This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.Find sources: "Modern pentathlon at the Summer Olympics" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (June 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Modern pentathlon at the Summer Olympics
Modern pentathlon pictogram.svg
IOC Discipline CodeMPN
Governing bodyUIPM
Events2 (men: 1; women: 1)
Games

Modern pentathlon is a sport contested at the Summer Olympic Games.

History

Development as an Olympic sport

Modern pentathlon was created by the founder of the modern Games, Baron Pierre de Coubertin, and was first contested in 1912.[1][2] Coubertin was inspired by the pentathlon event in Ancient Olympic Games, which was modeled after the skills of the ideal soldier at the time. Modern pentathlon was also influenced by the tradition of civilian and military multi-sport events in Sweden at the beginning of the 20th century.[3] It combined events that were considered to be of upper-class origin like épée fencing, pistol shooting and riding with more popular ones like running and swimming.[3]

The five events making up modern pentathlon are (as of 2021):

After more than half a century of relative stability, modern pentathlon has been the subject of numerous changes since the 1980s with its place on the Olympic programme in question several times.[4]

Beginning at the 1996 Summer Olympics, the five components were held on a single day instead of five.[2] The same year, the Men's team competition was dropped from the Olympics. The women's event was first introduced at the 2000 Summer Olympics.[1] Since the 2008 Summer Olympics, the air-pistol shooting is held during the 3 km run.[2] Since the 2012 Summer Olympics, shooting is done using a laser gun,[2] and running and shooting was combined as one event.[5]

Modern pentathlon was still criticized as outdated and lacking popularity in the 2010s.[6] The Associated Press reported in 2013 that the International Olympic Committee was considering dropping it from the Olympics.[6] In response to the criticism, the sport's governing body, the UIPM, made changes to the sport, including by having all five contests held in a single stadium. It was planned for the 2016 Summer Olympics but held for the first time at the 2020 Summer Olympics.[6]

The events of modern pentathlon at the Olympic Games were as follows:

Event 12 20 24 28 32 36 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 96 00 04 08 12 16 20 24
Épée Fencing Round-robin Round-robin & bonus
Swimming 300 m 200 m
Riding Cross-country Show Jumping
Shooting Pistol Air Pistol Laser


3200 m

Cross Country Running 4000 m 3000 m
Venues 5 1 4 5 5 5 3 1 4 5 5 4 5 5 4 2 5 5 3 3 2 3 3 4 2 1

Horse riding

The horse riding event in modern pentathlon has been debated - for different reasons - since the invention of the sport.[4] Coubertin and the organisers of the 1912 Summer Olympics had different views on the availability of horses: Coubertin wanted randomly assigned horses provided by the hosts while the Swedish committee preferred that the competitors bring their own horses.[3]

For the 1988 Summer Olympics cross-country riding was changed to show jumping.

In November 2021, UIPM announced that show jumping would not be a part of the Olympic modern pentathlon starting from the 2028 Summer Olympics, which was connected to an incident in the 2020 Games where German women's coach Kim Raisner had punched pentathlete Annika Schleu's horse.[7] In response, 650 pentathletes put their names on a letter criticizing the lack of collaboration with them and asking for UIPM executives to resign, with UIPM stating it will discuss the matter with them.[8]

Events

Modern pentathlon has been on the Olympic program continuously since 1912. A women's event was not included until the 2000 Games.

Event 12 20 24 28 32 36 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 96 00 04 08 12 16 20 Years
Men's individual 25
Men's team 11
Women's individual 6
Total Events 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2

Medal table

Sources:[9]

RankNationGoldSilverBronzeTotal
1 Hungary (HUN)98623
2 Sweden (SWE)97521
3 Soviet Union (URS)55515
4 Great Britain (GBR)4239
5 Russia (RUS)4105
6 Poland (POL)3014
7 Italy (ITA)2237
8 Germany (GER)2013
9 Lithuania (LTU)1315
10 Czech Republic (CZE)1012
11 Australia (AUS)1001
 Kazakhstan (KAZ)1001
13 United States (USA)0639
14 Finland (FIN)0145
15 France (FRA)0123
16 Czechoslovakia (TCH)0112
 Unified Team (EUN)0112
18 China (CHN)0101
 Egypt (EGY)0101
 Latvia (LAT)0101
 Ukraine (UKR)0101
22 Belarus (BLR)0022
23 Brazil (BRA)0011
 Mexico (MEX)0011
 South Korea (KOR)0011
Totals (25 entries)424242126

Nations and number of national participants

Nation 96 00 04 08 12 20 24 28 32 36 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 96 00 04 08 12 16 20 Years
 Argentina (ARG)         3 3 1 3 2 1 6
 Australia (AUS)         1 3 3 3 3 2 2 1 3 1 3 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 18
 Austria (AUT)         1 2 3 3 3 3 2 3 1 1 10
 Bahrain (BRN)         3 3 2
 Belarus (BLR)         2 3 4 4 1 3 6
 Belgium (BEL)         4 3 3 3 1 1 6
 Brazil (BRA)         3 3 3 3 3 1 2 1 1 2 1 11
 Bulgaria (BUL)         3 3 3 3 2 1 1 7
 Canada (CAN)         3 3 3 2 2 3 2 2 8
 Chile (CHI)         2 3 3 1 3 1 1 1 8
 China (CHN)         1 1 2 3 4 4 4 4 8
 Chinese Taipei (TPE)         1 2 2
 Cuba (CUB)         1 2 2 3
 Czech Republic (CZE)         3 3 3 3 2 5
 Czechoslovakia (TCH)         2 3 2 1 1 3 3 3 3 9
 Denmark (DEN)         4 4 3 2 1 1 3 2 1 1 10
 East Germany (GDR)         3 1
 Ecuador (ECU)         1 1
 Egypt (EGY)         3 3 3 1 2 3 3 3 4 11
 Estonia (EST)         1 1 1 3
 Finland (FIN)         2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 13
 France (FRA)         2 4 4 3 1 3 3 3 1 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 4 3 3 3 4 24
 Georgia (GEO)         1 1
 United Team of Germany (EUA)         3 3 2
 Germany (GER)         1 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 4 4 4 4 12
 Great Britain (GBR)         3 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 2 2 4 4 4 4 28
 Greece (GRE)         1 1 1 2 4
 Guatemala (GUA)         1 1 1 1 2 1 6
 Hungary (HUN)         1 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 21
 Ireland (IRL)         3 2 2 1 4
 Italy (ITA)         1 4 3 3 3 3 3 1 3 1 3 3 3 1 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 2 24
 Japan (JPN)         2 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 1 3 3 3 12
 Kazakhstan (KAZ)         2 2 2 2 2 2 6
 Kyrgyzstan (KGZ)         1 2 2
 Latvia (LAT)         3 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 8
 Lithuania (LTU)         3 1 1 2 4 3 3 3 8
 Morocco (MAR)         2 1
 Mexico (MEX)         2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 20
 Netherlands (NED)         1 4 3 1 3 3 6
 New Zealand (NZL)         1 1
 Norway (NOR)         2 2 2 3
 Peru (PER)         1 1 2
 Poland (POL)         3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 4 4 3 3 3 15
 Portugal (POR)         1 2 3 3 1 1 1 7
 Romania (ROU)         3 3 3 1 1 1 6
 Russia (RUS)         5 3 3 4 4 4 3 7
 ROC         3 1
 South Africa (RSA)         1 3 1 1 1 1 6
 South Korea (KOR)         1 3 3 3 1 2 3 3 3 4 10
 Soviet Union (URS)         3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 9
 Spain (ESP)         3 2 3 3 3 3 1 1 8
 Sweden (SWE)         12 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 2 1 21
 Switzerland (SUI)         3 3 3 3 1 3 1 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 14
 Tunisia (TUN)         3 1
 Turkey (TUR)         1 1 2
 Ukraine (UKR)         1 3 1 3 4 3 1 7
 Unified Team (EUN)         3 1
 United States (USA)         1 2 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 4 4 4 3 3 2 24
 Uruguay (URU)         3 3 1 1 4
 Uzbekistan (UZB)         2 1
 West Germany (FRG)         3 3 3 3 3 5
Nations         10 7 11 14 10 16 16 19 16 23 15 18 20 17 17 18 26 30 22 24 26 27 26 28 31 60
Athletes         32 23 38 37 24 42 45 51 40 60 37 48 59 47 43 52 65 66 32 48 64 72 72 72 72 823+
Year 96 00 04 08 12 20 24 28 32 36 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 96 00 04 08 12 16 20

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "ON-Modern pentathlon at the Tokyo Olympics". Reuters. 2021-06-22. Retrieved 2021-08-05.
  2. ^ a b c d Helfers, Edward (2012-08-09). "The Glorious Irrelevance of Modern Pentathlon". The Atlantic. Retrieved 2021-08-05.
  3. ^ a b c Sandra Heck (2013). Von Spielenden Soldaten und kämpfenden Athleten. Die Genese des Modernen Fünfkampfes. Göttingen: V & R Unipress. ISBN 978-3-8471-0201-4.
  4. ^ a b Andy Bull (2021-11-03). "Modern pentathlon was at risk long before a horse was punched. How to update it?". Retrieved 2021-11-29.
  5. ^ "Olympics: modern pentathlon to become four-event discipline". the Guardian. 2008-11-24. Retrieved 2021-08-05.
  6. ^ a b c Wilson, Stephen. "IOC set to remove 1 sport from Olympic program; modern pentathlon appears most at risk". Times Colonist. Retrieved 2021-08-05.
  7. ^ CNN, Ben Church. "Modern Pentathlon removes horse riding from competition after Tokyo 2020 incident". CNN. Retrieved 2021-11-07.
  8. ^ Reuters (6 November 2021). "UIPM to meet athletes seeking board resignation over horse riding axe". Reuters. Retrieved 2021-11-07 – via www.reuters.com.
  9. ^ "Olympic Analytics - Medals by Countries". olympanalyt.com. Retrieved 2022-01-31.