This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages) The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. You may improve this article, discuss the issue on the talk page, or create a new article, as appropriate. (March 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)This article appears to be slanted towards recent events. Please try to keep recent events in historical perspective and add more content related to non-recent events. (March 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)This article may lend undue weight to IAAF sources. Please help improve it by rewriting it in a balanced fashion that contextualizes different points of view. (March 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Usain Bolt, world record holder in 100 m and 200 m sprints
Usain Bolt, world record holder in 100 m and 200 m sprints
This sprinter's initial crouch in the blocks allowed her to preload her muscles and channel the force generated from this into her first strides.
This sprinter's initial crouch in the blocks allowed her to preload her muscles and channel the force generated from this into her first strides.

Sprinting is running over a short distance at the top-most speed of the body in a limited period of time. It is used in many sports that incorporate running, typically as a way of quickly reaching a target or goal, or avoiding or catching an opponent. Human physiology dictates that a runner's near-top speed cannot be maintained for more than 30–35 seconds due to the depletion of phosphocreatine stores in muscles, and perhaps secondarily to excessive metabolic acidosis as a result of anaerobic glycolysis.[1]

In athletics and track and field, sprints (or dashes) are races over short distances. They are among the oldest running competitions, being recorded at the Ancient Olympic Games. Three sprints are currently held at the modern Summer Olympics and outdoor World Championships: the 100 metres, 200 metres, and 400 metres.

At the professional level, sprinters begin the race by assuming a crouching position in the starting blocks before driving forward and gradually moving into an upright position as the race progresses and momentum is gained. The set position differs depending on the start. The use of starting blocks allows the sprinter to perform an enhanced isometric preload; this generates muscular pre-tension which is channeled into the subsequent forward drive, making it more powerful. Body alignment is of key importance in producing the optimal amount of force. Ideally, the athlete should begin in a 4-point stance and drive forwards, pushing off using both legs for maximum force production.[2] Athletes remain in the same lane on the running track throughout all sprinting events,[1] with the sole exception of the 400 metres indoors. Races up to 100 metres are largely focused upon acceleration to an athlete's maximum speed.[2] All sprints beyond this distance increasingly incorporate an element of endurance.[3]

History

This section needs expansion with: historical records of sprinting after the Ancient Olympics but before 1896. You can help by adding to it. (March 2019)

See also: History of physical training and fitness

The stadion of ancient Nemea, Greece.
The stadion of ancient Nemea, Greece.

The first 13 editions of the Ancient Olympic Games featured only one event—the stadion race, which was a sprinting race from one end of the stadium to the other.[4] The Diaulos (Δίαυλος, "double pipe") was a double-stadion race, c. 400 metres (1,300 feet), introduced in the 14th Olympiad of the ancient Olympic Games (724 BC).

Sprint races were part of the original Olympic Games in the 7th century B.C. as well as the first modern Olympic Games which started in the late 19th century (Athens 1896)[5] and featured the 100 meters and 400 meters. Athletes started both races from a crouched start (4-point stance). In both the original Olympics and the modern Olympics, only men were allowed to participate in track and field until the 1928 games in Amsterdam, Netherlands.[6] The 1928 games were also the first games to use a 400-meter track, which became the standard for track and field.

The modern sprinting events have their roots in races of imperial measurements which were later altered to metric: the 100 m evolved from the 100-yard dash,[7] the 200 m distance came from the furlong (or 18 mile),[8] and the 400 m was the successor to the 440-yard dash or quarter-mile race.[1]

Technological advances have always improved sprint performances (i.e., starting blocks, synthetic track material, and shoe technology). In 1924, athletes used a small shovel to dig holes to start the race. The world record in the 100-meter dash in 1924 was 10.4 seconds, while in 1948, (the first use of starting blocks) was 10.2 seconds, and was 10.1 seconds in 1956. The constant drive for faster athletes with better technology has brought man from 10.4 seconds to 9.58 seconds in less than 100 years.

Track events were measured with the metric system except for the United Kingdom and the United States until 1965 and 1974 respectively. The Amateur Athletic Association (AAU)[9] decided to switch track and field in the U.S. to the metric system to finally make track and field internationally equivalent. Before this, American athletes could only qualify for world records at international events and Olympic Games.  

Biological factors for runners

Biological factors that determine a sprinter's potential include:

Competitions

Start of the women's 60 m at the 2010 World Indoor Championships
Start of the women's 60 m at the 2010 World Indoor Championships

Common contemporary distances

60 meters

Note: Indoor distances are less standardized, as many facilities run shorter or occasionally longer distances depending on available space. 60 m is the championship distance.

100 meters

A 200 m bend
A 200 m bend

200 meters

400 meters

Allyson Felix, at London 2012 Summer Olympics

4 × 100 metres relay

4 × 400 metres relay

Historical and uncommon distances

50 yards (45.72 m)

The event was a common event for most American students because it was one of the standardized test events as part of the President's Award on Physical Fitness.[14]

50 m

The 50 metres is an uncommon event and alternative to the 60 metres. Donovan Bailey holds the men's world record with a time of 5.56 seconds and Irina Privalova holds the women's world record with a time of 5.96 seconds.

60 yards (54.864 m)

Main article: 60-yard dash

55 m

The 55 metres is an uncommon event that resulted from the metrication of the 60 yards and is an alternative to the 60 metres.

70 Yards

An extremely rare sprinting event, that was occasionally run in the 1960s. The world record of 6.90 is held by Bob Hayes.

100 yards (91.44 m)

150 m

150 metres final at the Manchester City Games 2009
150 metres final at the Manchester City Games 2009

Stadion

A race scene from Ancient Greece, originally represented on a Panathenaic amphora
A race scene from Ancient Greece, originally represented on a Panathenaic amphora

The stadion, also known as the stade, was the standard short distance sprint in ancient Greece and ran the length of a stadium. However, stadiums could vary in size and there was apparently no definite standard length for them, e.g., the stadium at Delphi measures 177 m and the one at Pergamon 210 m.[17]

300 m

Diaulos

The diaulos was an event contested in the Ancient Greek Olympia that was double the length of a stadion.

4 × 200 metres relay

Equipment

Shoes

Typically, a sprinter would only need 2 types of shoes, training shoes and sprinting spikes.[19]

Sprinting spikes are typically designed to be lightweight, with a minimal cushion on the heels and a plate on the forefoot to keep the runner on the toes of each foot. The spike plate will typically have the maximum number of holes for metal spikes to be inserted to keep a proper grip on the track surface. These metal removable spikes also come in varying sizes. The spikes typically range from 4 mm to 15 mm and come in different styles. Most facilities have specific requirements for what size and style spikes can be used.[20]

Starting Blocks

Starting blocks are not a necessity but are highly suggested for use in sprinting events. Starting blocks are a piece of equipment that typically consists of foot pads attached to a central rail. The point of using blocks is to help the athlete push themselves further down the track as quickly as possible.

Typical Block Start Set-up

Baton

The baton is a required element for any relay race. The baton is passed to each athlete through different exchange zones, with different techniques. Typically, about 1 foot (0.30 m) and 1.5 inches (3.8 cm) in diameter.

Timing

Stopwatches

Used typically in training sessions to measure relative times and recovery times. Stopwatches are not always the most accurate way to measure times in a race setting,

Fully Automatic Timing / Gate Systems

Fully Automatic Timing (FAT) and gate systems are used to accurately measure races, with results as accurate as up to 1/1000 of a second.[23]  

Governing Bodies

As of 2021, World Athletics (WA) [24] is the governing body for track and field around the world. Every country that wishes to participate in WA competitions must become a member.[25]

Rules

Rule differences with each Governing Bodies

Each governing body sets its own rules for how competition is deemed fair.  World Athletics sets the competition rules internationally. The World Athletics rulebook[26] is broken into 4 separate books.

The start

Jeremy Wariner beginning a race from the starting blocks
Jeremy Wariner beginning a race from the starting blocks

Starting blocks are used for all competition sprints (up to and including 400 m) and relay events (first leg only, up to 4x400 m).[27] The starting blocks consist of two adjustable footplates attached to a rigid frame. Races commence with the firing of the starter's gun.[27] The starting commands are "On your marks" and "Set".[27] Once all athletes are in the set position, the starter's gun is fired, officially starting the race. For the 100 m, all competitors are lined up side by side. For the 200 m, 300 m, and 400 m, which involve curves, runners are staggered for the start.

In the rare event that there are technical issues with a start, a green card is shown to all the athletes. The green card carries no penalty. If an athlete is unhappy with track conditions after the "on your marks" command is given, the athlete must raise a hand before the "set" command and provide the Start referee with a reason. It is then up to the Start referee to decide if the reason is valid. If the Start referee deems the reason invalid, a yellow card (warning) is issued to that particular athlete. If the athlete is already on a warning, the athlete is disqualified.

False starts

Main article: False start § Athletics (track and field)

Sprint lanes in Örnsköldsvik, Sweden, as seen from the 100 m starting point
Sprint lanes in Örnsköldsvik, Sweden, as seen from the 100 m starting point

According to the World Athletics (WA) rules, "An athlete, after assuming a full and final set position, shall not commence his starting motion until after receiving the report of the gun or approved starting apparatus. If, in the judgement of the Starter or Recallers, he does so any earlier, it shall be deemed a false start."[27]

The 100 m Olympic gold and silver medallist Linford Christie of Great Britain famously had frequent false starts that were marginally below the legal reaction time of 0.1  seconds. Christie and his coach, Ron Roddan, both claimed that the false starts were due to Christie's exceptional reaction times being under legal time. His frequent false starting eventually led to his disqualification from the 1996 Summer Olympics 100 m final in Atlanta, the US, due to a second false start by Christie. Since January 2010, under WA rules, a single false start by an athlete resulted in disqualification.

In 2012, a new development to the false start rule was added. Because certain athletes could be disqualified for twitching in the starting blocks, but some athletes could make a twitch without the starter noticing and disqualifying the athlete, it was decided that twitching in the starting block while being in the 'set' position would only carry a maximum penalty of a yellow card or a warning. To instantly be disqualified for a false start, an athlete's hands must leave the track or their feet must leave the starting blocks, while the athlete is in their final 'set' position.[28]

Lanes

The finish of the 1987 East German athletics championships
The finish of the 1987 East German athletics championships

For all Olympic sprint events, runners must remain within their pre-assigned lanes, which measure 1.22 metres (4 feet) wide, from start to finish.[29] The lanes can be numbered 1 through 8, 9, or rarely 10, starting with the inside lane. Any athlete who runs outside the assigned lane to gain an advantage is subject to disqualification. If the athlete is forced to run outside of his or her lane by another person, and no material advantage is gained, there will be no disqualification. Also, a runner who strays from his or her lane in the straightaway, or crosses the outer line of his or her lane on the bend, and gains no advantage by it, will not be disqualified as long as no other runner is obstructed.

The finish

The first athlete whose torso reaches the vertical plane of the closest edge of the finish line is the winner. To ensure that the sprinter's torso triggers the timing impulse at the finish line rather than an arm, foot, or other body parts, a double Photocell is commonly used. Times are only recorded by an electronic timing system when both of these Photocells are simultaneously blocked. Photo finish systems are also used at some track and field events.

World Records

Women's World Records
Discipline Performance Competitor Country Venue Date
50 meters 5.96 Irina Privalova[31] RUS[32] Madrid (ESP) 09 FEB 1995
60 meters 6.92 Irina Privalova[31] RUS[32] Madrid (ESP) 09 FEB 1995
100 meters 10.49 Florence Griffith-Joyner[33] USA[34] Indianapolis, IN (USA) 16 JUL 1988
200 meters (indoors) 21.87 Merlene Ottey[35] JAM[36] Lievin (FRA) 13 FEB 1993
200 meters (outdoors) 21.34 Florence Griffith-Joyner[33] USA[34] Olympic Stadium, Jamsil, Seoul (KOR) 29 SEP 1988
400 meters (indoors) 49.59 Jarmila Kratochvilova[37] TCH[38] Palazzo dello Sport, Milano (ITA) 07 MAR 1982
400 meters (outdoors) 47.60 Marita Koch[39] GDR Bruce Stadium, Canberra (AUS) 06 OCT 1985
4x100 meter relay 40.82 Tianna Bartoletta,[40] Allyson Felix,[41] Bianca Knight,[42] Carmelita Jeter[43] USA[34] Olympic Stadium, London (GBR) 10 AUG 2012
4x200 meter relay (indoors) 1:32.41 Yuliya Gushchina,[44] Yuliya Pechonkina,[45] Irina Khabarova,[46] Yekaterina Kondratyeva[47] RUS[32] Glasgow (GBR) 29 JAN 2005
4x200 meter relay (outdoors) 1:27.46 Marion Jones,[48] Nanceen Perry,[49] LaTasha Colander,[50] LaTasha Jenkins[51] USA[34] Philadelphia, PA (USA) 29 APR 2000
4x400 meter relay (indoors) 3:23.37 Yuliya Gushchina,[44] Olga Kotlyarova,[52] Olga Zaytseva,[53] Olesya Krasnomovets-Forsheva[54] RUS[32] Glasgow (GBR) 28 JAN 2006
4x400 meter relay (outdoors) 3:15.17 Tatyana Ledovskaya,[55] Olga Nazarova,[56] Mariya Pinigina,[57] Olga Bryzgina[58] URS Olympic Stadium, Jamsil, Seoul (KOR) 01 OCT 1988
Men's World Records
Discipline Performance Competitor Country Venue Date
50 meters 5.56 Donovan Bailey[59] CAN[60] Reno, NV (USA) 09 FEB 1996
60 meters 6.34 Christian Coleman[61] USA[34] Albuquerque, NM (USA) 18 FEB 2018
100 meters 9.58 Usain Bolt[62] JAM[36] Olympiastadion, Berlin (GER) 16 AUG 2009
200 meters (indoors) 19.92 Frank Fredericks[63] NAM[64] Liévin (FRA) 18 FEB 1996
200 meters (outdoors) 19.19 Usain Bolt[62] JAM[36] Olympiastadion, Berlin (GER) 20 AUG 2009
400 meters (indoors) 44.57 Kerron Clement[65] USA[34] Fayetteville, AR (USA) 12 MAR 2005
400 meters (outdoors) 43.03 Wayde Van Niekerk[66] RSA[67] Estádio Olímpico, Rio de Janeiro (BRA) 14 AUG 2016
4x100 meter relay 36.84 Nesta Carter,[68] Michael Frater,[69] Yohan Blake,[70] Usain Bolt[62] JAM[36] Olympic Stadium, London (GBR) 11 AUG 2012
4x200 meter relay (indoors) 1:22.11 John Regis,[71] Ade Mafe,[72] Darren Braithwaite,[73] Linford Christie[74] GBR[75] Glasgow (GBR) 03 MAR 1991
4x200 meter relay (outdoors) 1:18.63 Nickel Ashmeade,[76] Warren Weir,[77] Jermaine Brown,[78] Yohan Blake[70] JAM[36] T. Robinson Stadium, Nassau (BAH) 24 MAY 2014
4x400 meter relay (indoors) 3:01.51 Amere Lattin,[79] Obi Igbokwe,[80] Jermaine Holt,[81] Kahmari Montgomery[82] USA[34] Clemson, SC (USA) 09 FEB 2019
4x400 meter relay (outdoors) 2:54.29 Michael Johnson,[83] Harry "Butch" Reynolds,[84] Quincy Watts,[85] Andrew Valmon[86] USA[34] Gottlieb-Daimler Stadion, Stuttgart (GER) 22 AUG 1993
Mixed World Records
Discipline Performance Competitor Country Venue Date
4x400 meter relay mixed 3:09.34 Wilbert London,[87] Allyson Felix,[41] Courtney Okolo,[88] Michael Cherry[89] USA[34] Khalifa International Stadium, Doha (QAT) 29 SEP 2019

Sprint training

While genetics play a large role in one's ability to sprint,[90][91][92] athletes must be dedicated to their training to ensure that they can optimize their performances. Sprint training includes various running workouts, targeting acceleration, speed development, speed endurance, special endurance, and tempo endurance. Additionally, athletes perform intense strength training workouts, as well as plyometric or jumping workouts. Collectively, these training methods produce qualities that allow athletes to be stronger, and more powerful, in hopes of ultimately running faster.[93]

See also

Notes and references

  1. ^ a b c 400 m Introduction. IAAF. Retrieved on 26 March 2010.
  2. ^ a b 100 m – For the Expert. IAAF. Retrieved on 26 March 2010.
  3. ^ 200 m For the Expert. IAAF. Retrieved on 26 March 2010.
  4. ^ Instone, Stephen (15 November 2009). The Olympics: Ancient versus Modern. BBC. Retrieved on 23 March 2010.
  5. ^ "Athens 1896 Olympic Games". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2021-07-27.
  6. ^ "Amsterdam 1928". Olympics.com. 25 April 2018. Retrieved 9 August 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  7. ^ 100 m – Introduction. IAAF. Retrieved on 26 March 2010.
  8. ^ 200 m Introduction. IAAF. Retrieved on 26 March 2010.
  9. ^ "Amateur Athletic Union", Wikipedia, 2021-07-10, retrieved 2021-07-27
  10. ^ Quinn, Elizabeth (2007-10-30). Fast and Slow Twitch Muscle Fibers About.com. Retrieved on 2009-02-01.
  11. ^ "60 metres", Wikipedia, 2021-06-13, retrieved 2021-07-27
  12. ^ a b c "3 Types of Track and Field Running Events".
  13. ^ a b c "All you need to know about relay races: Rules, history, world records".
  14. ^ "President's Council on Sports, Fitness & Nutrition (PCSFN)". HHS.gov. 10 January 2017.
  15. ^ Bolt runs 14.35 sec for 150m; covers 50m-150m in 8.70 sec!. IAAF (2009-05-17). Retrieved on 2009-05-17.
  16. ^ New World Best over 150m for Usain Bolt from Universal Sports on YouTube
  17. ^ Spivey, Nigel, The Ancient Olympics, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004, p. 111–112
  18. ^ "Wayde van Niekerk breaks another Michael Johnson record". olympics.nbcsports.com. 2017-06-28. Retrieved 2017-06-29.
  19. ^ "A Beginner's Guide to Running Spikes". Runners Need. Retrieved 2021-07-27.
  20. ^ "The Ultimate Track Spike Buyers Guide". The Wired Runner. 2018-01-29. Retrieved 2021-07-27.
  21. ^ "5 Secrets to Success with Starting Blocks". 9 March 2017.
  22. ^ Wensor, Darren (2017-03-09). "5 Secrets to Success With Starting Blocks". Coaching Young Athletes. Retrieved 2021-07-27.
  23. ^ "What is Fully Automatic Timing (FAT) for Sports? | About". FinishLynx. Retrieved 2021-07-27.
  24. ^ "About World Athletics". www.worldathletics.org. Retrieved 2021-07-30.
  25. ^ "Member Federations". www.worldathletics.org. Retrieved 2021-07-30.
  26. ^ "Book of Rules | Official Documents". www.worldathletics.org. Retrieved 2021-07-30.
  27. ^ a b c d Competition Rules 2012-13, IAAF
  28. ^ Cherry, Gene (4 July 2012). "Twitch or flinch no longer a false start". Reuters. Retrieved 22 June 2022.
  29. ^ 2009 USATF Competition Rules, Rule 160(1)
  30. ^ "World Athletics". www.worldathletics.org. Retrieved 2021-07-30.
  31. ^ a b "Irina Privalova | Profile | World Athletics". www.worldathletics.org. Retrieved 2021-07-30.
  32. ^ a b c d "Member Federations". www.worldathletics.org. Retrieved 2021-07-30.
  33. ^ a b "Florence Griffith-Joyner | Profile | World Athletics". www.worldathletics.org. Retrieved 2021-07-30.
  34. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Member Federations". www.worldathletics.org. Retrieved 2021-07-30.
  35. ^ "Merlene Ottey | Profile | World Athletics". www.worldathletics.org. Retrieved 2021-07-30.
  36. ^ a b c d e "Member Federations". www.worldathletics.org. Retrieved 2021-07-30.
  37. ^ "Jarmila Kratochvílová | Profile | World Athletics". www.worldathletics.org. Retrieved 2021-07-30.
  38. ^ "Member Federations". www.worldathletics.org. Retrieved 2021-07-30.
  39. ^ "Marita Koch | Profile | World Athletics". www.worldathletics.org. Retrieved 2021-07-30.
  40. ^ "Tianna Bartoletta | Profile | World Athletics". worldathletics.org. Retrieved 2021-07-30.
  41. ^ a b "Allyson Felix | Profile | World Athletics". worldathletics.org. Retrieved 2021-07-30.
  42. ^ "Bianca Knight | Profile | World Athletics". worldathletics.org. Retrieved 2021-07-30.
  43. ^ "Carmelita Jeter | Profile | World Athletics". worldathletics.org. Retrieved 2021-07-30.
  44. ^ a b "Yuliya Gushchina | Profile | World Athletics". worldathletics.org. Retrieved 2021-07-30.
  45. ^ "Yuliya Pechonkina | Profile | World Athletics". worldathletics.org. Retrieved 2021-07-30.
  46. ^ "Irina Khabarova | Profile | World Athletics". www.worldathletics.org. Retrieved 2021-07-30.
  47. ^ "Yekaterina Kondratyeva". Olympics.com. Retrieved 2021-07-30.
  48. ^ "Marion Jones | Profile | World Athletics". worldathletics.org. Retrieved 2021-07-30.
  49. ^ "Nanceen Perry | Profile | World Athletics". worldathletics.org. Retrieved 2021-07-30.
  50. ^ "LaTasha Colander | Profile | World Athletics". worldathletics.org. Retrieved 2021-07-30.
  51. ^ "LaTasha Jenkins | Profile | World Athletics". www.worldathletics.org. Retrieved 2021-07-30.
  52. ^ "Olga Kotlyarova | Profile | World Athletics". worldathletics.org. Retrieved 2021-07-30.
  53. ^ "Olga Zaytseva | Profile | World Athletics". worldathletics.org. Retrieved 2021-07-30.
  54. ^ "Olesya Krasnomovets | Profile | World Athletics". worldathletics.org. Retrieved 2021-07-30.
  55. ^ "Tatiana Ledovskaya". Olympics.com. Retrieved 2021-07-30.
  56. ^ "Olga M. Nazarova | Profile | World Athletics". www.worldathletics.org. Retrieved 2021-07-30.
  57. ^ "Mariya Kulchunova-Pinigina | Profile | World Athletics". worldathletics.org. Retrieved 2021-07-30.
  58. ^ "Olga Vladykina-Bryzgina | Profile | World Athletics". worldathletics.org. Retrieved 2021-07-30.
  59. ^ "Donovan Bailey | Profile | World Athletics". worldathletics.org. Retrieved 2021-07-30.
  60. ^ "Member Federations". www.worldathletics.org. Retrieved 2021-07-30.
  61. ^ "Christian Coleman | Profile | World Athletics". worldathletics.org. Retrieved 2021-07-30.
  62. ^ a b c "Usain Bolt | Profile | World Athletics". worldathletics.org. Retrieved 2021-07-30.
  63. ^ "Frank Fredericks | Profile | World Athletics". worldathletics.org. Retrieved 2021-07-30.
  64. ^ "Member Federations". www.worldathletics.org. Retrieved 2021-07-30.
  65. ^ "Kerron Clement | Profile | World Athletics". worldathletics.org. Retrieved 2021-07-30.
  66. ^ "Wayde Van niekerk | Profile | World Athletics". worldathletics.org. Retrieved 2021-07-30.
  67. ^ "Member Federations". www.worldathletics.org. Retrieved 2021-07-30.
  68. ^ "Nesta Carter | Profile | World Athletics". worldathletics.org. Retrieved 2021-07-30.
  69. ^ "Michael FRATER | Profile | World Athletics". worldathletics.org. Retrieved 2021-07-30.
  70. ^ a b "Yohan BLAKE | Profile | World Athletics". worldathletics.org. Retrieved 2021-07-30.
  71. ^ "John Regis | Profile | World Athletics". worldathletics.org. Retrieved 2021-07-30.
  72. ^ "Ade Mafe | Profile | World Athletics". worldathletics.org. Retrieved 2021-07-30.
  73. ^ "Darren Braithwaite | Profile | World Athletics". www.worldathletics.org. Retrieved 2021-07-30.
  74. ^ "Linford Christie | Profile | World Athletics". worldathletics.org. Retrieved 2021-07-30.
  75. ^ "Member Federations". www.worldathletics.org. Retrieved 2021-07-30.
  76. ^ "Nickel Ashmeade | Profile | World Athletics". worldathletics.org. Retrieved 2021-07-30.
  77. ^ "Warren Weir | Profile | World Athletics". worldathletics.org. Retrieved 2021-07-30.
  78. ^ "Germaine BROWN | Profile | World Athletics". worldathletics.org. Retrieved 2021-07-30.
  79. ^ "Amere Lattin | Profile | World Athletics". worldathletics.org. Retrieved 2021-07-30.
  80. ^ "Obi IGBOKWE | Profile | World Athletics". www.worldathletics.org. Retrieved 2021-07-30.
  81. ^ "Jermaine Holt - Track and Field". University of Houston Athletics. Retrieved 2021-07-30.
  82. ^ "Kahmari MONTGOMERY | Profile | World Athletics". worldathletics.org. Retrieved 2021-07-30.
  83. ^ "Michael Johnson | Profile | World Athletics". worldathletics.org. Retrieved 2021-07-30.
  84. ^ "Harry Reynolds | Profile | World Athletics". worldathletics.org. Retrieved 2021-07-30.
  85. ^ "Quincy Watts | Profile | World Athletics". www.worldathletics.org. Retrieved 2021-07-30.
  86. ^ "Andrew Valmon - Head Track Coach - Staff Directory". University of Maryland Athletics. Retrieved 2021-07-30.
  87. ^ "Wilbert Llndon | Profile | World Athletics". worldathletics.org. Retrieved 2021-07-30.
  88. ^ "Courtney OkoloO | Profile | World Athletics". worldathletics.org. Retrieved 2021-07-30.
  89. ^ "Michael Cherry| Profile | World Athletics". worldathletics.org. Retrieved 2021-07-30.
  90. ^ Lombardo, Michael P.; Deaner, Robert O. (2014-06-26). "You can't teach speed: sprinters falsify the deliberate practice model of expertise". PeerJ. 2: e445. doi:10.7717/peerj.445. ISSN 2167-8359. PMC 4081292. PMID 25024914.
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