvian Ministry of Defense)[24] 1974
 South Korea Agency for Defense Development (Republic of Korea Ministry of National Defense)[25] 1970
 Spain Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial 1942
 United Kingdom United Kingdom Space Command (Royal Air Force)[26] 2021

United Kingdom Strategic Command[27]

2019–2021

Joint Forces Command[27]

2012–2019
 United States United States Space Command[28] 2019

Joint Force Space Component Command (U.S. Strategic Command)[29]

2017–2019

Joint Functional Component Command for Space (U.S. Strategic Command)[29]

2006–2017

Joint Space Operations (U.S. Strategic Command)[29]

2005–2006

United States Strategic Command[29]

2002–2005

United States Space Command[29]

1985–2002

Aerospace Defense Command[5]

1975–1986[o]

Continental Air Defense Command[5]

1960–1975[q]

Advanced Research Projects Agency[5]

1958–1959

Service space units and formations

Country Current Service
Indigenous name
Former Established
 Australia Australian Space Operations Centre and No. 1 Remote Sensor Unit RAAF (Royal Australian Air Force)[30][31]
 Brazil Aerospace Operations Command (Brazilian Air Force)[32] 2017
 Canada 3 Canadian Space Division (Royal Canadian Air Force)[33] 2022
 Germany Bundeswehr Space Command [de] (German Air Force)[34] 2021

Air and Space Operations Centre [de] (German Air Force)[35]

2020

Space Situational Awareness Center [de] (German Air Force)[36]

2009
 Israel Space Branch (Israeli Air Force)[37] 1988
 Japan Space Operations Squadron (Japan Air Self Defense Force)[38] 2020
 Luxembourg Luxembourg Army[39] 2017
 Netherlands Royal Netherlands Air Force[40] 2021
 North Korea Korean People's Army Air Force[41] 2023[r]
 Thailand Royal Thai Air Force[42] 2020
 Turkey Space Group Command (Turkish Air Force)[43] 2013
 United Kingdom No. 23 Squadron (Royal Air Force)[44] 2021

1001 Signal Unit (Royal Air Force)[45][46]

1966–2003[s]
 United States Army Space and Missile Defense Command[47] 1997

Army Space and Strategic Defense Command[48]

1992–1997

Army Space Command[49]

1988–2003[t]

Army Space Agency[50]

1986–1988

Army Space Planning Group[50]

1985–1986

Army Staff Program Element at Air Force Space Command[50]

1984–1985

Army Strategic Defense Command[50]

1985–1992

Ballistic Missile Defense Organization[51]

1974–1985

Safeguard program[51]

1969–1974

Sentinel program[51]

1967–1969

Nike–X Project Office[51]

1964–1967

Nike–Zeus Project Office (Army Missile Command)[51]

1962–1964

Army Ballistic Missile Agency (Army Ordnance Missile Command)[52]

1956–1961[u]

Army Ordnance Corps[52]

1950–1956

Army Ordnance Department[52]

1945–1950[v]

Army Information Systems Command[49]

1984–1988[w]

Army Communications Command[49]

1973–1984

Army Strategic Communications Command[51]

1964–1973[x]

Army Signal Corps[51]

1958–1964[y]
Marine Corps Forces Space Command[53] 2020

Marine Corps Forces Strategic Command[53]

2002–2020
Navy Space Command / Tenth Fleet[54] 2020

Fleet Cyber Command / Tenth Fleet[55]

2010–2020

Naval Network Warfare Command[56]

2002–2010[z]

Naval Space Command[56]

1983–2002

Naval Astronautics Group[57]

1962–1983[aa]

Naval Space Surveillance Center[57]

1960–1983[ab]
Naval Information Warfare Systems Command[57] 2019

Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command[57]

1985–2019

Naval Electronic Systems Command[57]

1966–1985

Naval Air Systems Command[57]

1964–1974[ac]

Naval Material Command[57]

1966–1974[ad]

Bureau of Naval Weapons[57]

1962–1965[ae]

Bureau of Ships[57]

1961–1964[af]

Project Vanguard (Naval Research Laboratory)[57]

1955–1958[ag]

Naval Research Laboratory[57]

1944–1955[ah]
First Air Force (Air Combat Command)[58] 2021
United States Coast Guard Research and Development Center[59] 2018

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Established as an Air Force major command in 1946. Gained Defense Meteorological Satellite Program in 1963 and Aerospace Defense Command's space forces in 1980. Transferred space forces to Space Command from 1982 to 1984
  2. ^ Missile warning and space surveillance activities moved into Strategic Air Command in 1980[citation needed]
  3. ^ Fourteenth Aerospace Force inactivated in 1976 and space responsibilities centralized directly under Aerospace Defense Command
  4. ^ Established as an Air Force major command in 1946. Gained space and missile warning responsibility in 1960
  5. ^ Transferred missile surveillance radars to Air Defense Command in 1964–1966[citation needed]
  6. ^ Transferred to Air Force Space Command in 2001[citation needed]
  7. ^ Launch mission transferred to Air Force Space Command in 1990
  8. ^ Space and missile program transferred to Air Research and Development Command in 1950
  9. ^ Space and missile program started in 1945 and space mission claimed in 1946[citation needed]
  10. ^ Missile interceptors moved into the Aerospace Forces' Air and Missile Defense Forces
  11. ^ Aerospace Defence Forces merged air defense and the Space Force's missile defense and space assets into one service
  12. ^ Merged into the Strategic Rocket Forces in 1997
  13. ^ Rocket and Space Defence Troops moved into the Strategic Rocket Forces, while aviation and air defense forces merged into the Russian Air Force in 1997
  14. ^ Established as a command in 1958. Gained space and missile warning responsibility in 1960
  15. ^ Specified combatant command from 1975 to 1986
  16. ^ Established as a combatant command in 1954. Gained space and missile warning responsibility in 1960
  17. ^ [p]
  18. ^ the Korean People's Army Air and Anti-Air Force also became a space force, decades from its founding in 1946, with the launch of the Malligyong-1
  19. ^ Skynet operations assumed by Airbus Defence and Space
  20. ^ Subordinated to Army Space and Strategic Defense Command in 1992
  21. ^ Space and rocket program transferred to NASA becoming the Marshall Space Flight Center
  22. ^ Ballistic missile program started in 1945
  23. ^ Defense Satellite Communications System transferred to Army Space Command
  24. ^ Activated to run the Defense Satellite Communications System
  25. ^ Communication and weather satellite projects started in 1958
  26. ^ Subordinated to Fleet Cyber Command/Tenth Fleet
  27. ^ Subordinated to Naval Space Command in 1983. Renamed the Naval Satellite Operations Center in 1990
  28. ^ Subordinated to Naval Space Command in 1983. Later transferred to Air Force Space Command's 20th Space Control Squadron in 2004
  29. ^ Astronautics programs transferred to Naval Electronic Systems Command in 1974
  30. ^ Astronautics programs transferred to Naval Electronic Systems Command in 1974
  31. ^ Range operations transferred to Navy Material Command and astronautics programs transferred to Naval Air Systems Command in 1966
  32. ^ Assumed responsibility for satellite communications in 1961; responsibilities transferred to Naval Air Systems Command in 1964
  33. ^ Turned over to NASA in 1958 and became the core of Goddard Space Flight Center
  34. ^ Space science and rocketry program started in 1944

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